Organizational Behavior: Core Concepts

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2007-07-05
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education

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Organizational Behavior: Core Concepts was written with the goal of creating a short, up-to-date, practical, user-friendly, interesting, and engaging introduction to the field of organizational behavior. Angelo Kinicki accomplished this goal by selecting content on the basis of his experience in teaching and writing OB textbooks and the desire to provide a brief book on organizational behavior. The 14 chapters present concise coverage of key concepts needed to help students gain an understanding about individual, group, and organizational behavior. The focus is more on content than pedagogy in order to allow instructors the flexibility to incorporate their own case selections and supplementary materials into their courses. Another key feature of Organizational Behavior: Core Concepts is a boxed feature that provides information about ancillary materials that can be used to enhance student learning and to facilitate a more interactive learning environment. This box identifies when students can test their mastery of the content or enhance their understanding by taking one of 38 Test Your Knowledge Quizzes or 20 self-assessment surveys. The box also calls out when instructors might use 23 group exercises and 15 Manager's Hot Seat video segments to supplement their lectures and facilitate student involvement and interactions. Finally, Organizational Behavior: Core Concepts contains coverage of cutting edge topics and timely examples.

Table of Contents

About the Authorp. iv
Prefacep. v
Organizational Behavior: Why People Matter to Organizationsp. 1
Managers Get Results with and through Othersp. 2
A Skills Profile for Managersp. 2
Importance of Ethical Behaviorp. 3
The Global Context: Cultural Differencesp. 5
Twenty-first-Century Managersp. 7
Roots of Organizational Behavior as a Disciplinep. 7
Disciplines of Organizational Behaviorp. 8
Historical Roots: The Human Relations Movementp. 8
Total Quality Managementp. 10
Contingency Approach to Managementp. 11
New Directions in OBp. 12
The Age of Human and Social Capitalp. 12
Positive Organizational Behaviorp. 14
The Internet Revolution and OBp. 15
Managing Individuals in Organizationsp. 19
Perception and Diversity: Why Viewpoints Differp. 20
A Social Information Processing Model of Perceptionp. 21
Selective Attention/Comprehensionp. 22
Encoding and Simplificationp. 22
Storage and Retentionp. 24
Retrieval and Responsep. 25
Cultural Influences: Perceptions of Timep. 25
Managerial Implicationsp. 26
Causal Attributionsp. 27
Kelley's Model of Attributionp. 27
Attributional Tendenciesp. 28
Defining and Managing Diversityp. 29
Affirmative Action and Managing Diversityp. 30
Diversity in the Workforcep. 32
Organizational Practices That Effectively Manage Diversityp. 35
Barriers and Challengesp. 35
Diversity Initiativesp. 36
Individual Differences: What Makes Employees Uniquep. 37
From Self-Concept to Self-Managementp. 38
Self-Esteemp. 39
Self-Efficacyp. 39
Self-Monitoringp. 42
Self-Management: A Social Learning Modelp. 43
Personality Dynamicsp. 46
The Big Five Personality Dimensionsp. 46
Locus of Control: Self or Environment?p. 48
Attitudesp. 49
Intelligence and Cognitive Abilitiesp. 50
Organizational Behavior Gets Emotionalp. 50
Positive and Negative Emotionsp. 51
Moods Are Contagiousp. 51
Emotional Laborp. 52
Emotional Intelligencep. 53
Motivation in Theory: What Makes Employees Try Harderp. 54
Content Theories of Motivationp. 55
Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theoryp. 55
Alderfer's ERG Theoryp. 56
McClelland's Need Theoryp. 56
Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene Theoryp. 57
Process Theories of Motivationp. 58
Equity Theoryp. 58
Expectancy Theoryp. 61
Motivation through Goal Settingp. 63
Motivating Employees through Job Designp. 64
Mechanistic Approachp. 64
Motivational Approachesp. 65
Biological and Perceptual-Motor Approachesp. 67
Putting Motivational Theories to Workp. 68
Motivation in Practice: How to Bring out the Best in Peoplep. 69
Goal Settingp. 70
Types of Goalsp. 71
Management by Objectivesp. 71
Goal-Setting Processp. 71
Feedbackp. 73
Functions of Feedbackp. 73
Recipients of Feedbackp. 74
Nontraditional Feedback: Upward and 360 Degreesp. 75
Organizational Reward Systemsp. 76
Reward Systemsp. 76
Intrinsic Rewardsp. 77
Extrinsic Rewardsp. 78
Positive Reinforcementp. 80
Contingent Consequencesp. 80
Schedules of Reinforcementp. 82
Behavior Shapingp. 83
Managing Groups and Making Decisions in Organizationsp. 85
Groups and Teamwork: How Groups Work and How to Lead Themp. 86
Fundamentals of Group Behaviorp. 87
Formal and Informal Groupsp. 87
Group Developmentp. 88
Group Member Rolesp. 90
Normsp. 91
Teams, Trust, and Teamworkp. 92
Teams: More Than Just a Groupp. 92
Developing Teamwork Competenciesp. 93
Trust: A Key Ingredient of Teamworkp. 93
Self-Managed Teamsp. 94
Virtual Teamsp. 96
Threats to Group and Team Effectivenessp. 97
Groupthinkp. 97
Social Loafingp. 98
Decision Making: How Individuals and Groups Arrive at Decisionsp. 99
Models of Decision Makingp. 100
The Rational Modelp. 100
Simon's Normative Modelp. 101
Dynamics of Decision Makingp. 102
Improving Decision Making through Effective Knowledge Managementp. 102
General Decision-Making Stylesp. 104
Escalation of Commitmentp. 105
Creativityp. 106
Group Decision Makingp. 108
Group Involvement in Decision Makingp. 108
Advantages and Disadvantages of Group-Aided Decision Makingp. 108
Participative Managementp. 110
Group Problem-Solving Techniquesp. 111
Conflict and Negotiation: Why Conflict Arises and What to Do about Itp. 115
A Modern View of Conflictp. 116
A Conflict Continuump. 116
Functional versus Dysfunctional Conflictp. 116
Antecedents of Conflictp. 117
Why People Avoid Conflictp. 117
Desired Outcomes of Conflictp. 118
Major Forms of Conflictp. 118
Personality Conflictsp. 119
Intergroup Conflictp. 120
Cross-Cultural Conflictp. 122
Managing Conflictp. 123
Programming Functional Conflictp. 123
Alternative Styles for Handling Dysfunctional Conflictp. 125
Third-Party Interventions: Alternative Dispute Resolutionp. 127
Negotiatingp. 128
Basic Types of Negotiationp. 128
Added-Value Negotiationp. 129
Applying Negotiation Skills: How to Negotiate Your Pay and Benefitsp. 129
Managing Processes of Organizationsp. 131
Communication: How to Get Messages Across-Online and Offp. 132
Dimensions of the Communication Processp. 133
A Perceptual Process Model of Communicationp. 133
Communication Distortion between Managers and Employeesp. 135
Interpersonal Communicationp. 136
Assertiveness, Aggressiveness, and Nonassertivenessp. 136
Sources of Nonverbal Communicationp. 138
Active Listeningp. 139
Communication Styles of Women and Menp. 140
Communication in the Computerized Information Agep. 142
Internet, Intranets, and Extranetsp. 142
Electronic Mail and Instant Messagingp. 143
Blogsp. 145
Videoconferencingp. 145
Group Support Systemsp. 145
Telecommutingp. 146
Barriers to Effective Communicationp. 146
Process Barriersp. 146
Personal Barriersp. 147
Cultural Barriers: High- and Low-Context Culturesp. 147
Physical Barriersp. 148
Semantic Barriersp. 149
Power and Politics: How People Influence One Anotherp. 150
Influencing Othersp. 151
Generic Influence Tacticsp. 151
Influence Outcomesp. 152
Practical Research Insightsp. 152
Strategic Alliances and Reciprocityp. 153
Social Power and Empowermentp. 153
Bases of Powerp. 154
Practical Lessons from Researchp. 155
Employee Empowermentp. 155
Organizational Politics and Impression Managementp. 157
Definition and Domain of Organizational Politicsp. 157
Impression Managementp. 159
Keeping Organizational Politics in Checkp. 161
Leadership: What Makes an Effective Leaderp. 162
What Does Leadership Involve?p. 163
Trait and Behavioral Theories of Leadershipp. 163
Trait Theoryp. 164
Behavioral Styles Theoryp. 165
Situational Theoriesp. 167
Fiedler's Contingency Modelp. 167
Path-Goal Theoryp. 169
The Full-Range Model of Leadership: From Transactional to Transformational Leadershipp. 171
How Transformational Leadership Transforms Followersp. 172
Research and Managerial Implicationsp. 173
Additional Perspectives on Leadershipp. 174
International Leadership: Lessons from the GLOBE Projectp. 174
The Leader-Member Exchange Model of Leadershipp. 175
Shared Leadershipp. 177
Servant-Leadershipp. 178
Level 5 Leadershipp. 179
Meeting Organizational Challengesp. 181
Organizational Culture: How Organizations Create and Transmit a Culturep. 182
Organizational Culture: Definition and Contextp. 183
Dynamics of Organizational Culturep. 183
Layers of Organizational Culturep. 183
Functions of Organizational Culturep. 185
Types of Organizational Culturep. 186
Outcomes Associated with Organizational Culturep. 188
How Cultures Are Embedded in Organizationsp. 189
The Organizational Socialization Processp. 190
Phases of Organizational Socializationp. 191
Practical Application of Socialization Researchp. 193
Embedding Organizational Culture through Mentoringp. 1948
Functions of Mentoringp. 194
Developmental Networks That Underlie Mentoringp. 194
Personal and Organizational Implicationsp. 196
Organizational Design: How a Structure Connects Employees and Tasksp. 197
Organizations: Definition and Dimensionsp. 198
What Is an Organization?p. 198
Organization Charts: Dimensions of an Organization's Structurep. 198
Organizational Metaphorsp. 200
Needed: Open-System Thinkingp. 201
Organizations as Military/Mechanical Bureaucraciesp. 201
Organizations as Biological Systemsp. 202
Organizations as Cognitive Systemsp. 202
Striving for Organizational Effectivenessp. 203
Generic Effectiveness Criteriap. 204
Mixing Effectiveness Criteria: Practical Guidelinesp. 205
The Contingency Approach to Designing Organizationsp. 206
Mechanistic versus Organic Organizationsp. 206
New-Style versus Old-Style Organizationsp. 208
Virtual Organizationsp. 208
Change and Learning Organizations: How to thrive in a Turbulent Worldp. 211
Forces of Changep. 212
External Forcesp. 212
Internal Forcesp. 213
Models of Planned Changep. 213
Lewin's Change Modelp. 214
A Systems Model of Changep. 215
Steps for Leading Organizational Changep. 217
Organization Developmentp. 217
Resistance to Changep. 220
Why Employees Resist Changep. 220
Strategies for Overcoming Resistance to Changep. 221
Creating a Learning Organizationp. 223
Organizational Learning and Learning Organizationsp. 223
Building an Organization's Learning Capabilityp. 224
Leadership: Foundation of a Learning Organizationp. 226
Unlearning the Organizationp. 227
End Notesp. 228
Glossaryp. 282
Indexp. 288
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