Organizations: Structures, Processes and Outcomes

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  • Edition: 10th
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2008-10-28
  • Publisher: Routledge

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Based upon classical and contemporary theory and empirical research, this text forms a sociological analysis of organizations, focusing on the impacts that organizations have upon individuals and society.

Author Biography

Pamela S. Tolbert, Professor, School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University Richard H. Hall, Distinguished Service Professor, University at Albany, State University of New York

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Thinking About Organizationsp. 1
Overviewp. 1
Why Study Organizations?p. 1
Organizational Impactsp. 3
The Nature of Organizationsp. 14
The Plan of the Bookp. 17
Summary and Conclusionsp. 18
Exercisesp. 18
Organizational Structure
Organizational Structure: Key Dimensionsp. 19
Overviewp. 19
Defining Organizational Structurep. 20
Studying Organizational Structure: Early Research on the Bureaucratic Formp. 21
Sociological Studies of Formal Structure in Organizationsp. 25
Dimensions of Formal Structurep. 27
Relations Between Complexity, Formalization, and Centralizationp. 41
Summary and Conclusionsp. 43
Exercisesp. 43
Organizational Structure: Explanationsp. 44
Overviewp. 44
Effects of Sizep. 46
Effects of Technologyp. 50
Combined Effects of Size and Technologyp. 53
In Practice: Functional, Product, and Matrix Forms of Organizationp. 54
Effects of Internal Culturep. 57
Environmental Effects on Structure: External Culturep. 58
Creating Formal Structure: Debates over Processp. 64
Summary and Conclusionsp. 66
Exercisesp. 67
Organizational Processes
Power and Power Outcomesp. 68
Overviewp. 68
The Nature of Power in Organizationsp. 69
Authority and Powerp. 69
Other Types of Powerp. 71
Shifts in Powerp. 77
Power Outcomes: Compliance and Involvementp. 78
Power Outcomes: Conflictp. 79
The Components of Conflict Situationsp. 83
The Outcomes of Conflictp. 85
Summary and Conclusionsp. 86
Exercisesp. 88
Leadershipp. 89
Overviewp. 89
What Is Leadership?p. 90
The Outcomes of Leadership for Organizationsp. 98
Leadership in the Voluntary Organizationp. 107
Summary and Conclusionsp. 108
Exercisesp. 109
Decision-Makingp. 110
Overviewp. 110
Organizations as Systems of Decisionsp. 111
Strategic Decision-Makingp. 115
Strategies of Power and Decision-Makingp. 118
Summary and Conclusionsp. 120
Exercisesp. 120
Communicationp. 121
Overviewp. 121
The Importance of Communicationp. 122
Individual Factorsp. 124
Organizational Factorsp. 126
Vertical Communicationp. 126
Horizontal Communicationp. 130
Communication Problemsp. 133
Communication to and from Outside the Organizationp. 135
Possible Solutionsp. 136
Summary and Conclusionsp. 137
Exercisesp. 138
Managing Organizational Environments: Conceptions of the Environmentp. 139
Overviewp. 139
"Discovering" Organizational Environmentsp. 140
Defining the Environmentp. 142
Perceiving the Environmentp. 159
Summary and Conclusionsp. 160
Exercisesp. 160
Managing Organizational Environments: General Paradigmsp. 161
Overviewp. 161
The Contingency Paradigmp. 162
The Resource Dependence Paradigmp. 163
The Transaction Cost Paradigmp. 171
The Institutional Paradigmp. 176
The Population Ecology Paradigmp. 177
Combining Paradigmsp. 183
Summary and Conclusionsp. 184
Exercisesp. 185
Organizational Performance and Changep. 186
Overviewp. 186
Problems of Defining Organizational Goalsp. 187
Approaches to Organizational Effectivenessp. 190
Evaluating Organizational Performance: Key Issuesp. 196
Organizational Change and Transformationp. 198
Organizational Change: Learning and Transformationp. 198
Transformational Changep. 204
Summary and Conclusionsp. 208
Exercisesp. 209
Referencesp. 211
Name Indexp. 249
Subject Indexp. 261
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