The Origins and Development of the English Language

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2004-02-25
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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THE ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE reflects current research and takes a linguistic-analysis approach with a focus on the facts of language rather than theoretical approaches.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. v
Language and the English Language: an Introductionp. 1
A Definition of Languagep. 2
Language as Systemp. 2
Language Signsp. 5
Language as Speechp. 6
Language as Conventionp. 9
Language as Humanp. 14
Language as Communicationp. 16
Other Characteristics of Languagep. 17
Why Study the History of English?p. 18
The Sounds of Current Englishp. 22
The Organs of Speechp. 22
Consonants of Current Englishp. 23
Vowels of Current Englishp. 26
Stressp. 31
Kinds of Sound Changep. 31
Causes of Sound Changep. 34
The Phonemep. 35
Differing Transcriptionsp. 37
Letters and Sounds: a Brief History of Writingp. 39
Ideographic and Syllabic Writingp. 39
From Semitic Writing to the Greek Alphabetp. 40
The Romans Adopt the Greek Alphabetp. 41
The History of English Writingp. 44
The Spelling of English Consonant Soundsp. 46
The Spelling of English Vowel Soundsp. 49
Spelling Pronunciations and Pronunciation Spellingsp. 51
Writing and Historyp. 53
The Backgrounds of Englishp. 55
Indo-European Originsp. 55
Language Typology and Language Familiesp. 57
Non-Indo-European Languagesp. 59
Main Divisions of the Indo-European Groupp. 61
Cognate Words in the Indo-European Languagesp. 70
Inflection in the Indo-European Languagesp. 71
Word Order in the Indo-European Languagesp. 75
Major Changes from Indo-European to Germanicp. 76
First Sound Shiftp. 78
West Germanic Languagesp. 82
The old English Period (449-1100)p. 86
Some Key Events in the Old English Periodp. 86
History of the Anglo-Saxonsp. 87
Pronunciation and Spellingp. 95
Vocabularyp. 99
Grammar, Concord, and Inflectionp. 101
Nounsp. 102
Modifiersp. 106
Pronounsp. 108
Verbsp. 110
Syntaxp. 116
Old English Illustratedp. 118
The Middle English Period (1100-1500)p. 123
Some Key Events in the Middle English Periodp. 123
The Background of the Norman Conquestp. 124
The Reascendancy of Englishp. 125
Foreign Influences on Vocabularyp. 126
Middle English Spellingp. 127
The Rise of a London Standardp. 131
Changes in Pronunciationp. 134
Changes in Grammarp. 141
Nouns, Pronouns, and Adjectivesp. 142
Verbsp. 147
Word Orderp. 149
Middle English Illustratedp. 150
The Early Modern English Period (1500-1800): Society, Spellings, and Soundsp. 153
Some Key Events in the Early Modern Periodp. 153
The Transition from Middle to Modern Englishp. 155
The Orthography of Early Modern Englishp. 156
The Great Vowel Shiftp. 160
Other Vowelsp. 163
Early Modern English Consonantsp. 166
Evidence for Early Modern Pronunciationp. 168
Early Modern English Illustratedp. 169
The Early Modern English Period (1500-1800): Forms, Syntax, and Usagep. 173
The Study of Languagep. 174
Nounsp. 178
Adjectives and Adverbsp. 181
Pronounsp. 182
Verbsp. 189
Prepositionsp. 199
Early Modern English Further Illustratedp. 199
Late Modern English (1800-21st Century)p. 201
Some Key Events in the Late Modern Periodp. 201
The National Varieties of Englishp. 202
National Differences in Word Choicep. 205
Syntactical and Morphological Differencesp. 209
British and American Purismp. 209
National Differences in Pronunciationp. 212
British and American Spellingp. 215
Variation within National Varietiesp. 216
World Englishp. 222
The Essential Oneness of All Englishp. 224
Words and Meaningsp. 227
Semantics and Change of Meaningp. 228
Generalization and Specializationp. 230
Transfer of Meaningp. 231
Pejoration and Ameliorationp. 234
Taboo and Euphemismp. 235
The Fate of Intensifying Wordsp. 238
Some Circumstances of Semantic Changep. 239
Semantic Change Is Inevitablep. 243
New Words From Oldp. 245
Creating Wordsp. 245
Combining Words: Compoundingp. 248
Combining Word Parts: Affixingp. 252
Shortening Wordsp. 257
Blending Wordsp. 262
Shifting Words to New Usesp. 265
Sources of New Wordsp. 268
Foreign Elements in the English Word Stockp. 271
Latin and Greek Loanwordsp. 272
Celtic Loanwordsp. 276
Scandinavian Loanwordsp. 277
French Loanwordsp. 279
Spanish and Portuguese Loanwordsp. 283
Italian Loanwordsp. 284
Germanic Loanwordsp. 285
Loanwords from the Eastp. 288
Other Sourcesp. 291
The Sources of Recent Loanwordsp. 292
English Remains Englishp. 293
Selected Bibliographyp. 295
Glossaryp. 311
Index of Modern English Words and Affixesp. 335
Index of Persons, Places, and Topicsp. 357
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.

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