Parliamentary Versus Presidential Government

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1992-04-02
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Parliamentary and presidential governments--exemplified by most European countries for the former and the United States and Latin America for the latter--are the two principal forms of democracy in the modern world. Their respective advantages and disadvantages have been long debated, at first mainly by British and American political observers but with increasing frequency in other parts of the world, especially in Latin America, but also in Western and Eastern Europe and Asia. The recent world-wide wave of democratization has intensified both the debate and its significance. This volume brings together the most important statement on the subject by advocates and analysts--from Montesquieu and Madison to Lipset and Linz. It also treats the merits of less frequently used democratic types, such as French-style semi-presidentialism, that may be regarded as intermediate forms between parliamentarism and presidentialism.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgementsp. vii
Introductionp. 1
British Parliamentarism Versus American Presidentialismp. 29
Parliamentary Government and Presidential Governmentp. 31
The Spirit of the Lawsp. 48
The Federalist Nos. 47, 48p. 52
The Federalist No. 70p. 54
At the Convention: The Paucity of Modelsp. 57
The English Constitution: The Cabinetp. 66
Committee or Cabinet Government?p. 72
The President and Congressp. 75
A Bicentennial Analysis of the American Political Structurep. 78
Leave the Constitution Alonep. 90
Presidentialism in Latin Americap. 95
The Angostura Addressp. 97
Efforts Made by Various Latin American Countries to Limit the Power of the Pr esidentp. 101
Presidentialism in Latin Americap. 111
The Perils of Presidentialismp. 118
Ideas and Attempts at Reforming the Presidentialist System of Government in Latin Americap. 128
Presidentialism and Parliamentarism in Brazilp. 133
Semi-Presidentialism and Other Intermediate Formsp. 137
The Bayeux Manifestop. 139
A New Political System Model: Semi-Presidential Governmentp. 142
Cabinet Government in the United Statesp. 150
The Gaullist System in Asia: The Constitution of Sri Lankap. 152
Constitutional Reform in Argentina Council for the Consolidation of Democracyp. 158
Report on the 1848 Draft Constitution of Switzerland Constitutional Reform Committeep. 173
A Collegial Executive for Uruguayp. 175
Parliamentarism and Presidentialism in Africa, Asia, and Europep. 179
Report on the Draft Constitution of Nigeria Constitution Drafting Committeep. 181
For a Directly Elected President of Indiap. 187
The Case for a Directly Elected Prime Minister in the Netherlandsp. 191
Direct Election of the Prime Minister International Forum of the Israel-Diaspora Institutep. 194
Systematic Evidence: Broadly Comparative and Multivariate Analysesp. 201
Comparing Democratic Systemsp. 203
The Centrality of Political Culturep. 207
The Virtues of Parliamentarismp. 212
Presidentialism: A Problematic Regime Typep. 217
Contemporary Democracies: Participation, Stability, and Violencep. 223
Governing by Committee: Collegial Leadership in Advanced Societiesp. 236
Notes on Contributorsp. 243
Guide to Further Readingp. 245
Indexp. 251
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

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