Patterns of World History Since 1750

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-12-09
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Patterns of World History comes to the teaching of world history from the perspective of innovations the engine of historical change. Innovation is nothing new; so what we advocate in this book is a distinct intellectual framework for understanding innovation through its patterns of origin, interaction, and adaptation. Each small or large technical or cultural innovation originated in one geographical center, or independently in several different centers. As people in the centers interacted with their neighbors, the neighbors adapted to - and in many cases were transformed by - the innovations. By adaptation we include the entire spectrum of human responses, ranging from outright rejection to creative borrowing and, at times, forced acceptance. What do we gain by studying world history as patterns of innovation? First, if we consider innovation to be a driving force of history, it helps satisfy an intrinsic human curiosity about origins-our own and others. Perhaps more importantly, seeing patterns of innovation in historical development brings to light connections and linkages among peoples, cultures, and regions that might not otherwise present themselves. At the same time such patterns can also reveal differences among cultures that other approaches to world history tend to neglect. For example, the differences between the civilizations of the Eastern and Western Hemispheres are generally highlighted in world history texts, but the broad commonalities of human groups creating agriculturally-based cities and states in widely separated areas also show deep parallels in their patterns of origins, interactions and adaptations: such comparisons are at the center of our approach. Second, this kind of analysis offers insights into how an individual innovation was subsequently developed and diffused across space and time-that is, the patterns by which the new eventually becomes a necessity in our daily lives. Through all of this we gain a deeper appreciation of the unfolding of global history from its origins in small communities to the densely populated large countries in our present world. Finally, our use of a broad-based understanding of innovation allows us to restore culture in all its individual and institutionalized aspects-spiritual, artistic, intellectual, scientific-to its rightful place alongside technology, environment, politics, and socio-economic conditions. That is, understanding innovation in this way allows this text to help illuminate the full range of human ingenuity over time and space in a comprehensive, evenhanded, and open-ended fashion.

Author Biography

Peter von Sivers is an Associate Professor of History at the University of Utah.

Charles A. Desnoyers is an Associate Professor of History at La Salle University

George B. Stow is a Professor of History and the Director of the Graduate Program in History at La Salle University.

Table of Contents

Mapsp. xiii
Studying with Maps and Concept Mapsp. xiv
Prefacep. xvi
Note on Dates and Spellingsp. xxv
About the Authorsp. xxvi
The Origins of Modernity 1750-1900p. 744
Nation-States and Patterns of Culture in Europe and North America 1750-1871p. 746
Origins of the Nation-State: 1750-1815p. 749
The American and French Revolutionsp. 750
Patterns Up Close: The Guillotinep. 758
Enlightenment Culture: Radicalism and Moderationp. 760
Early and Late Enlightenmentp. 761
The Other Enlightenment: The Ideology of Ethnic Nationalismp. 765
The Growth of the Nation-State, 1815-1871p. 769
Restoration Monarchies, 1815-1848p. 769
Nation-State Building in Anglo-America, 1783-1865p. 775
Romanticism and Realism: Philosophical and Artistic Expression to 1850p. 779
Romanticismp. 779
Realismp. 781
Putting It All Togetherp. 783
Review and Respondp. 784
Concept Map: Patterns of Nation-State Formation in Europe and North Americap. 784
Industrialization and Its Discontents 1750-1914p. 786
Origins and Growth of Industrialism, 1750-1914p. 789
Early Industrialism, 1750-1870p. 789
Patterns Up Close: "The Age of Steam"p. 791
The Spread of Early Industrialismp. 795
Later Industrialism, 1871-1914p. 796
The Social and Economic Impact of Industrialism, 1750-1914p. 801
Demographic Changesp. 801
Industrial Societyp. 804
Critics of Industrialismp. 806
Improved Standards of Livingp. 808
Improved Urban Livingp. 810
Big Businessp. 811
Intellectual and Cultural Responses to Industrialismp. 812
Scientific and Intellectual Developmentsp. 812
Toward Modernity in Philosophy and Religionp. 815
Toward Modernity in Literature and the Artsp. 816
Putting It All Togetherp. 819
Review and Respondp. 820
Concept Map: Industrialization and its Impact, 1800-1914p. 820
The Challenge of Modernity: East Asia 1750-1910p. 822
China and Japan in the Age of Imperialismp. 825
China and Maritime Trade, 1750-1839p. 825
The Opium Wars and the Treaty Port Erap. 828
Toward Revolution: Reform and Reaction to 1900p. 833
Patterns Up Close: Interaction and Adaptation: "Self-Strengthening" and "Western Science and Eastern Ethics"p. 834
In Search of Security Through Empire: Japan in the Meiji Erap. 839
Economics and Society in Late Qing Chinap. 843
The Seeds of Modernity and the New Economic Orderp. 843
Culture, Arts, and Sciencep. 847
Zaibatsu and Political Parties: Economics and Society in Meiji Japanp. 849
Commerce and Cartelsp. 849
"Enlightenment and Progress": Science, Culture, and the Artsp. 853
Putting It All Togetherp. 855
Review and Respondp. 856
Concept Map: Chinese and Japanese Responses to the Western Challenge:p. 856
Adaptation and Resistance: The Ottoman and Russian Empires 1683-1908p. 858
Decentralization and Reforms in the Ottoman Empirep. 861
Ottoman Imperialism in the 1600s and 1700sp. 862
The Western Challenge and Ottoman Responsesp. 866
Patterns Up Close: From Constitutional to Ethnic Nationalismp. 870
Iran's Effort to Cope with the Western Challengep. 875
Westernization, Reforms, and Industrialization in Russiap. 878
Russia and Westernizationp. 879
Russia in the Early Nineteenth Centuryp. 880
The Great Reformsp. 884
Russian Industrializationp. 887
The Abortive Russian Revolution of 1905p. 890
Putting It All Togetherp. 892
Review and Respondp. 894
Concept Map: Adaptation and Resistance to the Western Challenge: The Ottoman and Russian Empiresp. 894
The New Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century 1750-1914p. 896
The British Colonies of India, Australia, and New Zealandp. 899
The British East India Companyp. 899
Direct British Rulep. 904
Patterns Up Close: Military Transformations and the New Imperialismp. 908
The British Settler Colonies of Australia and New Zealandp. 910
European Imperialism in the Middle East and Africap. 913
The Rising Appeal of Imperialism in the Westp. 913
The Scramble for Africap. 918
Western Imperialism and Colonialism in Southeast Asiap. 923
The Dutch in Indonesiap. 923
Spain in the Philippinesp. 926
The French in Vietnamp. 929
Putting It All Togetherp. 931
Review and Respondp. 932
Concept Map: Patterns of Imperialism and Colonialism: Continuity and Changep. 932
Creoles and Caudillos: Latin America and the Caribbean in the Nineteenth Century 1790-1917p. 934
Independence, Authoritarianism, and Political Instabilityp. 937
Independence and Political Development in the North: Haiti and Mexicop. 937
Independence and Development in Northern South Americap. 946
Independence and Development in Southern and Western South Americap. 949
Brazil: From Kingdom to Republicp. 952
Patterns Up Close: Slave Rebellions in Cuba and Brazilp. 954
Latin American Society and Economy in the Nineteenth Centuryp. 957
Rebuilding Societies and Economiesp. 959
Export-Led Growthp. 961
Culture, Family, and the Status of Womenp. 966
Putting It All Togetherp. 968
Concept Map: Latin America in the Nineteenth Centuryp. 969
Review and Respondp. 970
From Three Modernities to One 1914-Presentp. 972
World War and Competing Visions of Modernity 1900-1945p. 974
The Great War and Its Aftermathp. 977
A Savage War and a Flawed Peacep. 978
America First: The Beginnings of a Consumer Culture and the Great Depressionp. 982
Great Britain and France: Slow Recovery and Troubled Empiresp. 988
Latin America: Independent Democracies and Authoritarian Regimesp. 996
New Variations on Modernity I: The Soviet Union and Communismp. 998
The Communist Party and Regime in the Soviet Unionp. 998
The Collectivization of Agriculture and Industrializationp. 999
New Variations on Modernity II: Supremacist Nationalism in Italy, Germany, and Japanp. 1001
Patterns Up Close: Mapping Utopia in Soviet Georgiap. 1002
From Fascism in Italy to Nazism in the Third Reichp. 1004
Japan's "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere" and China's Struggle for Unityp. 1011
Putting It All Togetherp. 1017
Review and Respondp. 1018
Concept Map: Three Patterns of Modernity, 1850-1939p. 1018
Reconstruction, Cold War, and Decolonization 1945-1962p. 1020
Superpower Confrontation: Capitalist Democracy and Communismp. 1023
The Cold War Era, 1945-1962p. 1023
Society and Culture in Postwar North America, Europe, and Japanp. 1031
Patterns Up Close: Popular Culture and Rock and Rollp. 1034
Populism and Industrialization in Latin Americap. 1039
Slow Social Changep. 1039
Populist Guided Democracyp. 1041
The End of Colonialism and the Rise of New Nationsp. 1042
"China Has Stood Up"p. 1043
Decolonization, Israel, and Arab Nationalism in the Middle Eastp. 1046
Decolonization and the Cold War in Asiap. 1050
Decolonization and Cold War in Africap. 1054
Putting It All Togetherp. 1057
Review and Respondp. 1057
Concept Map: The Accelerating Pace of Change, 1850-1962p. 1058
The End of the Cold War, Western Social Transformation, and the Developing World 1963-1991p. 1060
The Climax of the Cold Warp. 1063
The Soviet Superpower in Slow Declinep. 1063
Transforming the Westp. 1072
Civil Rights Movementsp. 1073
Patterns Up Close: From Women's Liberation to Feminismp. 1076
From "Underdeveloped" to "Developing" World, 1963-1991p. 1080
China: Cultural Revolution to Four Modernizationsp. 1081
Vietnam: War and Unificationp. 1086
The Middle Eastp. 1088
Africa: From Independence to Developmentp. 1090
Latin America: Proxy Warsp. 1093
Putting It All Togetherp. 1096
Concept Map: "The End of History" and the Capitalist-Democratic Orderp. 1097
Review and Respondp. 1098
A Fragile Capitalist-Democratic World Order 1991-2011p. 1100
Capitalist Democracy: The Dominant Pattern of Modernityp. 1103
A Decade of Global Expansion: The United States and the World in the 1990sp. 1103
The Communist Holdouts: North Korea, Cuba, China, and Vietnamp. 1114
A Decade of Global Shifts: Twenty-First-Century Currents and Cross-Currentsp. 1117
Patterns Up Close: Social Networkingp. 1126
The Environmental Limits of Modernityp. 1132
Putting It All Togetherp. 1137
Review and Respondp. 1138
Concept Map: The Human Impact on the Planetp. 1138
Further Resourcesp. R-1
Credits and Notesp. C-1
Indexp. I-1
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