PEM Fuel Cells: Theory and Practice

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2012-09-25
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science Ltd

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Fuel cells are electrochemical energy conversion devices that convert hydrogen and oxygen into water, producing electricity and heat in the process and providing fuel efficiency and reductions in pollutants. Demand for this technology is growing rapidly. Fuel cells are being commercialized for stationary and portable electricity generation, and as a replacement for internal combustion engines in automobiles. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in particular are experiencing an upsurge. They have high power density and can vary their output quickly to meet shifts in power demand. Until now, there has been little written about this important technology. This book lays the groundwork for fuel cell engineers, technicians and students. It covers the fundamental aspects of fuel cell design, electrochemistry of the technology, heat and mass transport, system design and applications to bring this technology to professionals at all levels. * Comprehensive guide for engineers, researchers and policymakers * Covers theory and practice of PEM fuel cells * Contains hundreds of original illustrations and real-life engineering examples

Table of Contents

Forewordp. ix
Preface and acknowledgmentsp. xi
Preface to the Second Editionp. xv
Introductionp. 1
What Is a Fuel Cell?p. 1
A Very Brief History of Fuel Cellsp. 4
Types of Fuel Cellsp. 8
How Does a PEM Fuel Cell Work?p. 10
Why Do We Need Fuel Cells?p. 12
Fuel Cell Applicationsp. 13
Referencesp. 16
Fuel Cell Basic Chemistry and Thermodynamicsp. 17
Basic Reactionsp. 17
Heat of Reactionp. 17
Higher and Lower Heating Value of Hydrogenp. 18
Theoretical Electrical Workp. 19
Theoretical Fuel Cell Potentialp. 20
Effect of Temperaturep. 21
Theoretical Fuel Cell Efficiencyp. 24
Carnot Efficiency Mythp. 26
Effect of Pressurep. 28
Summaryp. 29
Problemsp. 30
Quizp. 31
Referencesp. 32
Fuel Cell Electrochemistryp. 33
Electrode Kineticsp. 33
Voltage Lossesp. 39
Cell Potential: Polarization Curvep. 48
Distribution of Potential Across a Fuel Cellp. 50
Sensitivity of Parameters in Polarization Curvep. 52
Fuel Cell Efficiencyp. 59
Implications and Use of Fuel Cell Polarization Curvep. 61
Solutionp. 65
Solutionp. 66
Solutionp. 67
Problemsp. 69
Quizp. 70
Referencesp. 72
Main Cell Components, Material Properties, and Processesp. 73
Cell Descriptionp. 73
Membranep. 75
Solutionp. 90
Electrodesp. 92
Gas Diffusion Layerp. 97
Bipolar Platesp. 104
Problemsp. 112
Quizp. 113
Referencesp. 115
Fuel Cell Operating Conditionsp. 119
Operating Pressurep. 119
Operating Temperaturep. 121
Reactant Flow Ratesp. 124
Reactant Humidityp. 130
Fuel Cell Mass Balancep. 144
Fuel Cell Energy Balancep. 149
Problemsp. 154
Quizp. 155
Referencesp. 157
Stack Designp. 159
Sizing a Fuel Cell Stackp. 159
Stack Configurationp. 163
Uniform Distribution of Reactants to Each Cellp. 167
Uniform Distribution of Reactants Inside Each Cellp. 172
Solutionp. 187
Heat Removal from a Fuel Cell Stackp. 189
Solutionp. 194
Solutionp. 199
Stack Clampingp. 208
Problemsp. 211
Quizp. 212
Referencesp. 213
Fuel Cell Modelingp. 217
Theory and Governing Equationsp. 218
Modeling Domainsp. 228
Modeling Examplesp. 231
Conclusionsp. 259
Problemsp. 259
Quizp. 260
Referencesp. 261
Fuel Cell Diagnosticsp. 265
Electrochemical Techniquesp. 266
Physical and Chemical Methodsp. 282
Conclusionsp. 295
Problemsp. 297
Quizp. 297
Referencesp. 299
Fuel Cell System Designp. 305
Hydrogen/Oxygen Systemsp. 305
Hydrogen/Air Systemsp. 314
Solutionp. 317
Solutionp. 318
Fuel Cell Systems with Fuel Processorsp. 333
Electrical Subsystemp. 358
System Efficiencyp. 364
Problemsp. 368
Quizp. 369
Referencesp. 371
Fuel Cell Applicationsp. 373
Transportation Applicationsp. 373
Stationary Powerp. 392
Backup Powerp. 414
Fuel Cells for Small Portable Powerp. 419
Regenerative Fuel Cells and Their Applicationsp. 422
Problemsp. 429
Quizp. 431
Referencesp. 432
Durability of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cellsp. 435
Introductionp. 435
Scope and Organization of This Chapterp. 436
Types of Performance Lossesp. 438
PEFC Components Associated with Different Types of Lossesp. 441
Operating Conditionsp. 447
Accelerated Test Protocolsp. 460
Conclusions and Future Outlookp. 464
Acknowledgmentsp. 466
Referencesp. 466
Future of Fuel Cells and Hydrogenp. 469
Introductionp. 469
A Brief History of Hydrogen as a Fuelp. 470
Hydrogen Energy Technologiesp. 472
Is the Present Global Energy System Sustainable?p. 487
Predicting the Futurep. 491
Sustainable Energy System of the Futurep. 495
Transition to Hydrogen or a "Hydricity Economy"p. 500
The Coming Energy Revolution?p. 503
Conclusionsp. 505
Referencesp. 505
Indexp. 509
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