By the People Debating American Government

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  • Edition: 3rd
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  • Copyright: 2017-01-02
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
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The past two years have been anything but "politics as usual" in the United States.

By The People, Third Edition, reflects the dynamism of American government and politics with new teaching and learning tools that prepare students to ENGAGE, THINK, and DEBATE now more than ever before.

In a storytelling approach that weaves contemporary examples together with historical context, By the People: Debating American Government, Third Edition, explores the themes and ideas that drive the great debates in American government and politics. It introduces students to big questions like Who
governs? How does our system of government work? What does government do? and Who are we? By challenging students with these questions, the text gets them to think about, engage with, and debate the merits of U.S. government and politics.

Author Biography

James A. Morone (B.A., Middlebury College, and M.A. and PhD, University of Chicago) is Professor of Political Science and Public Policy at Brown University.

Rogan Kersh (M.A. and PhD, Yale) is Provost and Professor of Politics and International Affairs at Wake Forest University.

Table of Contents

About the Authors


Chapter 1. The Spirit of American Politics
Who Governs?
What Do You Think? Who Governs?
How Does American Politics Work?
What Does Government Do?
Context: Government in Society
No Big Government!
What Government Does
A Chronic Problem
Comparing Nations 1.1: Taxpayers' Burdens
The Hidden Government
The Best Government
Who Are We?
Info/Data: Races and Ethnicities in the U.S.
What Do You Think? Political Engagement
Chapter 2: The Ideas That Shape America
A Nation of Ideas
By the Numbers: American Ideas
"The Land of the Free"
The Two Sides of Liberty
What Do You Think? Negative (v) Positive Liberty
The Idea of Freedom is Always Changing
One Side of Self-Rule: Democracy
Another Side of Self-Rule: a Republic
A Mixed System
Limited Government
The Origins of Limited Government
And yet . . . The United States has a Big Government
Limits on Government Action
When Ideas Clash: Self-Rule and Limited Government
What Do You Think? Self-Rule (v) Limited Government
Community versus Individualism
Comparing Nations 2.1: Should Governments Take Care of the Poor?
The Roots of American Individualism: Opportunity and Discord
Golden Opportunity
Social Conflict
Who We Are: Individualism and Solidarity
What Do You Think? Individualism (v) Solidarity
The American Dream
Spreading the Dream
Challenging the Dream
--Is the System Tilted Towards the Wealthy?
--Does the American Dream Promote the Wrong Values?
-- Comparing Nations 2.2: Does the American Dream Promote the Wrong Values?
Three Kinds of Equality
Info/Data: Belief in Opportunity in the U.S.
How Much Economic Inequality is Too Much?
Opportunity or Outcome
Still a Religious Country
So Many Religions
Politics of Religion
How do Ideas Affect Politics?
Ideas in American Culture
Ideas in Political Institutions
Culture or Institutions?
Conclusion: Culture and Institutions, Together
Chapter 3: The Constitution
By the Numbers: The Constitution
The Colonial Roots of the Constitution
Comparing Nations 3.1: Constitutions
Why the Colonists Revolted
The Colonial Complaint: Representation
The Conflict Begins with Blood on the Frontier
The Stamp Tax and the First Hints of Independence
The Townshend Acts Worsen the Conflict
The Boston Tea Party
A Long Legacy
The Declaration of Independence
The Principle: "We Hold These Truths..."
The First American Government: The Articles of Confederation
Independent States
The National Government
Some Success...
... And Some Problems
What Do You Think? Your Advice is Needed
The First Step: Annapolis Convention
The Constituional Convention
1. How Much Power to the People?
2. National Government Versus State Government
3. Big States Versus Small States
-- The Virginia Plan
-- The New Jersey Plan
-- The Connecticut Compromise
4. The President
-- Committee or Individual?
-- The Electoral College
-- The President: Too Strong or Too Weak?
5. Separation of Powers
6. "A Principle of Which We Were Ashamed"
-- The Three-Fifths Compromise
-- The Slave Trade
-- Fugitive Slaves
-- "The National Calamity"
An Overview of the Constitution
What Do You Think? Constitutional Goals
Article 1: Congress
Article 2: The President
Comparing Nations 3.2: Democracies
Article 3: The Courts
Article 4: Relations Between the States
Article 5: Amendments
Article 6: The Law of the Land
Article 7: Ratification
The Missing Articles
The Anti-Federalists
The Federalists
Two Strong Arguments
A Very Close Vote
A Popular Surge Propels People into Politics
Changing the Constitution
The Bill of Rights
The Seven Amendments
The Constitution Today
What Do You Think? Interpretation of the Constitution
Info/Data: Limits to Free Speech
Chapter 4: Federalism and Nationalism
By the Numbers: Federalism
Forging Federalism
Who Holds Government Authority?
Advantages of State-Level Policy
Advantages of National Policy
What Do You Think? Preserving Local Values or Continuing Injustice?
How Federalism Works
The Constitution Sets the Ground Rules
-- The Constitution Empowers National Authority
-- The Constitution Protects State Authority
-- The Constitution Authorizes Shared Power
Dual Federalism (1789-1933)
Cooperative Federalism (1933-1981)
New Federalism
Progressive Federalism
-- Education
-- Health Care
Issues in Federalism Today
Unfunded Mandates
How Government Grows
Drowned in the Bathtub: Reducing the Federal Government
On Both Sides of the Issue
Info/Data: State-Level Party Affiliations
In a Nutshell: Our Three-Dimensional Political Chess
Federalism in the Courts
Nationalism, American-Style
The Rise of American Nationalism
America's Weak National Government
-- Size
Comparing Nations 4.1: Government Spending
Conclusion: Who Are We?
Chapter 5: Civil Liberties
By the Numbers: Civil Liberties
The Rise of Liberites
Civil Rights and Civil Liberties
The Purpose of Civil Liberties
The Slow Rise of Rights
Penumbras and Emanations
Roe v. Wade
What Do You Think? Right to Privacy
Planned Parenthood v. Casey
Sexuality Between Consenting Adults
Clashing Principles
Freedom of Religion
The Establishment Clause
Free Exercise of Religion
What Do You Think? Christianity in Schools?
Freedom of Speech
A Preferred Position
Political Speech
Comparing Nations 5.1 Civil Liberties
Test Yourself: The Simpsons or the First Amendment
Symbolic Speech
Limits to Free Speech: Fighting Words
Limited Protections: Student Speech
What Do You Think? Free Speech on Campus
Freedom of the Press
Prior Restraint
The Right to Bear Arms
A Relic of the Revolution?
The Palladium of All Liberties
Info/Data: Guns on Campus
The Rights of the Accused
The Fourth Amendment: Search and Seizure
The Fifth Amendment: Rights at Trials
The Sixth Amendment: Rights to Counsel
The Eighth Amendment: The Death Penalty
What Do You Think? The Dealth Penalty
Fighting Terrorism and Protecting Liberty
Contact with Forbidden Groups
Conclusion: The Dilemma of Civil Liberties
Chapter 6: The Struggle for Civil Rights
By the Numbers: Civil Rights
Winning Rights: The Political Process
Seven Steps to Political Equality
How the Courts Review Cases
-- Suspect Categories
-- Quasi-Suspect Categories
-- Non-Suspect Categories
Race and Civil Rights: Revolts Against Slavery
The Clash Over Slavery
-- Abolition
-- Economics
-- Politics
Dred Scott v. Sandford
The Second American Founding: A New Birth of Freedom?
Freedom Fails
The Fights for Racial Equality
Two Kinds of Discrimination
The Modern Civil Rights Campaign Begins
The Courts
The Civil Rights Movement
Congress and the Civil Rights Act
Divisions in the Movement
The Post-Civil Rights Era
Affirmative Action in the Workplace
Affirmative Action in Education
What Do You Think? Higher Education and Affirmative Action
Women's Rights
Comparing Nations 6.1 Women in National Leglislatures
The Civil Rights Act of 1964
Equal Rights Amendment
The Courts
What Do You Think? Reproductive Politics
Progress for Women -- But How Much?
Challenging Discrimination
The Politics of Immigration
-- Ancient Fears
-- Three Categories
-- Undocumented Immigrants
Language Controversy: Speak English!
Political Mobilization
Asian Americans
Anti-Asian Discrimination
Political Mobilization
Native Americans
The Lost Way of Life
Indians and the Federal Government
Social Problems and Politics
Native Americans and the Courts
Groups without Special Protection
People with Disabilities
Sexual Orientation
Gender Identity
The Fight for Civil Rights Goes On
Voting Rights Today
Info/Data: Voter Turnout by Race and Ethnicity
Economic and Social Rights Today
-- Health
-- Income
-- Incarceration
Conclusion: Civil Rights...By the People


Chapter 7: Public Opinion
By the Numbers: Public Opinion
Sources of Public Opinion
Political Socialization
-- Parents and Friends
-- Education
-- Gender
-- Race
-- Religion
-- Life Events
Self-Interest: Voting With? Our Pocketbooks
Elite Influence
Wars and Other Focusing Events
Measuring Public Opinion
Early Polling Bloopers
Polling 101
-- The Random Sample
-- Sampling Frame
Info/Data: Surveys
-- Refining the Sample
-- Timing
-- Wording
-- Lies, Damn Lies, and Polls
Comparing Nations 7.1: Polling
-- Techonolgy and Error
-- Sampling Error and Response Bias
--I Margin of Sampling Error
Talking Politics: Types of Polls
-- How'd They Do?
What Do You Think?: Calling the Elections Early
Do Opinion Surveys Influence Us?
Public Opinion in Democracy
Ignorant Masses
The Rational Public
What Do You Think? Can We Trust the Public?
Public Opinion and Governing
Do the People Know What They Want?
How Do the People Communicate Their Desires
Do Leaders Respond to Public Opinion
Conclusion: Government by the People
Chapter 8: Political Participation
By the Numbers: Political Participation
How We Participate
Traditional Participation
Civic Volunatrism
Direct Action
What Do You Think? Would You Have Protested?
An Underlying Question
Why People Get Involved
Background: Age, Wealth, and Education
-- Age
-- Wealth
Info/Data: Engagement and Ideology
-- Education
-- Race
Talking Politics: How Mobilizers See the Pubic
Friends, Family, and Social Capital
Political Mobilization
Government Beneficiaries
What Discourages Political Participation
Comparing Nations 8.1: Voter Turnout
Comparing Nations 8.2: Trust in Government
Institutional Barriers
Shifting Mobilization Patterns
New Avenues for Participation: the Internet, Social Media, and the Millenial Generation
Scenario 1: Rebooting Democracy
Scenario 2: More Hype and Danger than Democratic Renaissance
Does Social Media Increase Political Participation?
How the Millenial Generation Participates
What Do You Think? Should Voting Be Required by Law?
Chapter 9: Media Technology, and Government
By the Numbers: The Media
Media and American Democracy
Providing Information
Watching Political Leaders
Shaping the Political Agenda
U.S. Media Today: Tradtional Formats are Declining
Where People Go for News
Newspapers and Magazines: Rise and Decline
-- The First Mass Media
-- Should We Worry?
Radio Holds Steady
Television: From News to Infotainment
-- Rise of Cable
-- Infotainment
The Rise of New Media
Is the Media Biased?
Reporters are Democrats
Profits Drive the News Industry
Drama Delivers Audiences
Sex and Scandal
Investigative 'Bias'
The Fairness Bias
How Governments Shape the Media
The First Amendment Protects Print Media from Regulation
Regulating Broadcasters
Protecting the Competition
Info/Data: Media Consolidation
Media Around the World
Government-Owned Stations
The Rise of Commerical Media
Comparing Nations 9.1 Censorship Under Pressure?
American Media in the World
Understanding the Media in Context: War, Terrorism, and U.S. Elections
Covering Wars and Terrorism
The Campaign as Drama
Candidate Profiles
Conclusion: At the Crossroads of the Media World
What Do You Think? Does the Media Enhance Democracy?
Chapter 10: Campaigns and Elections
By the Numbers: Campaigns and Elections
How Democratic are American Elections?
Frequent and Fixed Elections
520,000 Elected Officials
Comparing Nations 10.1: Election Timetables for National Government
Financing Campaigns: The New Inequality?
What Do You Think? Too Many Elected Positions?
-- Too Much Money?
-- Democracy for the Rich?
-- Major Donors: Easier to Give
-- Info/Data: Money in Elections: The New Rules
Presidential Campaigns and Elections
Who Runs for President
The Three Phases of Presidential Elections
What Do You Think? Why Iowa and New Hampshire?
Winning the Nomination
Organizing the Convention
The General Election
Winning Presidential Elections
-- Economic Outlook
-- Demographics
-- War and Foreign Policy
-- Domestic Issues
-- The Campaign Organization
Who Won and Why
Predicting Presidential Elections
Congressional Elections
Candidates: Who Runs for Congress?
The Power of Incumbency
Congressional Election Results
Redrawing the Lines: The Art of the Gerrymander
Nonpartisan Districting and Minority Representation
Congressional Campaigns
The Rise of Candidate-Centered Elections
How to Run for Congress
-- Key 1: Money
-- Key 2: Organization
Talking Politics: Campaign Lingo
Key 3: Strategy
Key 4: Message
Conclusion: Reforming American Elections
Chapter 11: Political Parties
By the Numbers: Political Parties
Political Parties and U.S. Government
What the Parties Do
-- Parties Champion Ideas
-- Parties Select Candidates
-- Parties Mobilize the Voters
-- Parties Organize Governing Activity After the Election
-- Parties Help Integrate New Groups into the Political Process
Two-Party America
Comparing Nations 11.1: Organizing Electoral/Governing
Third Parties in American Politics
America's Party Systems: Origins and Change
Beginnings: First Party System (1789-1820)
Rise: Second Party System (1828-1860)
War and Reconstruction: Third Party System (1860-1896)
Business and Reform: Fourth Party System (1896-1932)
Depression and the New Deal: Fifith Party System (1933-1968)
What Do You Think? Does the 2016 Election Suggest a New Party System?
The Sixth Party System: The Parties at Equal Strength (1972-Present)
Why the Party Period Matters
Party Identification...and Ideas
Building Party Identification
The Power of Party Attachment
What Do You Think? Personality and Party
-- Voting/Participation
-- Filtering
-- Ideology
epublican Factions
-- Religious Traditionalists
-- Libertarians
-- Conservative Populists
-- Neoconservatives
-- Fiscal Conservatives
-- Moderates
Democratic Factions
-- Progressives
-- The Civil Rights Caucus
-- Organized Labor
-- "Third Way" Proponents
-- Deficit Hawks
Organizing the Parties
-- The Party Bureaucracy
-- Party in Government
-- Party in the Electorate
-- The Big Tent
Talking Politics: Party Icons and Symbols
Party Competition...and Partisanship
Parties Rise Again
Competition and Partisanship Intensifies
Info/Data: Party Control by State
What Do You Think? Partisanship
Conclusion: A Party System Ripe for Reform?
--1. Proportional Representation
--2. Reduce the Barriers to Third-Party Competition in Elections
--3. Reduce Partisanship in Government
Chapter 12: Interest Groups
By the Numbers: Interest Groups
Interest Group Roles in American Politics
Informing Members
Communicating Members' Views
Mobilizing the Public
What Do Interest Groups Do for Democracy?
Types of Interest Groups
Economic Groups
Citizen or Public-Interest Groups
Intergovernmental and Reverse Lobbying
Interest Groups Past and Present
1960's Advocacy Explosion
Young and Plugged In
Comparing Nations 12.1: The Spread of American-Style
Interest Group Lobbyists in Action
The Multiple Roles of Lobbyists
-- Researchers
-- Witnesses
-- Position Takers
-- Coalition Builders
-- Social Butterflies
-- Grassroots Campaign Builders
Three Types of Group Representatives
Talking Politics: Washington Lobbying
Nonprofits Don't Lobby?
Interest Groups and the Federal Branches of Government
Rise of the Issue Network
Interest Groups and the Courts
-- Lobbying on Judicial Confirmations
-- Filing Amicus Curiae ("Friend of Court") Briefs
-- Sponsoring Litigation
Interest Groups and Power
Interest Groups Spending
Info/Data: Interest Group Campaign Spending: Sector Totals, 2015-2016
Regulating Interest Groups
Are Interest Groups Bad or Good for America?
Four Concerns About Interest Groups
--1. Corruption
--2. Division and Demosclerosis
--3. Accountability
--4. Restricted Access
Four Defenses of Interest Groups
--1. More Democratic Representation
--2. Communication and Information
What Do You Think? How Much Influence Should Interest Groups have in American Government?
--3. Mobilizing and Organizing Public Safety
--4. Stability
Conclusion: Interest-Group Influence Revisited


Chapter 13: Congress
By the Numbers: Congress
Introducing Congress
Two Houses, Different Styles
What Do You Think? Senate Filibusters
The House and Senate Each Have Unique Roles
Congressional Representation
Does Congress Reflect America
What Do You Think? Two Views of Representation
Getting to Congress -- And Staying There
The Permanent Campaign
Home Style: Back in the Desert
A Government of Strangers
Congress at Work
The City on the Hill
Talking Politics: Capitol Hill Buzzwords
Minnows and Whales: Congressional Leadership
House Leadership
Senate Leadership
Committees: Workhorses of Congress
The Enduring Power of Committees
Leadership and Assignments
Comparing Nations 13.1: A Unique U.S. System
Legislative Policymaking
Drafting a Bill
Submitting the Bill
Committee Action
--1. Committees Hold Hearings on Policy Topics
--2. Committees Prepare Legislation for Floor Consideration
--3. Committees Also Kill Legislation
--4. Committees Exercise Oversight
Floor Action
-- Getting to the Floor
-- On the Floor
The Vote
Conference Committee
Presidential Action: Separated Powers Revisited
Why is Congress So Unpopular?
Partisan Polarization in Congress
Info/Data: Historic Partisan Polarization
Divided Government
What Do You Think? Is a Partisan Congress a Good Thing?
Some Popular Reforms -- And Their Limits
Limit Lobbyists
Educate the Public
The Real World of Democracy
Conclusion: Congress and the Challenge of Governing
Chapter 14: The Presidency
By the Numbers: The Presidency
Defining the Presidency
Defined by Controversy
The President's Powers
Comparing Nations 14.1 Chief Executives' Power
Is the Presidency Too Powerful?
An Imperial Presidency?
A Weak Office?
What Presidents Do
Commander in Chief
Top Diplomat
The First Legislator
-- Recommending Measures
-- State of the Union
-- Presidential "Batting Average"
-- Veto
-- Signing Statements
Chief Bureaucrat
-- Appointments
-- Executive Orders
Info/Data: Executive Orders Issued by Each President, Per Day in Office
Economist in Chief
The Head of State
Party Leader
The Bully Pulpit: Introducing Ideas
The Impossible Job
Presidential Leadership: Success and Failure in the Oval Office
Managing the Public
Approval Ratings
What Do You Think? Ranking the President
Presidential Greatness
Greatness in Context: The Rise and Fall of Political Orders
--Step 1: A New Order Rises
--Step 2: The Order Refreshed
--Step 3: The Old Order Crumbles
The Personal Presidency
Presidential Style
What Do You Think? The President in Action
The Burden of the Office
The President's Team: A Tour of the White House
The Political Solar System: Presidential Appointments
The Vice President
The Cabinet
The Executive Office of the President
-- The Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
-- The Council of Economic Advisers (CEA)
-- The National Security Council (NSC)
The Heart of Power: The White House Office (WHO)
Talking Politics: Speak like a West Wing Insider
What Do You Think? Do Presidents Need Such a Large Staff?
The First Spouse
Conclusion: The Most Powerful Office on Earth?
Chapter 15: Bureaucracy
By the Numbers: The Bureaucracy
How the Bureaucracy Grew
Birth of the Bureaucracy
-- War
-- Morality
-- Economics
-- Geography
-- Race/Ethnicity
The Bureaucratic Model
-- Hierarchy
-- Division of Labor
-- Fixed Routines
-- Equal Rules for All
-- Technical Qualifications
Bureaucratic Pathologies
The Democratic Dilemma
What Bureaucracies Do
How the Bureaucracy is Organized
Talking Politics: Bureaucracy Buzzwords
The Cabinet Departments
-- The Challenge of Governing
Comparing Nations 15.1: Parliamentary Systems
-- The Rotating Bureaucracy
-- The Cabinet and Diversity
Other Agencies
-- Executive Agencies
-- Independent Regulatory Commissions
Info/Data: The Formation of Regulatory Commissions
-- An Army of Their Own
-- Private Contractors
Who Controls the Federal Bureaucracy?
The People
The President
Interest Groups
Bureaucratic Autonomy
Democracy Revisited
Reforming the Bureaucracy
-- Cost
-- Intertia
-- Public Mistrust
Reforming the Bureaucracy
-- Open Up the System
-- Reinventing Government
What Do You Think? Should We Privatize More Government Functions?
-- Privatization
Conclusion: The Real Solution Lies With You
Chapter 16: The Judicial Branch
By the Numbers: The U.S. Judiciary
Who Are We? A Nation of Laws...and Lawyers
Embracing the Law--and Lawsuits
Comparing Nations 16.1: Number of Lawyers, Per Capita
Declining Trust
Courts in American Culture
Organizing the Judicial Branch
Divided We Rule
State and Local Courts
Judicial Selection
What Do You Think? How Should States Select Their Judges?
Federal Courts
Specialized Courts
Diversity in the Federal Judiciary
What Do You Think? Identity on the Bench
The Court's Rule
Judicial Review
Activism Versus Restraint
The Judicial Process
Too Much Power?
Comparing Nations 16.2: Power of the Judiciary
...Or Still the "Least Dangerous" Branch
The Supreme Court and How It Operates
Hearing Cases
Selecting Cases: Formal Requirements
Selecting Cases: Informal Factors
Conference Sessions and Written Decisions
Supreme Court Clerks
Confirmation Battles
Judicial Decision-Making and Reform
The Role of Law
Ideology and Partisanship
Info/Data: How Americans view the Supreme Court: Liberal or Conservative?
Collegiality and Peer Pressure
Institutional Concerns
Nineteen Cases You Should Know
1. Marbury v. Madison (1803)
2. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
3. Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)
4. Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
5. Santa Clara Co. v. Southern Pacific Railroad
6. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
7. Lochner v. New York (1905)
8. Muller v. Oregon (1908)
9. Schenck v. United States (1919)
10. National Labor Relations Board v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corporation (1937)
11. Korematsu v. U.S. (1944)
12. Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
13. Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
14. Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
15. Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)
16. Roe v. Wade (1973)
17. U.S. v. Nixon (1974)
18. Bush v. Gore (2000)
19. National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius (2012)
The Nineteen Cases -- And the Power of the Court
What Do You Think? Name Another Landmark Case
Criticizing the Judiciary
Critiquing the Judiciary
Ideas for Reform: More Resources
Term Limits
Conclusion: Democracy and the Courts


Chapter 17: Public Policymaking and Budgeting
By the Numbers: U.S. Public Policy
Public Policymaking in Five (Not-So-Easy) Stages
--1. Agenda Setting
--2. Framing
--3. Policy Formation
--- Analyzing Policy, Ex Ante
--- From Cost-Benefit Analysis to Politics
--4. Policy Implementation
--- Rulemaking Revisited
--- Top-Down Delivery
--- Bottom-Up Delivery
--5. Policy Evaluation and Feedback
--- Ex Post Policy Evaluations
--- A Case in Point: Gang Violence
--- Policy Feedback
U.S. Social Policy
Wars and Social Policy
Old-Age Insurance: Social Security
Unemployment Benefits
Health and Disability: Medicare/Medicaid
What Do You Think? Should We Reform Social Security and Medicare?
Economic Policymaking: Fiscal and Monetary Policy
Fiscal Policy
Monetary Policy
Economic Policymaking: The Federal Budget Process
Info/Data: The Federal Budget in Context
President's Budget Proposal
Congressional Budget Resolution
Comparing Nations 17.1: Budget Policymaking
Reign of the Cardinals: Apporpriations Committee Action
Making Good Policy
Moral Policies: Justice or Democracy?
Economically Efficient Policies
Capitalism Goes to the Movies
Reforming U.S. Policymaking
Systemic Reform
Policy Entrepreneurs
Eight Steps to Successful Policy Reform
-- Have Passion
-- Act with Speed
-- Bring a Plan
-- Mind the Symbols
-- Have a Philosophy
-- Go Public
-- Know the Rules
-- Learn to Lose
Conclusion: Policy Matters
Chapter 18: Foreign Policy
By the Numbers: Foreign Policy
American Foreign Policy Goal No. 1: Security
Military Primacy
Comparing Nations 18.1: Military Spending Worldwide
Basis for Primacy: Realism
A Different View: Liberalism
Soft Power
Foreign Aid and National Security
Comparing Nations 18.2: Official Development Assistance (ODA) Expenditures
American Foreign Policy Goal No. 2: Prosperity
Economic Superpower or Nation in Decline?
Free Trade
Talking Politics: Talk like an International Trader
Challenges to Free Trade
Economic Weapons
Foreign Policy Goal No. 3: Spreading American Ideals
American Exceptionalism
What Do You Think? Is America Exceptional?
The View from Abroad
Foreign Policy Perspectives
Engage the World? Isolationism Versus Intervention
Go It Alone or Act with Others?
Four Approaches
What Do You Think? Foreign Policy Perspectives
Who Makes Foreign Policy
The President
The State Department
The Department of Defense
Talking Politics: Sound like a Foreign Policy Pro
The National Security Council
Other Executive Agencies
Interest Groups and the Public
Info/Data: Are You a Global Citizen?
Success or Fragmentation?
Adding All of It Up: Grand Strategies in U.S. History
Standing Alone (1918-1939)
The Cold War (1945-1991)
The New World Order (1989-2001)
The War on Terror (2001-Present)
What Do You Think? Terrorists and the Rule of Law?
Conclusion: The Next Grand Strategy

Appendix I
The Declaration of Independence A-1
Appendix II
The Constitution of the United States of America A-3
Appendix III
The Federalist Papers nos. 1, 10, and 51 A-20

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