By the People Debating American Government

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-12-14
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
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ENGAGE. THINK. DEBATE. Challenge your students to ENGAGE in the conversation and process; THINK about the ideas, history, structure, and function; and DEBATE the merits of American government and politics in the 21st century. In a storytelling approach that weaves contemporary examples together with historical context,By the People: Debating American Governmentexplores the themes and ideas that drive the great debates in American government and politics. It introduces students to big questions likeWho governs? Howdoes our system of government work? What does government do'andWho are we?By challenging students with these questions, the text gets them to think about, engage with, and debate the merits of U.S. government and politics. ENGAGE *"By the Numbers" boxescontaining fun facts help frame the quizzical reality of American politics and government *"Comparing Nations" boxesdiscuss how other nations operate their courts, legislatures, media, and elections and help students understand what is vital and distinctive about the U.S. *"See For Yourself" featuresenable students to connect with the click of a smart phone to videos and other interactive online content THINK *Chapter Twointroduces students to seven key American ideas, which are revisited throughout the text *"The Bottom Line" summariesconclude each chapter section, underscoring the most important aspects of the discussion DEBATE *"What Do You Think?" boxesencourage students to use their critical-thinking skills and debate issues in American government *Four major themes, in the form of questions to spark debate,are presented to students in Chapter One and appear throughout the text ENSURING STUDENT SUCCESS We offer qualified adopters a comprehensive ancillary package: Companion Website at www.oup.com/us/morone For instructors, this site includes the teaching tools described below. For students, it offers a number of study tools including learning objectives, key-concept summaries, quizzes and essay questions, web activities, and web links. Instructor's Resource Manual with Test Bank Computerized Test Bank:Using the test authoring and management tool Diploma, this computerized test bank is designed for both novice and advanced users. PowerPoint-based Slides:Each chapter's slide deck includes a succinct chapter outline and incorporates relevant chapter graphics. Available on the Instructor's Resource CD and as a download online. Instructor's Resource CD:This includes the Instructor's Resource Manual with Tests, the Computerized Test Bank, the PowerPoint-based slides, and the graphics from the text. Now Playing: Learning American Government Through Film:This concise print supplement provides a variety of suggested films that illustrate concepts covered in the text. It is available in both a student and an instructor version and can be packaged withBy The Peoplefor free. CNN Video Guide E-Book:Available through CourseSmart Course Cartridges Packaging Options Adopters ofBy The Peoplecan package any Oxford University Press book with the text for a 20% savings off the total package price. See our many trade and scholarly offerings at www.oup.com/us, then contact your local OUP sales representative to request a package ISBN. In addition, any title from theVery Short Introduction Series,a collection of brief books offering succinct introductions to a variety of topics, can be packaged for FREE.

Author Biography

James Morone (B.A., Middlebury College, and M.A. and PhD, University of Chicago) is Professor of Political Science at Brown University and five-time winner of the Hazeltine Citation for outstanding teacher of the year. A renowned scholar of American Political Science, Dr. Morone, an award-winning author, has published eight books including The Heart of Power (2009), Hellfire Nation (2003), and The Democratic Wish (1990). He served as President of the Politics and History Section of the American Political Science Association from 1999-2000 and the New England Political Science Association from 2002-03. He has been on the board of editors for eight scholarly journals and comments on politics in The New York Times, The London Review of Books, and The American Prospect.

Rogan Kersh (M.A. and PhD, Yale) is Provost and Professor of Political Science at Wake Forest University. A leading scholar in American Political Science, Dr. Kersh is best known for his work on health reform, obesity politics, and interest groups/lobbying. From 2006-12 he served as Associate Dean of the Wagner School of Public Service at New York University, where he built an undergraduate program, helped conceive and create NYU's new campus in Abu Dhabi, and was integral in the launch of a new Global Institute of Public Health. Dr. Kersh has published two books, more than fifty academic articles, and has provided commentary on U.S politics for dozens of different media outlets including CNN, Newsweek, and The New York Times. He was President of the American Political Science Association's organized section on Health Politics and Policy in 2011-12, and is an elected Fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration.

Table of Contents

Each chapter ends with a Summary and Study Questions.
About the Authors
Chapter 1. The Spirit of American Politics
Comparing Nations: A President's Pledge
Who Governs?
How Does American Politics Work?
What Does Government Do?
Context: Governments in Society
We Hate Government!
What Government Does
Where Dislike of Government Really Matters
The Best of Government
Who Are We?
What Do You Think? Getting Engaged in Politics--or Not
Chapter 2. The Ideas That Shape America
A Nation of Ideas
"The Land of the Free"
The Two Sides of Liberty
What Do You Think? Negative vs. Positive Liberty
The Idea of Freedom Is Always Changing
Power from the People
One Side of Self-Rule: Democracy
Another Side of Self-Rule: A Republic
A Mixed System
Limited Government
The Origins of Limited Government
And Yet . . . the United States Has a Big Government
Limits of Government Action
When Ideas Clash: Self-Rule and Limited Government
What Do You Think? Self Rule vs. Limited Government
Community vs. Individualism
Comparing Nations: Which is More Important?
The Roots of American Individualism: Opportunity and Discord
Who We Are: Individualism and Solidarity?
What Do You Think? Individualism vs. Solidarity
The American Dream
Spreading the Dream
Challenging the Dream
Comparing Nations: Views of Individualism and the Role of the State
Three Kinds of Equality
Comparing Nations: Inequality Levels
How Much Economic Inequality Is Too Much?
Opportunity or Outcome?
Still Religious: A Religious Country
So Many Religions
The Politics of Religion
How Do Ideas Affect Politics?
Ideas in American Culture
The Ideas in Political Institutions
Culture or Institutions?
Culture and Institutions, Together
Chapter 3. The Constitution
The Colonial Roots of the Constitution
Comparing Nations: The United States Constitution in Comparative Context
Why the Colonists Revolted
The Colonial Complaint: Representation
The Conflict Begins with Blood on the Frontier
The Stamp Tax and the First Hints of Independence
The Townsend Acts Worsen the Conflict
The Boston Tea Party
A Long Legacy
The Declaration of Independence
The Principle: "We hold these truths . . ."
The First American Government: The Articles of Confederation
Independent States
The National Government
Some Success . . .
. . . And Some Problems
Winner and Losers
What Do You Think? Your Advice is Needed
The First Step: Annapolis Convention
Not "Demigods" but Shrewd Politicians
What Do You Think? Was Delegate Secrecy Warranted?
The Constitutional Convention
How Much Power to the People?
National Government versus State Government
Big States versus Small States
The President
Separation of Powers
"A Principle of Which We Were Ashamed"
An Overview of the Constitution
What Do You Think? Have We Achieved the Constitution's Goals Today?
Article 1: Congress
What Do You Think? Detention of Terrorism Suspects
Article 2: The President
Article 3: The Courts
Comparing Nations: The United States Government is Different from Most Democracies
Article 4: Relations Between the States
Article 5: Amendments
Article 6: The Law of the Land
Article 7: Ratification
The Missing Articles
The Anti-Federalists
The Federalists
Two Strong Arguments
A Very Close Call
A Popular Surge Propels People into Politics
Changing the Constitution
The Bill of Rights
The Seventeen Amendments
The Constitution Today
What Do You Think? How Strictly Should We Interpret the Constitution?
Chapter 4. Federalism and Nationalism
Why Federalism?
Choosing Federalism
Comparing Nations: Nations With Federal Systems of Government
The Disadvantages
The Stakes
What Do You Think? Preserving Local Values or Continuing a Terrible Injustice?
How Federalism Works
The Constitution Sets the Ground Rules
Dual Federalism
Cooperative Federalism
New Federalism
Battles over Federalism Today
Federalism and the Parties
What Do You Think? Intergovernmental Lobbying, American Style
Federalism in the Courts
Federalism's Secret
Nationalism, American Style
The Rise of American Nationalism
Comparing Nations: The Early Birth of American Nationalism
America's Weak National Government
The Hidden State
Chapter 5. Civil Liberties: Protecting Individuals
The Rise of Civil Liberties
Civil Rights and Civil Liberties
The Purpose of Civil Liberties
The Slow Rise of Rights
Penumbra and Emanations
What Do You Think? Is There a Right to Privacy?
Roe v. Wade
Planned Parenthood v. Casey
Sexuality Between Consenting Adults
Clashing Principles
Freedom of Religion
The Establishment Clause
What Do You Think? May the Christian Youth Club Meet in School?
Free Exercise of Religion
What Do You Think? David's Law
Freedom of Speech
A Preferred Position
Political Speech
Symbolic Speech
Comparing Nations Civil Liberties Around the World
Limits to Free Speech: Fighting Words
Freedom of the Press
Prior Restraint
What Do You Think? Campaign Finance Reform
The Right to Bear Arms
A Relic of the Revolution?
The Palladium of All Liberties?
The Rights of the Accused
Americans Behind Bars
The Fourth Amendment: Search and Seizure
The Fifth Amendment: Rights at Trials
The Sixth Amendment: The Right to Counsel
The Eighth Amendment: The Death Penalty
What Do You Think? End the Death Penalty?
Comparing Nations: Criminal Justice in France and the United States
Fighting Terrorism and Protecting Liberty
Contracts with Forbidden Groups
The Right Balance
Chapter 6. The Struggle for Civil Rights
Winning Rights: The Political Process
Seven Steps to Political Equality
How the Courts Review Cases
Race and Civil Rights: Revolt Against Slavery
The Clash Over Slavery
Dred Scott v. Sanford
The Second American Founding: A New Birth of Freedom?
Freedom Fails
The Fight for Racial Equality
Two Kinds of Discrimination
The Civil Rights Campaign Begins
The Courts
The Civil Rights Movement
What Do You Think? Would You Have Been a 60s Protester?
Congress and the Civil Rights Act
The End of the Civil Rights Era
Divisions in the Movement
Affirmative Action in the Work Place
Affirmative Action in Education
School Busing
What Do You Think? Higher Education and Affirmative Action
Where Are We Now?
Comparing Nations: Women in National Legislatures
The Civil Rights Act of 1964
The Courts
Progress--but How Much?
Gender Politics Today
Challenging Discrimination
Latinos and the Politics of Immigration
The Controversy over Language
Political Mobilization
Asian Americans
The Asian Stereotypes
Political Mobilization
What Do You Think? Simple Decency? Or Political Correctness Run Amuck?
Native Americans
The Lost Way of Life
Indians and the Federal Government
Social Problems and Politics
Groups Without Special Protection
People with Disabilities
Sexual Orientation
Chapter 7. Political Participation
How We Participate
Passionates, Scorekeepers, and Uninvolved
What Do You Think? Blending Participatory Styles
Benefits of Public Participation
The Diminishing Public
Getting Involved: Electoral, Voluntary, and Political Voice
Electoral Activities
Comparing Nations: Voter Turnout in Selected Countries
Civic Voluntarism
What Do you think? Volunteer Globally?
Political Voice
What Inspires Political Participation?
Spurs to Individual Participation
Cycles of Public Participation
Explaining the Cycles
What Discourages Political Participation?
Age, Wealth, and Education
Institutional Barriers
Shifting Mobilization Patterns
Generation Y and Political Participation
The Internet, Social Media, and Participation
Behavior and Political Participation
Government as "Nudgeocracy"
Our All-Too-Human Behaviors
Chapter 8. Public Opinion
Public Opinion in a Democracy
Ignorant Masses?
Or a Self-Governing People?
Skeptics Question the Influence of Public Opinion
The Public is Wise and Rational
What Do You Think? How Do You Participate?
Public Opinion and Governing
Do the People Know What They Want?
How Do the People Communicate Their Desires?
Do Leaders Respond to Public Opinion?
Comparing Nations: Polling Around the Globe
Measuring Public Opinion
Polling 101
Modern Polling: From "Landslide Landon" to Scientific Surveys
Do Opinion Surveys Influence Us?
What Do You Think? Calling the Election Early?
Sources of Public Opinion
Self-Interest: Voting Our Pocketbooks
Demographic Effects: From Region to Religion
Partisan Effects
Elite Influences
Wars and Other Focusing Events
Chapter 9. The Media
American Media Today: Traditional Formats are Declining
Where People Go For News
Newspaper Decline
Radio Holds Steady
Television: From News to Infotainment
Movies: Mirroring America
What Do You Think? Movies that Take a Stand
The Media Today
The Rise of New Media
Scenario 1: Rebooting Democracy
Scenario 2: More Hype and Danger than Democratic Renaissance
Is the Media Biased?
Reporters Are Democrats
Profits Drive the News Industry
Drama Delivers Audiences
Conflict Draws an Audience
Sex and Scandal
The Skeptical Media
The Fairness Bias
How Governments Shape the Media
Regulating Broadcasters
Protecting Competition
Media Around the World
Government-Owned Stations
The Rise of Commercial Media
The Foreign Press Takes Sides
Newspapers Around the World
Comparing Nations: Censorship Under Pressure?
American Media in the World
How the Media Shapes Politics
News Stories Reinforce Existing Beliefs
The Political Agenda
Priming the Public
Framing the Issue
The Media's Electoral Connection
The Campaign as drama
Candidate Profiles
What Do You Think? Does the Media Enhance Democracy?
Chapter 10. Campaigns and Elections
Campaigns and Elections, U.S. Style
Federalism and American Elections
Are U.S. Elections Democratic?
Comparing Nations: Election Timetables for Legislature/Chief Executive
Number of Elected Officials
What Do You Think? Too Many Elected Positions?
Financing Campaigns: Equality of Voices: Financing Campaigns
Presidential Campaigns and Elections
Who Runs for President?
Presidential Campaigns: Three Phases
Winning the Nomination
What Do You Think? Why Iowa and New Hampshire?
Organizing the Convention
The General Election
Winning Presidential Elections
U.S. Economic Outlook
War and Foreign Policy
Domestic Issues
Predicting Presidential Elections
Congressional Campaigns and Elections
Candidates: Who Runs for Congress?
The Power of Incumbency
Congressional Election Results
Redrawing the Lines: The Art of the Gerrymander
Nonpartisan Districting and Minority Representation
Critical Elections: Engine of History or American Myth?
The Rise of Candidate-Centered Elections
"Critical" Midterm Election Outcomes
Do You Want to Run for Congress?
Chapter 11. Political Parties
Political Parties and U.S. Government
What the Parties Do
Two-Party America
Comparing Nations: Organizing Electoral/Governing Systems
Third Parties in American Politics
How Parties are Organized
Party in Government
Party Organization
Party in the Electorate
The Big Party Tents
America's Party Systems: Origins and Change
Beginnings: First Party System (1789-1828)
Rise: Second Party System (c. 1828-1860)
War and Reconstruction: Third Party System (1860-1896)
Business and Reform: Fourth Party System (1896-1932)
Depression and New Deal: Fifth Party System (1933-1972)
The Sixth Party System: The Parties at Equal Strength (1972-Present)
What Do You Think? Does the 2012 Election Suggest a New Party Period?
Why the Party Period Matters
Party Identification . . . and Ideas
Building Party Identification
What Do You Think? Personality and Party
The Power of Party Attachment
Republican Factions
Democratic Factions
Party Competition . . . and Partisanship
Parties Rise Again
Competition Intensifies
Partisanship and Its Discontents
What Do You Think? Winner Take All
What Do You Think? Third Parties
What Do You Think? Partisanship
Chapter 12. Interest Groups
Interest Groups: Them or Us?
Interest Groups and Lobbying
Examples: Lobbying Groups in Action
What Groups Do For Members
Who Represents the Public Interest?
Interest Groups and Power
Lobbyist Spending
What Do You Think? Assessing the Influence of Lobbyists
Regulating Interest Groups
Lobbying Past and Present
Lobbying at the Dawn of an Industrial Age
Reforming the System: Progressives to Post-WWII
1960s Advocacy Explosion
"Young Guns" and Women
Comparing Nations: The Spread of American-Style Lobbying
Lobbyists in Action
The Multiple Roles of Lobbyists
Private and Public Advocacy
Private Representatives: From Single-Firmers to Hired Guns
Public Advocates: Forming and Tending Groups
Nonprofits Don't Lobby?
Lobbying the Federal Branches of Government
Rise of the Issue Network
Intergovernmental and Reverse Lobbying
Lobbying the Courts
Three Insider Keys to Effective Washington Lobbying
Are Interest Groups Bad or Good for America?
Four Concerns About Lobbying
Four Defenses of Lobbying
What Do You Think? Are Interest Groups Good for American Government?
Chapter 13. Congress
Introducing Congress
Two Houses, Different Styles
What Do You Think? Senate Filibusters
Congressional Representation
What Do You Think? Who Really Represents You?
Does Congress Reflect America?
Comparing Nations: Women in National Legislatures
Trustees and Delegates
What Do You Think? Two Views of Representation
Elections: Getting to Congress --and Staying There
Congressional Elections
Home Styles: Back in the District
A Government of Strangers
Congress at Work
The City on the Hill
Minnows and Whales: Congressional Leadership
House Leadership
Senate Leadership
Intangibles of Congressional Leadership
Committees: Workhorses of Congress
The Enduring Power of Committees
Leadership and Assignments
Comparing Nations: A Unique U.S. System
Legislative Policymaking
The Importance of the Legislative Process
Drafting a Bill to Life
Submitting the Bill
Committee Action
Floor Action
Conference Committee
Presidential Action: Separated Powers, Once More
House-Senate Relations
The House and Senate Have Some Unique Roles
The Other Body
Why is Congress so Unpopular?
What Do You Think? Is a Partisan Congress a Good Thing?
Divided Government
Some Popular Reforms--and Their Limits
Term Limits
Are We Tired of Democracy Itself?
Chapter 14. The Presidency
Defining the Presidency
The Silence of Article II
The President's Powers
Comparing Nations: Chief Executives' Power
Is the President Too Powerful?
An Imperial Presidency?
A Weak Office?
What Presidents Do
Top Diplomat
The First Legislator
Chief Bureaucrat
The Head of State
Party Leader
The Bully Pulpit: Introducing Ideas
The Impossible Job
Presidential Leadership: Success and Failures in the Oval Office
Managing the Public
Approval Ratings
Presidential Greatness
Greatness in Context: The Rise and Fall of Political Orders
What Do You Think? Changing Political Order
The Personal Presidency
Presidential Style
What Do You Think? The President in Action
A Model of the Personal Presidency
The Burden of the Office
The President's Team: A Tour of the White House
The Political Solar System: Presidential Appointments
The Vice President
The Cabinet
The Executive Office of the President
The First Spouse
Chapter 15. Bureaucracy
How the Bureaucracy Grew
Before the Bureaucracy
The Bureaucratic Model
Bureaucratic Pathologies
The Democratic Dilemma
What Bureaucracies Do
How the Bureaucracy is Organized
The Cabinet Departments
Comparing Nations: Parliamentary Systems
Other Agencies
Who Controls the Federal Bureaucracy?
The People
The President
Interest Groups
Bureaucratic Autonomy
Democracy Revisited
Reforming the Bureaucracy
Reforming the Bureaucracy
What Do You Think? Should We Privatize More Government Functions?
Chapter 16. The Judicial Branch
Who are We? A Nation of Laws . . . and Lawyers
Embracing the Law-- and Lawsuits
Declining Trust
Courts in American Culture
Organizing the Judicial Branch
Divided We Rule
What Do You Think? How Should States Select Their Judges?
Federal Courts
Specialized Courts
Diversity in the Federal Judiciary
What Do You Think? Identity on the Bench
The Court's Role
Judicial Review
Activism versus Restraint
The Judicial Process
Judicial Mystique
Too Much Power?
Comparing Nations: Power of the Judiciary
. . . or Still the "Least Dangerous" Branch?
The Supreme Court and How It Operates
Hearing Cases
Selecting Cases: Formal Requirements
Selecting Cases: Informal Factors
Conference Sessions and Written Decisions
Supreme Court Clerks
Confirmation Battles
Judicial Decision-Making and Reform
The Role of Law
Ideology and Partisanship
Collegiality and Peer Pressure
Nineteen Cases You Should Know
1. Marbury v. Madison (1803)
2. McCullough v. Maryland (1819)
3. Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)
4. Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
5. Santa Clara Co. v. Southern Pacific Rail Road (1886)
6. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
7. Lochner v. New York (1905)
8. Muller v. Oregon (1908)
9. Schneck v. United States (1919)
10. National Labor Relations Board v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation (1937)
11. Korematsu v. U.S. (1944)
12. Everson v. Board of Education (1947)
13. Brown v. Board of Ed. (1954)
14. Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
15. Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
16. Roe v. Wade (1973)
17. U.S. v. Nixon (1974)
18. Bush v. Gore (2000)
19. National Federation of Independent Business v. Sibelius (2012)
What Do You Think? Name Another Landmark Case
Criticizing the Judiciary
Critiquing the Judiciary
Ideas for Reform: More Resources
Term Limits
Chapter 17. Public Policymaking and Budgeting
Public Policymaking in Five (Not-So-Easy) Stages
1. Agenda Setting
2. Framing
3. Policy Formation
Analyzing Policy, Ex Ante
From Cost-Benefit Analysis to Politics
1. Policy Implementation
2. Policy Evaluation and Feedback
Ex Post Policy Evaluations
A Case in Point: Gang Violence
Another Case: Calorie Labels on Fast Food Menus
Policy Feedback
U.S. Social Policy
Wars and Social Policy
Old-Age Insurance: Social Security
Unemployment Benefits
Health and Disability: Medicare/Medicaid
What Do You Think? Should we Reform Social Security and Medicare?
Making Good Policy
Moral Policies: Justice or Democracy?
Economically Efficient Policies
Markets, Privatization, and Policy
Capitalism Goes to the Movies
The Federal Budget Process
President's Budget Proposal
Congressional budget Resolution
Reign of the Cardinals: Appropriations Committee Action
Comparing Nations: Budget Policymaking
Reforming U.S. Policymaking
Systemic Reform
Policy Entrepreneurs
Chapter 18. Foreign Policy
American Foreign Policy Goal No. 1: Security
Defining the Dangers
The Military
Should the United States Scale Back the Military?
Comparing Nations: Militaries and Democracies
Soft Power
Foreign Aid and Other Forms of Security
What Do You Think? Downsizing the Military
American Foreign Policy Goal No. 2: Prosperity
Free Trade
Challenges to Free Trade
Assisting Business
Economic Weapons
A Nation in Decline?
Foreign Policy Perspectives
American Exceptionalism
Values in Decline?
What Do You Think? Is America Exceptional?
Engage the World
Go It Alone or Act with Others?
Four Approaches
What Do You Think? Foreign Policy Perspectives
Who Makes Foreign Policy?
The President
The State Department
The Department of Defense
The National Security Council
Other Executive Agencies
Interest Groups and the Public
Success or Fragmentation?
Adding All of It Up: Grand Strategies Over Time
Strategy 1. Standing Alone: 1908-1939
Strategy 2. The Cold War: 1945-1991
Strategy 3. The New World Order: 1989-2003
Strategy 4. The War on Terror (began 2001)
What Do You Think? Terrorists and the Rule of Law
Appendix I. The Declaration of Independence
Appendix II. The Constitution of the United States of America
Appendix III. The Federalist Papers 1, 10, and 51
Appendix IV. Presidents, Congresses, and Chief Justices

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