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9780198523307

Perceptual Consequences of Cochlear Damage

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780198523307

  • ISBN10:

    0198523300

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1995-12-14
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Summary

Over the last decade, there has been a revolution in our understanding of the physiological role of the cochlea (the inner ear), and the mechanisms of cochlear hearing loss, the most common type in adults, which results in distortions in sound perception. This is the first book to cover the topic; aimed at students and researchers in auditory rehabilitation and its technology, it explains the nature of hearing distortion and relates them to the underlying physiological mechanisms. It provides a theoretical framework for understanding the changes that follow cochlear damage which had important implications not only for theories of normal perception but also the design of signal processing hearing aids.

Table of Contents

The Physiology and Function of the Normal and Damaged Cochlea
1(30)
Introduction
1(1)
Structure and function of the normal peripheral auditory system
2(14)
The outer and middle ear
2(2)
The cochlea, the basilar membrane and the organ of Corti
4(10)
Cochlear echoes
14(2)
Neural responses in the normal auditory nerve
16(6)
Spontaneous firing rates and thresholds
16(1)
Tuning curves and iso-rate contours
16(1)
Rate versus level functions
17(2)
Phase locking
19(2)
Two-tone suppression
21(1)
Physiology and functional properties of the damaged cochlea
22(7)
Neural responses
22(1)
BM responses
22(3)
Structure-function correlation
25(3)
Phase locking
28(1)
Conclusions
29(1)
Absolute Thresholds and Frequency Selectivity in Normal and Impaired Hearing
30(32)
Introduction
30(2)
Absolute threshold in normal and hearing-impaired subjects
30(2)
Frequency selectivity
32(1)
The power spectrum model and the concept of the critical band
33(2)
Estimating the shape of the auditory filter
35(6)
Psychophysical tuning curves
36(1)
The notched-noise method
37(3)
The rippled-noise method
40(1)
Allowing for the transfer function of the outer and middle ear
40(1)
An example of measurement of the auditory filter shape
40(1)
Summary of the characteristics of the auditory filter in normally hearing subjects
41(3)
Variation with centre frequency
41(2)
The variation of the auditory filter shape with level
43(1)
Masking patterns and excitation patterns
44(3)
Relationship of the auditory filter to the excitation pattern
46(1)
Changes in excitation patterns with level
47(1)
Non-simultaneous masking
47(4)
Evidence for lateral suppression from non-simultaneous masking
49(2)
The enhancement of frequency selectivity revealed in non-simultaneous masking
51(1)
Frequency selectivity in simultaneous masking for subjects with cochlear hearing loss
52(6)
Psychophysical tuning curves
53(1)
Auditory filter shapes measured using rippled noise
53(2)
Auditory filter shapes measured with notched noise
55(3)
Forward masking and suppression in subjects with cochlear hearing loss
58(2)
Perceptual consequences of reduced frequency selectivity
60(2)
Susceptibility to masking
60(1)
Timbre perception
61(1)
Loudness Perception and Intensity Resolution in People with Normal and Impaired Hearing
62(26)
Introduction
62(1)
Loudness perception in normally hearing people
62(3)
Equal-loudness contours and loudness level
62(1)
The scaling of loudness
63(1)
The detection of intensity changes
64(1)
Loudness recruitment and reduced dynamic range in people with cochlear damage
65(4)
Models of loudness perception
69(2)
The mechanisms underlying loudness recruitment
71(4)
Theoretical considerations
71(2)
Experimental tests of the role of frequency selectivity in loudness recruitment
73(2)
Loudness summation in impaired subjects
75(3)
Intensity resolution in cases of cochlear damage
78(6)
Detection of amplitude modulation
79(3)
Intensity discrimination of tone pulses
82(1)
The relation of intensity discrimination to loudness
82(1)
The role of spread of excitation in intensity discrimination
83(1)
Perceptual consequences of altered loudness perception
84(3)
Consequences of loudness recruitment and reduced dynamic range
84(1)
Perceptual consequences of reduced loudness summation
85(1)
Perceptual consequences of altered intensity discrimination
86(1)
Conclusions
87(1)
Effects of Cochlear Damage on Temporal Resolution and Temporal Integration
88(21)
Introduction
88(1)
Modelling within-channel temporal resolution
89(6)
The effect of auditory filtering
89(4)
The characteristics of the nonlinearity and the smoothing device
93(2)
Temporal resolution in subjects with cochlear damage
95(8)
The influence of sound level
95(2)
The influence of audible bandwidth
97(2)
The influence of broadened auditory filters
99(1)
The influence of changes in the compressive nonlinearity
100(3)
Temporal integration
103(4)
Temporal integration in normally hearing people
103(1)
Temporal integration in people with cochlear damage
104(1)
Explanations for reduced temporal integration in people with cochlear damage
105(2)
Perceptual consequences of abnormal temporal processing in people with cochlear damage
107(2)
Consequences of abnormal temporal resolution
107(1)
Consequences of reduced temporal integration
108(1)
Pitch Perception and Frequency Discrimination in Normally Hearing and Hearing-Impaired People
109(20)
Introduction to the perception of pitch
109(1)
Traditional theories of pitch perception
109(1)
The perception of the pitch of pure tones by normally hearing subjects
110(2)
The frequency discrimination of pure tones
110(2)
The perception of musical intervals
112(1)
The pitch perception of complex tones
112(2)
The phenomenon of the missing fundamental
112(1)
Discrimination of the pitch of complex tones
113(1)
Analysis of a complex tone in the peripheral auditory system
113(1)
Theories of pitch perception for complex tones
114(3)
Frequency discrimination of pure tones by people with cochlear damage
117(3)
Detection of frequency modulation by people with cochlear damage
120(2)
The perception of pure-tone pitch in the absence of functioning hair cells with CFs at the test frequency
122(1)
Pitch anomalies in the perception of pure tones
123(1)
Frequency discrimination of complex tones by people with cochlear damage
124(3)
Perceptual consequences of altered frequency discrimination and pitch perception
127(2)
Sound Localization and Binaural Hearing in Normal and Hearing-Impaired People
129(18)
The localization of sinusoids
129(5)
Cues for localization
129(2)
Performance of normally hearing people in localization and lateralization
131(2)
Performance of hearing-impaired people in localization and lateralization
133(1)
The localization of complex sounds
134(3)
The role of transients and across-frequency comparisons
134(1)
Performance of normally hearing subjects
134(1)
Performance of people with cochlear damage
135(2)
Reasons for large ITD and IID thresholds in people with cochlear damage
137(1)
The cone of confusion, head movements, and pinna cues
137(2)
Resolution using pinna cues by normal and hearing-impaired subjects
139(1)
General conclusions on sound localization
139(1)
Binaural masking level differences (MLDs)
139(4)
MLDs for normally hearing subjects
139(2)
MLDs for people with cochlear damage
141(1)
Possible reasons for smaller MLDs in people with cochlear damage
142(1)
Head shadow effects
143(2)
Results for normally hearing subjects
143(1)
Results for hearing-impaired subjects
144(1)
Diotic summation
145(1)
Perceptual consequences of abnormal binaural and spatial hearing in people with cochlear damage
146(1)
Speech Perception by People with Cochlear Damage
147(26)
Introduction
147(1)
The magnitude of the noise problem
147(1)
The role of audibility
148(6)
The Articulation Index
148(3)
The intelligibility of speech in noise at high overall levels
151(1)
Comparison of detection and recognition for speech in noise
151(1)
The intelligibility of speech in quiet at high overall levels
151(1)
Simulation of hearing loss by selective filtering or masking
152(2)
Comparison of speech intelligibility for conductive and cochlear losses
154(1)
Conclusions on the role of audibility
154(1)
Correlational studies of psychoacoustic abilities and speech perception
154(4)
Assessing the effects of frequency selectivity on vowel and consonant perception
158(5)
Consonant perception
158(1)
Vowel perception
159(4)
The use of simulations to assess the importance of psychoacoustic factors in speech perception
163(9)
Loudness recruitment
163(5)
Simulation of reduced frequency selectivity
168(2)
Simulation of reduced temporal resolution
170(2)
Conclusions
172(1)
Limitations and Potentials of Hearing Aids
173(32)
Introduction
173(1)
The use of linear amplification to restore audibility
173(3)
Some general problems with hearing aids
176(3)
Feedback
176(1)
Peakiness of frequency response
177(1)
The occlusion effect
178(1)
The use of compression to compensate for reduced dynamic range
179(5)
Basic characteristics of AGC systems
179(2)
Varieties of AGC systems
181(2)
Research on the efficacy of multi-band compression
183(1)
The `Cambridge' system
184(4)
Compensating for variations in the overall level of speech
184(3)
Compensating for variations in the levels of individual speech sounds
187(1)
General conclusions about compression
188(1)
Attempts to improve speech intelligibility using spectral enhancement
189(6)
Methods of improving the speech-to-noise ratio
195(5)
Directional microphones
195(1)
Adaptive beamforming
196(1)
Binaural processing algorithms
197(2)
Concluding remarks on schemes to improve the speech-to-noise ratio
199(1)
Signal-processing aids for severe and profound hearing loss
200(1)
Cochlear implants
201(2)
Some concluding remarks
203(2)
References 205(24)
Index 229

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