Perspectives on Personality

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2008-01-01
  • Publisher: Allyn & Bacon
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The various perspectives of the field of personality provide the organizing framework: each perspective is presented in two chapters and is introduced by a prologue that describes the assumptions and themes of the perspective. Engaging and very successful, this new edition introduces hundreds of new citations; presents the ideas logically and orderly and concludes with a unique Integration chapter that brings the various perspectives together.

Table of Contents


Each chapter concludes with a summary.


1. What Is Personality Psychology?
Defining Personality.
Why Use Personality as a Concept?
A Working Definition.
Two Fundamental Issues in Personality Psychology.
Theory In Personality Psychology.
What Do Theories Do?
Evaluating Theories: The Role of Research.
What Else Makes a Theory Good?
Perspectives on Personality.
Groupings Among Theories.
How Distinct Are the Perspectives?
Another Kind of “Perspective.”
Organization Within Chapters.
Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change.

2. Methods in the Study of Personality.
Gathering Information.
Sources: Observe Yourself and Observe Others.
Seeking Depth: Case Studies.
Seeking Generality: Studies of Many People.
Establishing Relationships Among Variables.
Correlation Between Variables.
Two Kinds of Significance.
Causality and a Limitation on Inference.
Search for Causality: Experimental Research.
Recognizing Types of Study.
What Kind of Research Is Best?
Multifactor Studies.
Reading Figures from Multifactor Research.

3. Issues in Personality Assessment.
Sources of Information.
Reliability of Measurement.
Internal Consistency.
Inter-Rater Reliability.
Stability Across Time.
Validity of Measurement.
Construct Validity.
Criterion Validity.
Convergent Validity.
Discriminant Validity.
Face Validity.
Culture and Validity.
Response Sets and Loss of Validity.
Two Rationales Behind the Development of Assessment Devices.
Rational, or Theoretical, Approach.
Empirical Approaches.
Better Assessment: A Never-Ending Search.

The Dispositional Perspective: Major Themes and UnderlyingAssumptions.

4. Types, Traits, and Interactionism.
Types and Traits.
Nomothetic and Idiographic Views of Traits.
What Traits Matter?
A Key Tool: Factor Analysis.
Let Reality Reveal Itself: Cattell's Approach.
Start from a Theory: Eysenck's Approach.
Another Theoretical Starting Point: the Interpersonal Circle.
The Five-Factor Model: The Basic Dimensions of Personality?
What Are the Five Factors?
Reflections of the Five Factors.
The Five-Factor Model in Relation to Other Models.
Cautions and Some Further Variations.
Are Superordinate Traits the Best Level to Use?
Traits, Situations, and Interactionism.
Is Behavior Actually Traitlike?
Low Reliability in Measuring Behavior.
Individual Differences in Consistency.
Beyond Analysis of Variance in Interactionism.
Was the Problem Ever Really as Bad as it Seemed?
Interactionism Becomes a New View of Traits: Context-Dependent.
Expression of Personality.
Fitting the Pieces Together: Views of Traits and Behavior.
Comparing Individuals: Personality Profiles.
Problems In Behavior, and Behavior Change.
The Five-Factor Model and Personality Disorders.
Interactionism in Behavior Problems.
Behavior Change.
Trait Psychology: Problems and Prospects.

5. Needs and Motives.
Basic Theoretical Elements.
Needs, Motives, and Personality.
Motivational States and Motive Dispositions.
Murray's System of Needs.
Measuring Motives: The Thematic Apperception Test.
Individual Differences In Specific Needs.
Need for Achievement.
Divergent Motives Underlying Achievement Behavior.
Need for Power.
Need for Affiliation.
Need for Intimacy.
Patterned Needs: Inhibited Power Motive.
Further Determinants of Behavior.
Incentive Value.
Expectancy and Skill.
The Methods of Personology.
Self-Reports and the TAT May Not Measure the Same Thing.
Motives and the Five-Factor Model.
Traits and Motives as Distinct.
Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change.
The Need for Power and Alcohol Abuse.
Focusing On and Changing Motivation.
Need and Motive Theories: Problems and Prospects.

The Biological Perspective: Major Themes and Underlying Assumptions.

6. Inheritance, Evolution, and Personality.
Physique and Personality.
Determining The Role of Inheritance In Personality.
Twin Study Method.
Adoption Research.
What Personality Qualities Are Inherited?
Temperaments: Activity, Sociability, and Emotionality.
Are There Other Temperaments?
Inheritance of Traits.
Temperaments and the Five-Factor Model.
Genetics of Other Qualities: How Distinct Are They?
Inheritance and Sexual Orientation.
Molecular Genetics and New Sources of Evidence.
Environmental Effects.
The Size of Environmental Influences.
The Nature of Environmental Influences.
Evolution and Human Behavior.
Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology.
Genetic Similarity and Attraction.
Mate Selection and Competition for Mates.
Mate Retention and Other Issues.
Aggression and the Young Male Syndrome.
Problems In Behavior, and Behavior Change.
Behavior Genetics and Disorders.
Evolution and Problems in Behavior.
Behavior Change: How Much Is Possible?
Inheritance and Evolution: Problems and Prospects.

7 Biological Processes and Personality.
Eysenck: Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Brain Functions.
Extraversion and Cortical Arousal.
Biological Basis of Neuroticism.
A Contemporary View of Brain Functions: Approach and Inhibition.
Behavioral Approach, Activation, Engagement, or Facilitation.
Neurotransmitters and the Approach System.
Behavioral Inhibition, Withdrawal, or Avoidance.
Neurotransmitters and the Withdrawal System.
Relating These Systems to Temperaments or Traits.
Two Areas of Disagreement.
Sensation Seeking: A Third Biological System?
Function of Sensation Seeking.
Sensation Seeking, Impulsiveness, and Other Systems.
One More Angle on Impulsivity.
Impulsiveness: Further Issues.
What Does Serotonin Function Mean?
What Are the Personality Scales Measuring?
Hormones And Personality.
Hormones, the Body, and the Brain.
Early Hormonal Exposure and Behavior.
Testosterone and Adult Personality.
Cycle of Testosterone and Action.
Testosterone, Dominance, and Evolutionary Psychology.
Responding to Stress: Men, Women, and Oxytocin.
Problems In Behavior, and Behavior Change.
Biological Bases of Anxiety, Depression, and Antisocial Personality.
Medication in Therapy.
Biological Processes And Personality: Problems And Prospects.

The Psychoanalytic Perspective: Major Themes and Underlying Assumptions.

8. Psychoanalytic Structure and Process.
The Topographical Model of Mind.
Aspects of Personality: The Structural Model.
Balancing the Forces.
Motivation: The Drives of Personality.
Cathexes and the Use of Energy.
Two Classes of Drives: Life and Death Instincts.
Coming Together of Libidinal and Aggressive Energies.
Displacement and Sublimation of Motive Forces.
Psychosexual Development.
The Oral Stage.
The Anal Stage.
The Phallic Stage.
The Latency Period.
The Genital Stage.
Psychoanalytic Structure And Process: Problems And Prospects.

9. Anxiety, Defense, and Self-Protection.
Mechanisms of Defense.
Reaction Formation.
Displacement and Sublimation.
Research on Defenses.
Evidence of Unconscious Conflict.
Exposing the Unconscious.
The Psychopathology of Everyday Life.
Projective Techniques of Assessment.
Rorschach Inkblot Test.
Problems In Behavior, and Behavior Change.
Origins of Problems.
Behavior Change.
Does Psychoanalytic Therapy Work?
Psychoanalytic Defense: Problems and Prospects.

Part V. The Neoanalytic Perspective.
The Neoanalytic Perspective: Major Themes and Underlying Assumptions.

10. Ego Psychology.
Principles of Ego Psychology.
Shifting the Emphasis from Id to Ego.
Adaptation and Autonomy.
The Ego, Adaptation, and Competence Motivation.
Is Competence Striving Automatic, or Is It Done to RemedyInferiority?
Ego Control and Ego Resiliency.
Ego Control, Ego Resiliency, and the Five-Factor Model.
Ego Development.
Early Ego Development.
Middle Stages of Development: Control of Impulses.
Advanced Stages of Development: Taking More into Account.
Research on Ego Development.
Ego Development and the Five-Factor Model.
Assessment of Lifestyles.
Assessment of Level of Ego Development.
Problems In Behavior, and Behavior Change.
Inferiority and Superiority Complexes.
Overcontrol and Undercontrol.
Behavior Change.
Ego Psychology: Problems and Prospects.

11. Psychosocial Theories.
Object Relations Theories.
Self Psychology.
Basic Anxiety.
Attachment Theory and Personality.
Attachment Patterns in Adults.
How Many Patterns?
Stability and Specificity.
Other Reflections of Adult Attachment.
Attachment Patterns and the Five-Factor Model.
Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development.
Ego Identity, Competence, and the Experience of Crisis.
Early Childhood.
School Age.
Young Adulthood.
Old Age.
The Epigenetic Principle.
Identity as Life Story.
Comparing Erikson's Theory to Other Psychosocial Theories.
Object Relations, Attachment, and the Focus of Assessment.
Play in Assessment.
Problems In Behavior, and Behavior Change.
Narcissism as a Disorder of Personality.
Neurotic Needs.
Attachment and Depression.
Behavior Change.
Psychosocial Theories: Problems and Prospects.

The Learning Perspective: Major Themes and Underlying Assumptions.

12. Conditioning Theories.
Classical Conditioning.
Basic Elements.
Classical Conditioning as Anticipatory Learning.
Discrimination, Generalization, and Extinction in ClassicalConditioning.
Emotional Conditioning.
Instrumental Conditioning.
The Law of Effect.
Reinforcement and Punishment.
Discrimination, Generalization, and Extinction in Instrumental Conditioning.
Altering the Shape of Behavior.
Schedules of Reinforcement and the Issue of Persistence.
Learning “Irrational” Behavior.
Reinforcement of Dimensions of Behavior.
Problems In Behavior, and Behavior Change.
Classical Conditioning of Emotional Responses.
Classical Conditioning of Aversion.
Conditioning and Context.
Instrumental Conditioning and Maladaptive Behaviors.
Instrumental Conditioning of Conflict.
Instrumental Conditioning and Token Economies.
Instrumental Conditioning and Biofeedback.
Conditioning Theories: Problems and Prospects.

13. Social-Cognitive Learning Theories.
Elaborations on Conditioning Processes.
Social Reinforcement.
Vicarious Emotional Arousal.
Vicarious Reinforcement.
Semantic Generalization.
Rule-Based Learning.
Expectancies Concerning Outcomes.
Locus-of-Control Expectancies.
Efficacy Expectancies.
Observational Learning.
Acquisition versus Performance.
Manifestations of Cognitive and Social Learning.
Modeling and Sex Role Acquisition.
Modeling of Aggression and the Issue of Media Violence.
Problems In Behavior, and Behavior Change.
Conceptualizing Behavioral Problems.
Modeling-Based Therapy for Skill Deficits.
Modeling and Responses to Fear.
Therapeutic Changes in Efficacy Expectancy.
Self-Instructions and Cognitive Behavior Modification.
Social-Cognitive Learning Theories: Problems and Prospects.

The Phenomenological Perspective: Major Themes and Underlying Assumptions.

14. Humanistic Psychology: Self-Actualization and Self-Determination.
The Need for Positive Regard.
Introjection and Identification.
Need for Relatedness.
Free Will.
The Self and Processes of Defense.
Incongruity, Disorganization, and Defense.
Self-Esteem Maintenance and Enhancement.
Self-Actualization and Maslow's Hierarchy of Motives.
Characteristics of Frequent Self-Actualizers.
The Peak Experience.
Existential Psychology: Being and Death.
The Existential Dilemma.
Terror Management.
Interviews in Assessment.
Measuring the Self-Concept by Q-Sort.
Measuring Self-Actualization.
Measuring Autonomy and Control.
Problems In Behavior, and Behavior Change.
Client-Centered Therapy.
Beyond Therapy, to Personal Growth.
Humanistic Theories: Problems and Prospects.

15. Personal Constructs.
Personal Constructs and Personality.
Using Constructs.
Constructs Are Bipolar.
The Role of Recurrences.
Range and Focus of Convenience.
Elaboration and Change in Construct Systems.
Organization among Constructs.
Individuality of Constructs.
Similarities and Differences between People.
Role Taking.
Personal Constructs and Behavioral Consistency.
Kelly's Role Construct Repertory Test.
Problems In Behavior, and Behavior Change.
Personal Constructs and Psychological Distress.
Dealing with Anxiety and Threat.
Fixed Role Therapy.
Personal Construct Theory: Problems and Prospects.

The Cognitive Self-Regulation Perspective: Major Themes andUnderlying Assumptions.

16. Contemporary Cognitive Views.
Representing Your Experience of the World.
Schemas and Their Development.
Effects of Schemas.
Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory, and Scripts.
Socially Relevant Schemas.
Entity and Incremental Schemas.
Activation and Use of Memories.
Connectionist Views of Mental Organization.
Dual Process Models.
Pulling the Pieces Together.
Cognitive Person Variables.
Personality as a Cognitive-Affective Processing System.
Think-Aloud, Experience Sampling, and Self-Monitoring.
Contextualized Assessment.
Diagnostic Categories as Prototypes.
Problems In Behavior, and Behavior Change.
Information Processing Deficits.
Depressive Self-Schemas.
Cognitive Therapy.
Contemporary Cognitive Theories: Problems and Prospects.

17. Self-Regulation.
From Cognition to Behavior.
Schemas for Action.
Automaticity in Action.
Implementation Intentions, and Deliberative and Implemental Mindsets.
Goals and Goal Setting.
Self-Regulation and Feedback Control.
Feedback Control.
Self-Directed Attention and the Action of the Comparator.
Hierarchical Organization.
Issues Concerning Hierarchical Organization.
Research on Hierarchies of Behavior.
Effects of Expectancies: Effort versus Disengagement.
Assessment of Self-Regulatory Qualities.
Assessment of Goals.
Problems In Behavior, and Behavior Change.
Problems as Conflicts among Goals, and Lack of Goal Specifications.
Problems from an Inability to Disengage.
Self-Regulation and the Process of Therapy.
Therapy is Training in Problem Solving.
Self-Regulation Theories: Problems and Prospects.


18 Overlap and Integration.
Similarities Among Perspectives.
Psychoanalysis and Evolutionary Psychology: The Structural Model.
Psychoanalysis and Evolutionary Psychology: Fixations and Mating Patterns.
Psychoanalysis and Conditioning.
Psychoanalysis and Self-Regulation: The Structural Model.
Psychoanalysis and Cognitive Processes.
Social Learning and Cognitive Self-Regulation Views.
Neoanalytic and Cognitive Self-Regulation Perspectives.
Maslow's Hierarchy and Hierarchies of Self-Regulation.
Self-Actualization and Self-Regulation.
Dispositions and Their Equivalents in Other Models.
Recurrent Themes, Viewed From Different Angles.
Impulse and Restraint.
Individual versus Group Needs.
Combining Perspectives.
An Example: Biology and Learning as Complementary Influences on Personality.
Which Theory Is Best?
Name Index.
Subject Index.

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