9780205263523

Persuasion, Social Influence, and Compliance Gaining

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780205263523

  • ISBN10:

    0205263526

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1998-09-01
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • View Upgraded Edition

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Summary

Persuasion, Social Influence, and Compliance Gaining looks at persuasion from a broad-based perspective, encompassing the full scope of persuasion as it is found in everyday life. This text examines persuasion in a variety of contexts and settings, including advertising, small groups, and face-to-face encounters. The text places special emphasis on newer avenues for studying persuasion, such as deception/deception detection and compliance gaining/compliance resisting. No other text provides this kind of breadth and depth of coverage. Linked to empirical research, Persuasion, Social Influence, and Compliance Gaining takes students from persuasion theory to qualified conclusions regarding the operation of persuasion in real-world settings. Praised for its highly accessible writing style, this text involves students and provides them with information and examples with which they can easily identify.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
1 Why Study Persuasion?
1(17)
Aims and Goals
2(1)
Persuasion Is Not a Dirty Word
3(1)
Persuasion Is Our Friend
3(1)
The Pervasiveness of Persuasion: You Can Run But You Can't Hide
4(3)
Persuasion in Science
4(1)
Persuasion in the Arts
5(1)
Persuasion in Interpersonal Settings
6(1)
The Knowledge Function: Enquiring Minds Want to Know
7(1)
Overcoming Habitual Persuasion
7(1)
Understanding Social Forces
8(1)
The Defensive Function: Duck and Cover
8(1)
The Debunking Function: Puh-Shaw
8(4)
Two Criticisms of Persuasion
12(2)
Does Learning about Persuasion Foster Manipulation?
12(1)
Are Persuasion Findings Too Inconsistent or Confusing?
13(1)
Ethical Concerns about the Use of Persuasion
14(2)
Summary
16(2)
2 What Constitutes Persuasion?
18(22)
Pure versus Borderline Cases of Persuasion
19(2)
Limiting Criteria for Defining Persuasion
21(8)
Intentionality
21(3)
Effects
24(1)
Degree of Free Choice or Free Will
25(2)
Symbolic Action
27(1)
Interpersonal versus Intrapersonal
28(1)
A Model of the Scope of Persuasion
29(1)
The Context for Persuasion
30(2)
A Working Definition of Persuasion
32(2)
So What Isn't Persuasion?
34(1)
The Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion
35(1)
Summary
36(4)
3 Attitudes and Attitude Measures
40(16)
In Fifteen Words or Less, What Is an "Attitude"?
41(1)
So How Do You Measure the Durn' Things?
41(11)
Standardized Self-Report Scales
43(2)
Visually Oriented Self-Report Scales
45(1)
Negative Attitudes toward Attitude Scales
45(1)
Can You Trust What You Can't See?
46(1)
Roundabout Methods of Measuring Attitudes
47(2)
Physiological Measures of Attitude
49(3)
The Persistence of Attitudes
52(1)
Summary
53(3)
4 Consistency and Commitment
56(18)
Attitudes as Associative Networks: Your Mind Is a Web
56(1)
Manufacturing Favorable Images and Associations: Jiggling the Web
57(3)
Sloganeering
58(1)
Sponsorship
59(1)
Psychological Consistency
60(6)
The Inner Peace of Consistency
60(1)
Methods of Maintaining Consistency
61(2)
Marketing Strategies: How to Have Your Cake and Eat It Too!
63(1)
Brand Loyalty: Accept No Substitute
63(1)
Write and Tell Us Why You Love This Book in 24 Words or Less
64(1)
Marketing Inconsistency
65(1)
Capitalizing on Inconsistency
66(1)
Cognitive Dissonance
66(6)
Cognitive Dissonance and Buyer's Remorse
67(1)
Cognitive Dissonance and Self-Image: I Gotta Be Me
67(1)
Forced Compliance and External Justifications
67(1)
Cognitive Dissonance and Counter-Attitudinal Advocacy
68(1)
Cognitive Dissonance and Commitment
69(1)
Commitments Can "Grow Legs"
70(2)
Summary
72(2)
5 Credibility
74(19)
Celebrity Selling Power: The Answer Is in the Stars
74(1)
Catch a Falling Star
75(1)
What is Credibility?
75(2)
Credibility Is a Receiver-Based Construct
76(1)
Credibility Is a Multidimensional Construct
76(1)
Credibility Is a Situational/Contextual Phenomenon
76(1)
Credibility Is Dynamic
77(1)
The Factor Analytic Approach to Credibility
77(5)
Primary Dimensions of Credibility
78(2)
Secondary Dimensions of Credibility
80(2)
The Factor Analytic Approach and the Real World
82(1)
Credibility as a Peripheral Cue
83(1)
The Sleeper Effect
84(2)
Credibility and Image Management
86(1)
Interpersonal Credibility, Impression Management, and Facework
87(1)
Strategies for Enhancing One's Credibility
88(2)
Summary
90(3)
6 Communicator Characteristics and Persuasibility
93(26)
Demographic Variables and Persuasion
94(7)
Age and Persuasion: Pretty Please with Sugar on Top
94(3)
Gender Differences and Persuasion: The Times, They Are a-Changin'
97(2)
Ethnicity, Culture, and Persuasion: "Me" and "We" Perspectives
99(1)
Intelligence and Persuasion: Dumb and Dumber
100(1)
Psychological and Communication States and Traits
101(11)
Self-Esteem and Persuasion: Feelin' Kinda Low
102(1)
Anxiety and Persuasion: Living in Fear
102(1)
Self-Monitoring and Persuasion: Periscope Up
103(2)
Ego-Involvement: Not Budging an Inch
105(2)
Dogmatism and Authoritarianism: You Can't Teach an Old Dog New Tricks
107(2)
Cognitive Complexity and Need for Cognition
109(1)
Persuasion and Aggression: Sticks and Stones
110(2)
Analyzing and Adapting to Audiences
112(2)
Summary
114(5)
7 Conformity and Influence in Groups
119(24)
Conformity as Persuasion: In with the Crowd
120(12)
In the Beginning: Early Research on Conformity Effects
121(2)
Variables Related to Conformity
123(7)
The Whys of Conformity
130(1)
Social Proof: Using the Sheep Factor to Persuade Others
131(1)
Deindividuation and Social Loafing: Getting Lost in the Crowd
132(3)
What a Riot: An Examination of Deindividuation
132(2)
Social Loafing: Not Pulling Your Own Weight
134(1)
How Groups Affect Decision Making: Taking it to the Extreme
135(3)
Summary
138(5)
8 Language and Persuasion
143(18)
Symbols, Meaning, and Persuasion: The Power of Babble
144(6)
Connotative and Denotative Meaning: That's Not How I See It
145(1)
Ultimate Terms: Speak of the Devil
145(2)
The Power of Labeling: Sticks and Stones
147(1)
Euphemisms and Doublespeak: Making the Worse Appear the Better and Vice Versa
148(2)
Language Intensity, Vividness, and Offensiveness
150(6)
##@**!!!!##: Profanity and Persuasion
150(1)
Political Correctness
151(1)
The Effects of Vividness: A Picture's Worth a Thousand Words
152(2)
Language Intensity
154(2)
Powerless Language and Persuasion: "Ums" the Word
156(1)
Summary
157(4)
9 Nonverbal Influence
161(21)
Types of Nonverbal Communication
163(14)
Kinesics: Head, Shoulders, Knees and Toes, Knees and Toes
163(5)
Haptics: Reach Out, Reach Out and Touch Someone
168(1)
Keep Your Distance? Proxemics and Persuasion
169(3)
Chronemics: All Good Things to Those Who Wait?
172(1)
The Effect of Artifacts: Dress for Success
173(1)
Physical Appearance: Of Beauties and Beasts
174(3)
Paralinguistics and Persuasion: Pump Up the Volume?
177(1)
Summary
177(5)
10 Structuring and Ordering Persuasive Messages
182(22)
Implicit and Explicit Conclusions: The Writing's on the Wall
183(1)
Quantity versus Quality of Arguments: The More the Merrier?
184(2)
Repetition and Mere Exposure: You Can Say That Again
186(2)
Order Effects and Persuasion: First Things First
188(1)
Primacy and Recency Effects: The First Shall Be Last and the Last Shall Be First
189(2)
One-Sided versus Two-Sided Messages: Both Sides Now
191(2)
Inoculation Theory: Of Needles and Arguments
193(3)
Forewarning: You'd Better Watch Out
196(4)
Summary
200(4)
11 Compliance Gaining
204(23)
Actions Speak the Loudest: A Definition of Compliance Gaining
205(1)
In the Beginning: The Roots of Compliance-Gaining Research
206(2)
Situation: The "It Depends" of Compliance-Gaining Behavior
208(7)
Seeking Compliance from Strangers and Intimates
212(1)
The Effects of Perceived Benefits: What's in It for Me?
213(1)
Power, Legitimacy, and Politeness
214(1)
Who Are You?: Individual Characteristics and Compliance-Gaining Behavior
215(2)
Problems Facing Compliance Research: Trouble in Paradise
217(3)
Problems with Typology Development: Here a Strategy, There a Strategy
217(1)
Creating versus Selecting and Other Methodological Problems
218(2)
New Directions: The Study of Compliance-Gaining Goals
220(2)
Primary and Secondary Goals: Wanting and Eating Your Cake
220(1)
Goals and Rules
221(1)
Summary
222(5)
12 Sequential Persuasion
227(16)
Pregiving: The Old "I'II Scratch Your Back If You'II Scratch Mine" Approach
228(1)
Foot in the Door: "The Give Me an Inch and I'll Take a Mile" Tactic
229(4)
Why Is a Foot in the Door so Persuasive?
231(1)
When Does a Foot in the Door Work?
232(1)
The Door in the Face Tactic "Ask For the Stars"
233(5)
Why is a Door in the Face So Persuasive?
234(2)
When Does a Door in the Face Work?
236(2)
Changing the Deal: The Lowball Tactic
238(2)
Why Lowballing Works
239(1)
Summary
240(3)
13 Deception
243(20)
What Is Deception? Lies and Damn Lies
244(3)
Telling Lies: The Enactment of Deception
247(6)
Theoretical Frameworks
247(4)
What Makes a Liar Persuasive?
251(2)
Detecting Deception: I Can See Right through You
253(5)
Factors That Influence Detection
254(3)
Cognitions and the Process of Deception Detection
257(1)
Summary
258(5)
14 Motivational Appeals
263(29)
Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation
264(1)
Logical and Emotional Appeals: A Fuzzy Distinction
264(1)
Fear Appeals: If You Don't Stop Doing That, You'll Go Blind
265(5)
Fear Level or Intensity: The Goosebump Factor
266(1)
The Extended Parallel Process Model: There's Nothing to Fear but Fear Itself
267(3)
Appeals to Pity and Guilt: Woe Is Me, Shame on You
270(3)
Humorous Appeals: Stop Me If You've Heard This One
273(5)
Humor as an Indirect Form of Influence
273(1)
Relatedness of Humor
274(1)
Humor and Credibility: Laugh Clown Laugh
274(1)
Self-Disparaging Humor: I Get No Respect
274(1)
Humor and Gender
275(1)
Humor as Social Proof: Smile and the World Smiles with You
275(1)
Is Humor Itself Persuasive?
276(2)
For Mature Audiences: Sex Appeals
278(2)
Caveats and Cautions
279(1)
Warmth Appeals: Straight from the Heart
280(1)
Ingratiation: "That's a Lovely Dress You're Wearing, Mrs. Cleaver"
281(2)
Mixed Emotions: Other Appeals and Combinations of Appeals
283(3)
Summary
286(6)
15 Esoteric Forms of Persuasion
292(27)
Subliminal Persuasion: Hidden Messages or Hokum?
292(8)
What Makes a Message Subliminal?
293(1)
Types of Subliminals
294(3)
Flaws in Subliminal Research
297(1)
Implicit Perception: Knowing Without Knowing It
298(1)
I Want to Believe
299(1)
What Advertisers Really Do
299(1)
Music as a Form of Persuasion
300(5)
Music as a Central and Peripheral Cue
300(1)
Music in Advertising and Sales
301(4)
Music Videos and Persuasion: I Want My MTV
305(1)
Cautions about Using Music to Persuade: Don't Try This at Home
305(1)
Aroma and Persuasion
306(7)
Perfume: Romance in a Bottle
307(1)
Love Stinks
307(2)
Ambient Aromas and Social Influence: Something Special In the Air
309(3)
Caveats and Qualifications
312(1)
What Will the Future Smell Like?
312(1)
Summary
313(6)
16 The Ethics of Persuasion
319(21)
Is Persuasion in General Unethical?
320(1)
The Motives Color the Means
320(2)
Ethics, Culture, and the Issue of Central versus Peripheral Processing
322(1)
Ethical Questions That Can't Be Answered through the Study of Persuasion
323(2)
Our Approach: Characteristics of Ethical Influence
325(5)
Ethics and Our Model of Persuasion
325(4)
Persuaders as Lovers
329(1)
Ethical Issues Arising from Previous Chapters
330(7)
Ethics and Credibility
330(1)
Ethics and Communicator Characteristics
331(1)
Ethics and Deception
332(1)
Ethics of Using Threats as a Compliance-Gaining Strategy
333(1)
Ethics and Fear Appeals
334(1)
Ethics and Emotional Appeals
335(1)
Ethics and Ingratiation
336(1)
Ethics and Subliminal Persuasion
336(1)
Summary
337(3)
Name Index 340(9)
Subject Index 349

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