9780833026828

Pesticides: Gulf War Illnesses Series A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses

by ; ; ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780833026828

  • ISBN10:

    0833026828

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2001-02-12
  • Publisher: RAND CORPORATION

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Summary

This report summarizes the scientific literature on 12 of the 35 pesticides that are likely to have been used during the Persian Gulf War. Where possible, it focuses on known pesticide exposures or doses and related health outcomes that may be relevant to symptoms reported by some Gulf War veterans. Evidence from studies of genetic and biological differences between ill and healthy subjects is suggestive, but not conclusive, that these pesticides could be among the potential contributing agents to some of the undiagnosed illnesses seen in Gulf War veterans. However, no prospective studies have been conducted that positively identify pesticides as causative agents. More research is needed to confirm or refute a causal link between pesticides and other agents and the symptoms associated with Gulf War illnesses.

Table of Contents

Preface v
Figures
xi
Tables
xiii
Summary xvii
Acknowledgments xxix
Acronyms and Abbreviations xxxi
Introduction
1(4)
Background
2(1)
Methods
2(1)
Organization of the Report
3(2)
Pesticides
5(10)
Background
5(2)
What Are Pesticides?
5(1)
Pesticide Regulation
6(1)
Pesticide Identity and Properties
7(4)
Pesticide Use in ODS/DS
11(4)
Health Problems in PGWV
15(10)
PGWV Report Health Problems
15(1)
Symptoms in PGWV
15(1)
Comment on Headache
16(1)
Increased Symptom Reporting in PGWV
17(4)
Factors Associated with Registry Participation
21(1)
Information from Epidemiological Investigations of Self-Reported Pesticide Exposure and Illness
22(3)
Lindane
25(14)
General Information
25(2)
Availability and Recommended Use of Lindane During ODS/DS
27(1)
Potential Health Effects of Lindane
27(10)
Lindane Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics
27(1)
Acute Effects
28(5)
Chronic, Reproductive, Genetic, and Carcinogenic Effects
33(4)
Synthesis
37(2)
DEET
39(14)
General Information
39(1)
Availability and Recommended Use of DEET During ODS/DS
40(1)
Potential Health Effects of DEET
41(9)
DEET Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics
41(1)
Exposure to DEET as Reviewed in the Scientific Literature
42(1)
Skin Permeation and Absorption of DEET
43(1)
Acute Effects
44(6)
Chronic, Reproductive, Genetic, and Carcinogenic Effects
50(1)
Synthesis
50(3)
Pyrethroids
53(18)
Permethrin
53(2)
General Information
53(1)
Availability and Recommended Use of Permethrin During ODS/DS
53(2)
Permethrin Residues
55(1)
Phenothrin
55(2)
General Information
55(1)
Availability and Recommended Use of d-Phenothrin During ODS/DS
56(1)
Environmental Characteristics of d-Phenothrin
56(1)
d-Phenothrin Residues
57(1)
Potential Health Effects of Pyrethroids
57(12)
Permethrin
58(4)
d-Phenothrin
62(7)
Synthesis
69(2)
Organophosphates and Carbamates
71(40)
Organophosphates
71(10)
Azamethiphos
71(1)
Chlorpyrifos
72(3)
Diazinon
75(1)
Dichlorvos
76(3)
Malathion
79(2)
Carbamates
81(6)
Bendiocarb
81(2)
Methomyl
83(1)
Propoxur
84(3)
Potential Health Effects of Organophosphates
87(20)
Acute Effects
89(5)
Chronic Effects
94(6)
Genetic Effects
100(4)
Reproductive Effects
104(1)
Carcinogenic Effects
105(2)
Potential Health Effects of Carbamates
107(3)
Genetic Effects
108(1)
Reproductive Effects
109(1)
Carcinogenic Effects
109(1)
Synthesis
110(1)
Confounding Factors: Individual Differences and Interactions
111(14)
Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Pesticides
111(4)
Exposure and Absorption Differences
111(1)
Clearance Differences
112(2)
Differences in Metabolizing Enzymes Among PGWV
114(1)
Nutritional and Other Cofactors
115(1)
Interactions
115(10)
General Issues
115(1)
Interactions Among DEET, PB, and Pesticides
116(2)
Interactions Among Pyrethroids, Organophosphates, and Carbamates
118(1)
Pesticide Formulations
119(1)
Pesticide Interactions with Drugs and Other Exposures
119(6)
Concluding Remarks
125(8)
General Comments
125(1)
The Possible Contribution of Pesticides to Health Problems Reported by PGWV
126(4)
Epidemiology
126(1)
Individual Differences
127(1)
Interactions
128(1)
Biological Plausibility and Clinical Evidence
128(2)
Concluding Observations
130(3)
Appendix: Comparison by Symptom Category of Subjects with AChE-Inhibitor Exposure (Organophosphate or Carbamate) and Ill PGWV 133(10)
Bibliography 143

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