Phillips' Science of Dental Materials

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  • Edition: 11th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2003-06-30
  • Publisher: Saunders
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The 11th edition of this leading reference is an outstanding, scientifically based source of information in the field of dental materials science. It presents up-to-date information on materials that are used in the dental office and laboratory every day, emphasizing practical, clinical use, as well as the physical, chemical, and biological properties of materials. Extensive new clinical photographs in this edition illustrate the topics, and color plates are integrated close to related concepts as they're discussed in each chapter. A new glossary of key terms found at the beginning of every chapter defines terms in the appropriate context of the chapter's discussion. Also in this edition, critical thinking questions throughout the book stimulate the readers' curiosity on specific topics, test their existing knowledge, and heighten their awareness of important or controversial subjects. Content outlines at the beginning of each chapter provide a quick reference for specific topics. The roles played by key organizations in ensuring the safety and efficacy of dental materials and devices are described such as the American Dental Association, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the International Organization for Standardization, and the Fédération Dentaire Internationale. Up-to-date Selected Readings are presented at the end of each chapter to direct readers to supplemental literature on each topic. Numerous boxes and tables throughout summarize and illustrate key concepts and compare characteristics and properties of various dental materials. Distinguished contributors lend their credibility and experience to the text. Content has been completely updated to include information on the most current dental materials available. Glossaries at the beginning of each chapter define key terms used within the context of that chapter. Revised artwork gives this edition a fresh look, with high-quality illustrations and clinical photos to aid in the visualization of materials and procedures described. Reorganization and consolidation of chapters into four major book parts presents the material in a more efficient way: Part I describes the principles of materials science that control the performance of dental materials in dental laboratories, research laboratories, student dental clinics, public health clinics, and private practice clinics. Part II focuses on impression materials, gypsum products, dental waxes, casting investments and procedures, and finishing and polishing abrasives and procedures. Part III provides an updated scientific and applied description of the composition, manipulation principles, properties, and clinical performance of bonded restorations, restorative resins, dental cements, dental amalgams, and direct-filling golds. Part IV presents a basic and applied description of materials that are processed in a laboratory or dental clinic. Critical thinking questions appear in every chapter to stimulate thinking and classroom discussion. The overall design has been improved to provide a more visually appealing format.

Table of Contents

General Classes and Properties of Dental Materials
Overview of Materials for Dental Applicationsp. 3
What Are Dental Materials?p. 4
Historical Use of Restorative Materialsp. 6
Standards for Dental Materialsp. 9
ADA Acceptance Programp. 9
General Provisions for ADA Acceptancep. 11
U.S. Food and Drug Administration Regulationsp. 13
International Standardsp. 14
ISO Standards, Subcommittees, and Working Groupsp. 15
Other Dental Standards Organizationsp. 16
How Safe Are Dental Restorative Materials?p. 18
Structure of Matter and Principles of Adhesionp. 21
Change of Statep. 22
Interatomic Primary Bondsp. 23
Interatomic Secondary Bondsp. 25
Interatomic Bond Distance and Bonding Energyp. 26
Thermal Energyp. 28
Crystalline Structurep. 30
Noncrystalline Solids and Their Structuresp. 32
Diffusionp. 33
Adhesion and Bondingp. 34
Adhesion to Tooth Structurep. 39
Physical Properties of Dental Materialsp. 41
What Are Physical Properties?p. 42
Abrasion and Abrasion Resistancep. 43
Viscosityp. 43
Structural and Stress Relaxationp. 45
Creep and Flowp. 46
Color and Color Perceptionp. 46
Thermophysical Propertiesp. 52
Introduction to Tarnish and Corrosionp. 56
Causes of Tarnish and Corrosionp. 57
Classification of Corrosionp. 57
Electrochemical Corrosionp. 58
Protection Against Corrosionp. 65
Corrosion of Dental Restorationsp. 65
Evaluation of Tarnish and Corrosion Resistancep. 66
Clinical Significance of Galvanic Currentsp. 69
Mechanical Properties of Dental Materialsp. 73
What Are Mechanical Properties?p. 74
Stresses and Strainsp. 75
Mechanical Properties Based on Elastic Deformationp. 79
Strength Propertiesp. 85
Mechanical Properties of Tooth Structurep. 92
Mastication Forces and Stressesp. 93
Other Mechanical Propertiesp. 94
Stress Concentration Factorsp. 99
Criteria for Selection of Restorative Materialsp. 100
Solidification and Microstructure of Metalsp. 103
Metalsp. 104
Metallic Bondsp. 107
Alloysp. 107
Solidification of Metalsp. 108
Equilibrium Phases in Cast Alloysp. 119
Classification of Alloysp. 120
Solid Solutionsp. 121
Constitution or Equilibrium Phase Diagramsp. 124
Eutectic Alloysp. 130
Physical Propertiesp. 134
Peritectic Alloysp. 134
Solid State Reactionsp. 135
Other Binary Systemsp. 139
Ternary and Higher-Order Alloy Systemsp. 140
Dental Polymersp. 143
Applications of Resins in Dentistryp. 144
Classificationp. 144
Requisites for Dental Resinsp. 145
Physical Properties of Polymersp. 150
Chemistry of Polymerizationp. 154
Copolymerizationp. 162
Acrylic Dental Resinsp. 163
Biocompatibility of Dental Materialsp. 171
Biocompatibility: Historical Backgroundp. 172
Adverse Effects from Dental Materialsp. 174
Biological Response in the Dental Environmentp. 181
Measuring the Biocompatibility of Materialsp. 188
Current Biocompatibility Issues in Dentistryp. 194
Clinical Guidelines for Selecting Biocompatible Materialsp. 200
Auxiliary Dental Materials
Impression Materialsp. 205
Impression Materials: Purpose and Requirementsp. 207
Materials Used for Making Impressionsp. 208
Elastomeric Impression Materialsp. 210
Elastomeric Impression Materials: Chemistry and Compositionp. 212
Elastomeric Materials: Making an Impressionp. 216
Elastomeric Impression Materials: Propertiesp. 223
Hydrocolloidsp. 231
Agar (Reversible) Hydrocolloidsp. 234
Alginate (Irreversible) Hydrocolloidsp. 239
Other Applications and Handling of Hydrocolloidsp. 245
Inelastic Impression Materialsp. 248
Impression Compoundp. 250
Zinc Oxide-Eugenol (ZOE) Impression Pastesp. 251
Gypsum Productsp. 255
Uses of Gypsum in Dentistryp. 255
Dental Plaster and Stonep. 257
Setting of Gypsum Productsp. 258
Setting Reactionsp. 259
Tests for Working, Setting, and Final Setting Timesp. 261
Control of the Setting Timep. 264
Setting Expansionp. 266
Accelerators and Retarders: Practice and Theoryp. 268
Hygroscopic Setting Expansionp. 270
Strengthp. 271
Types of Gypsum Productsp. 273
Proportioning, Mixing, and Caring for Gypsum Productsp. 276
Infection Controlp. 280
Dental Waxesp. 283
Types of Inlay Waxp. 284
Compositionp. 285
Desirable Propertiesp. 286
Flowp. 287
Thermal Propertiesp. 288
Wax Distortionp. 289
Manipulation of Inlay Waxp. 290
Other Dental Waxesp. 292
Casting Investments and Proceduresp. 295
Gypsum-Bonded Investmentp. 296
Phosphate-Bonded Investmentp. 309
Ethyl Silicate-Bonded Investmentp. 313
Clinical Evaluation of Casting Fitp. 314
Compensation for Solidification Shrinkagep. 316
Preparation of the Master Diep. 316
Methods of Altering Die Dimensionsp. 317
Variables and Principles of Optimal Sprue Designp. 319
Casting Ring Linerp. 323
Investing Procedurep. 324
Casting Procedurep. 326
Technical Considerations for Phosphate-Bonded Investmentp. 336
Causes of Defective Castingsp. 337
Finishing and Polishing Materialsp. 351
Benefits of Finishing and Polishing Restorative Materialsp. 352
Principles of Cutting, Grinding, Finishing, and Polishingp. 352
Abrasion and Erosionp. 358
Abrasive Instrument Designp. 361
Types of Abrasivesp. 367
Finishing and Polishing Proceduresp. 371
Dentifricesp. 373
Direct Restorative Materials
Bondingp. 381
Mechanisms of Adhesionp. 382
Acid-Etch Techniquep. 382
Dentin Bonding Agentsp. 386
Measurement of Bond Strength and Microleakagep. 394
Glass Ionomer Restorativesp. 395
Amalgam Bondingp. 396
Pit and Fissure Sealantsp. 396
Restorative Resinsp. 399
Aesthetic Restorative Materialsp. 400
Composite Restorative Materialsp. 401
Curing of Resin-Based Compositesp. 410
Classification of Resin-Based Compositesp. 417
Composites for Posterior Restorationsp. 428
Use of Composites for Resin Veneersp. 433
Finishing of Compositesp. 434
Biocompatibility of Compositesp. 436
Repair of Compositesp. 437
Survival Probability of Compositesp. 437
Dental Cementsp. 443
Dental Cementsp. 445
Fluoride-Releasing Cements for Direct-Filling Restorationsp. 446
Cements as Luting Agentsp. 449
Agents for Pulp Protectionp. 458
Zinc Phosphate Cementp. 461
Zinc Polycarboxylate Cementp. 466
Glass Ionomer Cementp. 471
Metal-Reinforced Glass Ionomer Cementsp. 479
Highly Viscous Conventional Glass Ionomer Cementp. 481
Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (Hybrid Ionomer)p. 482
Compomerp. 484
Resin Cementsp. 486
Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cementp. 489
Calcium Hydroxidep. 491
Solubility and Disintegration of Cementsp. 492
Summaryp. 493
Dental Amalgamsp. 495
Alloy Compositionp. 496
Manufacture of Alloy Powderp. 500
Amalgamation and Resulting Microstructuresp. 502
Dimensional Stabilityp. 508
Strengthp. 511
Creepp. 515
Clinical Performance of Amalgam Restorationsp. 516
Factors Affecting Success of Amalgam Restorationsp. 520
Mercury/Alloy Ratiop. 521
Mechanical Triturationp. 523
Condensationp. 527
Carving and Finishingp. 530
Clinical Significance of Dimensional Changep. 531
Side Effects of Mercuryp. 535
Marginal Deteriorationp. 538
Repaired Amalgam Restorationsp. 540
Direct Filling Goldp. 545
History of Gold Foil Used as a Tooth-Filling Materialp. 546
Properties of Pure Goldp. 546
Forms of Direct Filling Goldp. 547
Gold Foilp. 548
Electrolytic Precipitatep. 550
Granular (Powdered) Goldp. 551
Removal of Surface Impuritiesp. 551
Compaction of Direct Filling Goldp. 553
Physical Properties of Compacted Goldp. 556
The Direct Gold Restorationp. 558
Indirect Restorative and Prosthetic Materials
Dental Casting and Soldering Alloysp. 563
Historical Perspective on Dental Casting Alloysp. 564
Desirable Properties of Dental Casting Alloysp. 567
Classification of Dental Casting Alloysp. 570
Alloys for All-Metal and Resin-Veneered Restorationsp. 574
High Noble and Noble Alloys for Metal-Ceramic Prosthesesp. 580
Base Metal Alloys for Cast Metal and Metal-Ceramic Prosthesesp. 594
Biological Hazards and Precautions: Risks for Dental Laboratory Techniciansp. 596
Guidelines for Selection and Use of Base Metals for Crown and Bridge Applicationsp. 598
Partial Denture Alloys and Guidelines for Selectionp. 604
Alternatives to Cast Metal Technologyp. 605
Soldering of Dental Alloysp. 608
Heat Sources for Solderingp. 612
Technique Considerations for Solderingp. 614
Radiographic Analysis of Solder Joint Qualityp. 616
Laser Welding of Commercially Pure Titaniump. 616
Cast-Joining Processp. 617
Wrought Alloysp. 621
Deformation of Metalsp. 622
Effects of Annealing Cold-Worked Metalp. 633
Carbon Steelsp. 636
Stainless Steelsp. 637
Corrosion Resistance and Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steelp. 639
Soldering and Welding of Stainless Steelp. 643
Cobalt-Chromium-Nickel Alloysp. 645
Nickel-Titanium Alloysp. 646
Beta-Titanium Alloysp. 649
Other Wrought Alloysp. 652
Dental Ceramicsp. 655
What Are Ceramics?p. 657
History of Dental Ceramicsp. 660
Classification of Dental Ceramicsp. 663
Ceramic Processing Methodsp. 664
Metal-Ceramic Prosthesesp. 666
Ceramic Prosthesesp. 680
Methods of Strengthening Ceramicsp. 697
Abrasiveness of Dental Ceramicsp. 704
Clinical Performance of Ceramic Prosthesesp. 710
Porcelain Denture Teethp. 711
Factors Affecting the Color of Ceramicsp. 711
Chemical Attack of Glass-Phase Ceramics by Acidulated Phosphate Fluoridep. 713
Criteria for Selection and Use of Dental Ceramicsp. 714
Denture Base Resinsp. 721
Heat-Activated Denture Base Resinsp. 722
Compression Molding Techniquep. 724
Polymer-Monomer Interactionp. 727
Chemically Activated Denture Base Resinsp. 734
Light-Activated Denture Base Resinsp. 737
Physical Properties of Denture Base Resinsp. 738
Miscellaneous Resins and Techniquesp. 747
Resin Teeth for Prosthetic Applicationsp. 754
Materials for Maxillofacial Prostheticsp. 755
Dental Implantsp. 759
History of Dental Implantsp. 760
Classification of Implantsp. 761
Implant Componentsp. 766
Clinical Success of Dental Implantsp. 767
Implant Materialsp. 768
Selecting an Implant Materialp. 774
Biocompatibility of Implantsp. 777
Biomechanicsp. 778
Summaryp. 780
Appendixp. 783
Indexp. 785
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