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Philosophy : The Basics,9780415146944

Philosophy : The Basics

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780415146944

ISBN10:
0415146941
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/21/1999
Publisher(s):
Routledge
List Price: $17.95
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Summary

Philosophy: The Basicsisthebook for anyone coming to philosophy for the first time. Nigel Warburton's popular book gently eases the reader into the world of philosophy. Each chapter considers a key area of philosophy, explaining and exploring the basic ideas and themes. The third edition updates and expands the main text, and is the perfect companion toPhilosophy: Basic Reading. These two books will together make for an ideal and straight forward introduction to philosophy.

Author Biography

Nigel Warburton is a lecturer in Philosophy at the Open University.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Introductionp. 1
Philosophy and its historyp. 2
Why study philosophy?p. 3
Is philosophy difficult?p. 5
The limits of what philosophy can dop. 6
How to use this bookp. 6
Further readingp. 7
Internet resourcesp. 9
Godp. 11
The Design Argumentp. 12
Criticisms of the Design Argumentp. 13
Fine Tuningp. 15
Criticism of Fine Tuningp. 16
The First Cause Argumentp. 16
Critisms of the First Cause Argumentp. 17
The Ontological Argumentp. 18
Criticisms of the Ontological Argumentp. 19
Knowledge, proof and the existence of Godp. 20
The Problem of Evilp. 21
Attempted solutions to the Problem of Evilp. 22
The Free Will Defencep. 24
Criticisms of the Free Will Defencep. 24
The argument from miraclesp. 27
Hume on miraclesp. 27
The Gambler's Argument: Pascal's Wagerp. 30
Criticisms of the Gambler's Argumentp. 31
Non-realism about Godp. 32
Criticisms of non-realism about Godp. 33
Faithp. 33
Deathp. 35
Criticism of Epicurusp. 36
Would immortality be tedious?p. 36
Criticism of the tedium of immortalityp. 36
Conclusionp. 37
Further readingp. 37
Right and wrongp. 39
Duty-based theoriesp. 40
Christian ethicsp. 40
Criticisms of Christian ethicsp. 41
Kantian ethicsp. 42
Criticisms of Kantian ethicsp. 46
Consequentialismp. 48
Utilitarianismp. 48
Criticisms of utilitarianismp. 49
Negative utilitarianismp. 52
Criticism of negative utilitarianismp. 53
Rule utilitarianismp. 53
Virtue theoryp. 54
Criticisms of virtue theoryp. 55
Applied ethicsp. 56
Ethics and meta-ethicsp. 59
Naturalismp. 59
Criticisms of naturalismp. 60
Moral relativismp. 62
Criticisms of moral relativismp. 62
Emotivismp. 63
Criticisms of emotivismp. 64
Conclusionp. 65
Further readingp. 66
Politicsp. 67
Equalityp. 67
Equal distribution of moneyp. 69
Criticisms of equal distribution of moneyp. 69
Equal opportunity in employmentp. 71
Reverse discriminationp. 72
Criticisms of reverse discriminationp. 73
Political equality: democracyp. 74
Direct democracyp. 74
Representative democracyp. 75
Criticisms of democracyp. 75
Freedomp. 77
Negative freedomp. 77
Criticisms of negative freedomp. 78
Positive freedomp. 79
Freedom of speechp. 80
Criticisms of Mill on free speechp. 81
Removing freedom: punishmentp. 82
Punishment as retributionp. 82
Criticisms of retributivismp. 83
Deterrencep. 83
Criticisms of deterrencep. 84
Protection of societyp. 84
Criticisms of protection of societyp. 85
Reformp. 85
Criticisms of reformp. 86
Civil disobediencep. 86
Criticisms of civil disobediencep. 88
Conclusionp. 90
Further readingp. 90
The external worldp. 92
Common-sense realismp. 92
Scepticism about the evidence of the sensesp. 93
The Illusion Argumentp. 93
Criticisms of the Illusion Argumentp. 94
Could I be dreaming?p. 95
Hallucinationp. 96
Memory and logicp. 98
I think therefore I amp. 99
Criticism of the Cogitop. 99
Representative realismp. 99
Criticisms of representative realismp. 101
Idealismp. 102
Criticisms of idealismp. 103
Phenomenalismp. 105
Criticisms of phenomenalismp. 106
Causal realismp. 107
Criticisms of causal realismp. 108
Conclusionp. 109
Further readingp. 109
Sciencep. 110
The simple view of scientific methodp. 111
Criticisms of the simple viewp. 112
The Problem of Inductionp. 114
Attempted solutions to the Problem of Inductionp. 118
Falsificationism: conjecture and refutationp. 120
Criticisms of falsificationismp. 122
Scientismp. 124
Criticism of scientismp. 125
Conclusionp. 125
Further readingp. 125
Mindp. 127
Philosophy of mind and psychologyp. 127
The Mind/Body Problemp. 128
Zombiesp. 128
Dualismp. 129
Criticisms of dualismp. 130
Dualism without interactionp. 132
Physicalismp. 133
Type-identity theoryp. 134
Criticisms of type-identity theoryp. 135
Token-identity theoryp. 137
Criticisms of token-identity theoryp. 138
Behaviourismp. 138
Criticisms of behaviourismp. 139
Functionalismp. 142
Criticism of functionalismp. 143
Other Mindsp. 144
The argument from analogyp. 144
Criticisms of the argument from analogyp. 145
Conclusionp. 146
Further readingp. 146
Artp. 148
Can art be defined?p. 149
The family resemblance viewp. 149
Criticisms of the family resemblance viewp. 149
The significant form theoryp. 150
Criticisms of the significant form theoryp. 151
The idealist theoryp. 152
Criticisms of the idealist theoryp. 152
The institutional theoryp. 153
Criticisms of the institutional theoryp. 154
Art criticismp. 156
Anti-intentionalismp. 156
Criticisms of anti-intentionalismp. 157
Performance, interpretation, authenticityp. 158
Historical authenticity in performancep. 159
Criticisms of historical authenticity in performancep. 159
Forgeries and artistic valuep. 160
Conclusionp. 164
Further readingp. 164
Indexp. 165
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