9780495007128

Philosophy The Pursuit of Wisdom

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780495007128

  • ISBN10:

    0495007129

  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2005-10-25
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning

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Summary

Can philosophy be fun? With PHILOSOPHY: THE PURSUIT OF WISDOM it most certainly is. Because of its lively writing style and clear presentation, this introduction to philosophy textbook is both interesting and informative. You'll discover all the major philosophical theories, as well as tackle hot topics like the existence of God, the free will/determinism debate, and the meaning of life.

Table of Contents

Preface ix
A Personal Word to the Student xiii
PART I INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY 1(58)
1 What Is Philosophy?
2(12)
2 A Little Bit of Logic
14(14)
Deductive and Inductive Reasoning
14(5)
Abductive Reasoning
19(2)
Some Applications
21(1)
Fallacies of Reasoning
22(2)
Box: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
24(4)
3 The Beginning of Philosophy: The Ancient Greeks
28(15)
The Milesians
28(3)
Pythagoras
31(2)
The Eleatics
33(3)
Heracleitus
36(2)
The Pluralists: Empedocles and the Atomists
38(1)
Anaxagoras of Klazomenae
39(4)
4 The Rise of the Sophists and Socrates
43(16)
The Rise of the Sophists
43(5)
Socrates: The Father of Ethics—Knowledge Is Virtue
48(8)
Box: Plato
56(3)
PART II PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION 59(76)
5 The Value of Religion: An Introduction
60(9)
Terminology
65(4)
6 The Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God: A First Cause
69(9)
Traditional Arguments for the Existence of God
69(1)
The Cosmological Argument
70(2)
The Argument from Contingency
72(6)
7 The Teleological Argument for the Existence of God
78(8)
Paley's Argument
78(1)
Hume's Critique
79(3)
The Danvinian Objection
82(4)
8 The Ontological Argument for the Existence of God
86(8)
9 The Argument from Religious Experience
94(13)
Encounters with God
95(1)
An Analysis of Religious Experience
95(3)
A Critique of the Strong Justification Thesis
98(9)
10 The Problem of Evil
107(12)
The Mystery of Evil
107(11)
The Argument from Evil
118
The Free-Will Defense
110(2)
The Theodicy Defense
112(3)
Evolution and Evil
115(4)
11 Faith and Reason
119(16)
Pragmatic Justification of Religious Belief
120(3)
Fideism: Faith Without/Against Reason
123(3)
Reformed Epistemology: Alvin Plantinga
126(9)
PART III THE THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE 135(34)
12 What Can We Know? An Introduction
136(14)
Knowledge and Its Types
136(2)
What Is Truth?
138(2)
Knowledge and Belief
140(4)
Types of Knowledge
144(6)
13 Skepticism
150(7)
The Challenge of Skepticism
150(7)
14 Perception: Can We Have Knowledge of the External World?
157(12)
PART IV PHILOSOPHY OF MIND 169(48)
15 The Mind-Body Problem
170(13)
Dualistic Interactionism
170(5)
A Critique of Dualistic Interactionism
175(3)
Dualism Revived
178(1)
Box: The Mind-Body Problem
179(4)
16 Materialist Monism
183(8)
17 Functionalism and Biological Naturalism
191(7)
Box: Intentionality
195(3)
18 Who Am I? The Problem of Personal Identity
198(9)
What Is It to Be a Person?
199(1)
What Is Identity?
200(1)
What Is Personal Identity?
201(6)
19 Is There Life After Death? Personal Identity and Immortality
207(10)
Box: Reincarnation
213(4)
PART V FREEDOM OF THE WILL AND DETERMINISM 217(28)
20 Determinism
219(6)
Universal Causality
220(3)
Teleological Determinism
223(2)
21 Libertarianism
225(8)
The Argument from Deliberation
225(5)
The Argument from Moral Responsibility
230(3)
22 Compatibilism: How to Have Your
Cake and Eat It Too
233(1)
A Reconciling Project
233(3)
A Critique of Compatibilism: A "Quagmire of Evasion"?
236(1)
The Argument Against Compatibilism from Moral Responsibility
236(5)
The Compatibilist Response
241(4)
PART VI ETHICS 245(96)
23 What Is Ethics?
246(10)
Why Do We Need Morality?
250(2)
The Purposes of Morality
252(4)
24 Ethical Relativism Versus Ethical Objectivism
256(13)
An Analysis of Ethical Relativism
258(1)
Subjective Ethical Relativism (Subjectivism)
259(1)
Conventional Ethical Relativism (Conventionalism)
260(3)
The Case for Ethical Objectivism
263(6)
25 Egoism, Self-Love, and Altruism
269(12)
Arguments for Ethical Egoism
272(2)
Arguments Against Ethical Egoism
274(2)
Evolution and Altruism
276(5)
26 Utilitarianism and the Structure of Ethics
281(14)
What Is Utilitarianism?
284(3)
The Strengths and Weaknesses of Utilitarianism
287(2)
Utilitarian Reponses to the Standard Objections
289(6)
27 Kantian Deontological Ethics
295(14)
Immanuel Kant's Rationalist Deontological System
296(2)
The Goodwill
298(1)
Duty and the Moral Law
299(4)
Kant's Second Formulation of the Categorical Imperative
303(2)
The Principle of Autonomy
305(4)
28 Virtue Ethics
309(17)
Aretaic Ethics
309(3)
The Aretaic Critique of Action-Based Ethical Systems
312(2)
Aristotle's Virtue Ethics
314(2)
What Is the Relationship Between Virtue and Principles?
316(4)
The Standard Deontic View's Responses to the Aretaic Critique
320(6)
29 Religion and Ethics
326(15)
Does Morality Depend on Religion?
327(4)
Is Religion Irrelevant or Even Inimical to Morality?
331(3)
Does Religion Enhance the Moral Life?
334(7)
PART VII EXISTENTIALISM AND THE MEANING OF LIFE 341(32)
30 Existentialism and the Meaning of Life
342(20)
The-Three Theses of Existentialism
345(13)
Assessment
358(4)
31 The Meaning of Life and the Fear of Death
362(11)
Appendix: How to Read and Write a Philosophy Paper 373(2)
Glossary 375(7)
Credits 382(1)
Index 383

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