9780471598732

Physical Ceramics Principles for Ceramic Science and Engineering

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780471598732

  • ISBN10:

    0471598739

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1996-05-14
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

Designed to provide students with the core understanding necessary to pursue the subject of ceramics as it now exists and to be prepared for any surprises likely to emerge. Key concepts are developed in a sequence which builds on firm foundations, using the material learned so that its significance is continuously reinforced. The nature of defects which intrudes upon the perfect geometry of ideal crystal structures, migration of matter and charge, chemical and phase equilibria are among the subjects discussed.

Author Biography

Yet-Ming Chiang and Dunbar P. Birnie are the authors of Physical Ceramics: Principles for Ceramic Science and Engineering, published by Wiley.

Table of Contents

Structure of Ceramics
1(100)
Assumed Knowledge
2(1)
Close-Packed Lattices
3(6)
FCC and HCP Lattices
3(4)
Location and Density of Interstitial Sites
7(1)
Sites Between Two Close-Packed Layers
7(1)
Three-Dimensional Arrangements of Interstitial Sites
8(1)
Stability of Ionic Crystals
9(10)
The Madelung Constant
9(4)
Pauling's Rules
13(6)
Ceramic Crystal Structures
19(53)
FCC Based Structures
23(1)
Rocksalt
23(1)
Anti-Fluorite and Fluorite
24(3)
Zincblende
27(2)
Special Topic: Polymorphs and Polytypes
29(2)
HCP Based Structures
31(1)
Wurtzite
31(1)
Corundum
32(2)
Ilmenite and Lithium Niobate
34(3)
Rutile
37(1)
Perovskite
38(4)
Special Topic: Ferroelectrics and Piezoelectrics
42(7)
Spinel
49(3)
Special Topic: Magnetic Ceramics
52(7)
Perovskite/Rocksalt Derivatives: Cuprate Superconductors
59(6)
Special Topic: Structure, Conductivity, and Superconductivity
65(3)
Covalent Ceramics
68(1)
Silicon Nitride
68(1)
Oxynitrides: Charge Compensating Solid Solutions
69(3)
Crystalline Silicates
72(8)
Oxygen/Silicon Ratio
73(1)
Clay Minerals
73(7)
Glass Structure
80(21)
Glass Formation
80(3)
Continuous Random Networks
83(2)
Random Close-Packing
Radial Distribution Function
85(2)
Oxide Glasses
87(4)
Borates and Borosilicates
91(2)
Additional Reading
93(2)
Problems
95(6)
Defects In Ceramics
101(84)
Point Defects
102(34)
Intrinsic Ionic Disorder
104(1)
Concentration of Intrinsic Defects
105(2)
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Behavior
107(3)
Units for Defect Concentration
110(1)
Special Topic: Kroger-Vink Notation
110(1)
Defect Chemical Reactions
111(2)
Solute Incorporation
113(2)
Electrons, Holes, and Defect Ionization
115(1)
Oxidation and Reduction Reactions
116(1)
Extent of Nonstoichiometry
117(1)
Electronic Disorder
118(1)
Bandgaps
119(1)
Concentration of Intrinsic Electrons and Holes
119(6)
Example: Intrinsic Electronic and Ionic Defect Concentrations in MgO and NaCl
125(1)
Donors and Acceptors
126(3)
Electronic vs. Ionic Compensation of Solutes
129(2)
Special Topic: Point Defects and Crystalline Density in ZrO2
131(2)
Special Topic: Color and Color Centers
133(3)
Simultaneous Defect Equilibria: The Brouwer Diagram
136(10)
Special Topic: Some Simple Procedures for Constructing a Brouwer Diagram
141(1)
Special Topic: Oxygen Sensors based on Nonstoichiometric TiO2
142(4)
Defect Association and Precipitation
146(9)
Point Defect Association
146(2)
Precipitation
148(4)
Debye-Huckel Corrections
152(1)
Special Topic: Cation Nonstoichiometry, Disorder, and Defect
Energetics in Lithium Niobate
152(3)
Interactions Between Point Defects and Interfaces
155(10)
Ionic Space Charge Potential
157(1)
Intrinsic Potential
157(1)
Extrinsic Potential
158(7)
Line and Planare Defects
165(20)
Dislocations
166(5)
Grain Boundaries
171(1)
Special Boundaries
172(4)
General Boundaries
176(1)
Boundary Films
176(6)
Additional Reading
182(1)
Problems
183(2)
Mass and Electrical Transport
185(78)
Continuum Diffusion Kinetics
186(5)
Atomistic Diffusion Processes
191(20)
Random Walk Diffusion
192(1)
Diffusion as a Thermally Activated Process
193(2)
Types of Diffusion Coefficients
195(6)
Diffusion in Lightly-Doped NaCl
201(1)
Diffusion in a Highly Stoichiometric Oxide: MgO
202(3)
Diffusion in Cation-Deficient Oxides: the Transition Metal Monoxides
205(3)
Diffusion in a Highly Defective Oxide: Cubic Stabilized ZrO2
208(3)
Electrical Conductivity
211(22)
Relationship Between Mobility and Diffusivity
212(4)
Ionic and Electronic Conductivity
216(1)
Cobalt Oxide: a p-Type Electronic Conductor
217(2)
Mixed Electronic-Ionic Conduction in MgO
219(2)
Ionic Conduction in Cubic ZrO2
221(1)
Conductivity in SrTiO3
222(3)
Special Topic: Nonlinear Conducting Ceramics: Varistors and Thermistors
225(8)
The Electrochemical Potention
233(30)
The Nernst Equation and Application to Ionic Conductors Ambipolar Diffusion
236(2)
Equilibration of Defect Structures
238(4)
Ambipolar Diffusion in Sintering
242(3)
Special Topic: Diffusional Creep as an Example of Ambipolar Diffusion
245(6)
Special Topic: Kinetic Demixing
251(5)
Additional Reading
256(1)
Problems
256(7)
Phase Equilibria
263(88)
Thermodynamic Equilibrium
263(4)
Special Topic: Metastability in Carbon: Diamond and Diamond-like Materials
265(2)
The Gibbs Phase Rule
267(4)
Binary Phase Diagrams
271(22)
Complete Solid Solution
271(2)
Limited Solid Solution
273(1)
Binary Eutectic System
273(4)
Intermediate Compounds
Special Topic: Free Energy Curves and the Common Tangent Construction
277(6)
Peritectic Diagrams and Incongruent Melting
283(2)
Subsolidus Phase Equilibria
285(2)
Solidus and Liquidus Temperatures
287(1)
Variable Valence Systems: Example in Fe-O
288(2)
Binary Lever Rule
290(1)
Special Topic: Crystal Growth and Phase Equilibria
291(2)
Features of Ternary Phase Diagrams
293(14)
Reading Compositions
294(1)
Example: SiO2-Al2O3-``FeO''
295(2)
Primary Phase Fields
297(1)
Congruently and Incongruently Melting Compounds
297(2)
Boundary Curves and Temperature Contours
299(1)
Ternary Invariant Points
300(1)
Compatibility Triangles
301(1)
Solidus Temperatures
301(1)
Liquid-Liquid Immiscibility
302(1)
Special Topic: Reciprocal Salt Diagrams
302(5)
Operations Using Ternary Diagrams
307(11)
Constructing Binary Diagrams from Ternary Diagrams
307(1)
Example: ``FeO''-SiO2 Binary Diagram
308(2)
Constructing Isothermal Sections
310(5)
The Ternary Lever Rule
315(3)
Reactions Upon Heating and Cooling
318(33)
Ternary Eutectic Reaction
318(1)
Ternary Peritectic Reaction
319(2)
Reactions Upon Heating
321(1)
Heating Through a Ternary Eutectic
322(5)
Heating Through a Ternary Peritectic
327(5)
Equilibrium Crystallization Paths
332(1)
Eutectic Solidification
332(3)
Crystallization with Partial Resorption
335(5)
Nonequilibrium Crystallization
340(2)
Special Topic: Porcelain
342(3)
Additional Reading
345(1)
Problems
345(6)
Microstructure
351(164)
Capillarity
351(20)
Pressure Due to Curved Surfaces
354(2)
Chemical Potential Changes at Curved Surfaces
356(4)
Wetting and Dihedral Angles
360(8)
Special Topic: Rayleigh Instability and Microstructures
368(3)
Grain Growth and Coarsening
371(21)
Grain Boundary Migration and Grain Growth
372(16)
Particle Coarsening (Ostwald Ripening)
388(4)
Single Phase Sintering
392(29)
Viscous Sintering
392(6)
Crystalline Ceramics
398(6)
Later Stage Sintering
404(5)
Packing, Agglomeration, and Pore Growth
409(4)
Special Topic: Magnesia-doped Alumina
413(8)
Reactive Additive Sintering
421(8)
Hot-Pressing
429(1)
Glasses and Glass-Ceramics
430(36)
Crystallization and Glass Formation
431
Controlled Crystallization in Glass-Ceramics
430(19)
Phase Separation
449(11)
Multiple Phase Separation
460(4)
Special Topic: Thermal Shock Resistance
464(2)
Composite Properties
466(11)
Rules of Mixing
468(6)
Percolation
474(3)
Strength and Toughness
477(38)
Brittle Fracture
478(3)
Stress Intensity Factor and Fracture Toughness
481(4)
Variability in Strength
485(1)
Surface Flaws
486(1)
Microstructural Toughening
487(1)
Transformation Toughened Zirconia
488(4)
Other Flaw-Tolerant Microstructures
492(2)
Silicon Nitride
494(2)
Fiber- and Whisker-Reinforced Ceramics
496(4)
Additional Reading
500(1)
Problems
501(14)
Index 515

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