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Physical Geology : Earth Revealed,9780072826968
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Physical Geology : Earth Revealed

by ; ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780072826968

ISBN10:
0072826967
Media:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
12/1/2004
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill College
List Price: $9,999.99
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Summary

This text, which includes the same information as the market-leading Physical Geology 9th edition, is for the professor who wants to use the same valuable information and engaging format but in a different teaching sequence. Coverage of plate tectonics is moved to the beginning of the book. The text is also used as the official Annenberg CPB distributed telecourse for physical geology. The beautiful new art program and interactive writing style will grab students' attention and further their interest in the subject.

Table of Contents

Meet the Authorsp. ii
Prefacep. x
The Learning Systemp. xii
Introduction to Physical Geologyp. 2
Who Needs Geology?p. 4
Avoiding Geologic Hazardsp. 6
Supplying Things We Needp. 7
Protecting the Environmentp. 8
Understanding Our Surroundingsp. 11
An Overview of Physical Geology--Important Conceptsp. 11
Internal Processes: How the Earth's Internal Heat Engine Worksp. 14
The Earth's Interiorp. 15
The Theory of Plate Tectonicsp. 16
Surficial Processes: The Earth's External Heat Enginep. 18
Geologic Timep. 21
Summaryp. 22
Terms to Rememberp. 23
Testing Your Knowledgep. 23
Expanding Your Knowledgep. 24
Exploring Resourcesp. 24
Interacting with Journey Through Geology CD-ROMp. 25
The Earth's Interiorp. 26
Evidence from Seismic Wavesp. 28
The Earth's Internal Structurep. 29
The Earth's Crustp. 30
The Mantlep. 30
The Corep. 32
Isostasyp. 35
Gravity Measurementsp. 37
The Earth's Magnetic Fieldp. 39
Magnetic Reversalsp. 40
Magnetic Anomaliesp. 41
Heat Within the Earthp. 44
Geothermal Gradientp. 44
Heat Flowp. 45
Summaryp. 45
The Sea Floorp. 48
Origin of the Oceanp. 50
Methods of Studying the Sea Floorp. 51
Features of the Sea Floorp. 52
Continental Shelves and Continental Slopesp. 52
Submarine Canyonsp. 54
Turbidity Currentsp. 55
Passive Continental Marginsp. 55
The Continental Risep. 55
Abyssal Plainsp. 56
Active Continental Marginsp. 56
Oceanic Trenchesp. 57
The Mid-Oceanic Ridgep. 57
Geologic Activity on the Ridgep. 58
Biologic Activity on the Ridgep. 58
Fracture Zonesp. 61
Seamounts, Guyots, and Aseismic Ridgesp. 61
Reefsp. 62
Sediments of the Sea Floorp. 64
Oceanic Crust and Ophiolitesp. 64
The Age of the Sea Floorp. 66
The Sea Floor and Plate Tectonicsp. 67
Summaryp. 67
Plate Tectonicsp. 70
The Early Case for Continental Driftp. 72
Skepticism about Continental Driftp. 74
Paleomagnetism and the Revival of Continental Driftp. 75
Recent Evidence for Continental Driftp. 76
History of Continental Positionsp. 77
Sea-Floor Spreadingp. 77
Hess's Driving Forcep. 78
Explanationsp. 78
Plates and Plate Motionp. 79
How Do We Know That Plates Move?p. 80
Marine Magnetic Anomaliesp. 80
Another Test: Fracture Zones and Transform Faultsp. 83
Measuring Plate Motion Directlyp. 84
Divergent Plate Boundariesp. 84
Transform Boundariesp. 87
Convergent Plate Boundariesp. 88
Ocean-Ocean Convergencep. 89
Ocean-Continent Convergencep. 90
Continent-Continent Convergencep. 92
Backarc Spreadingp. 93
The Motion of Plate Boundariesp. 94
Plate Sizep. 94
The Attractiveness of Plate Tectonicsp. 94
What Causes Plate Motions?p. 95
Mantle Plumes and Hot Spotsp. 98
The Relationship Between Plate Tectonics and Ore Depositsp. 100
A Final Notep. 104
Summaryp. 104
Mountain Belts and the Continental Crustp. 108
Characteristics of Major Mountain Beltsp. 111
Size and Alignmentp. 111
Ages of Mountain Belts and Continentsp. 111
Thickness and Characteristics of Rock Layersp. 113
Patterns of Folding and Faultingp. 114
Metamorphism and Plutonismp. 116
Normal Faultingp. 116
Thickness and Density of Rocksp. 116
Features of Active Mountain Rangesp. 117
The Evolution of a Mountain Beltp. 117
The Accumulation Stagep. 117
The Orogenic Stagep. 118
The Uplift and Block-faulting Stagep. 121
The Growth of Continentsp. 126
Suspect and Exotic Terranesp. 127
Summaryp. 130
Geologic Structuresp. 132
Tectonic Forces at Workp. 134
Stress and Strain in the Earth's Crustp. 134
Behavior of Rocks to Stress and Strainp. 135
Present Deformation of the Crustp. 136
Structures as a Record of the Geologic Pastp. 137
Geologic Maps and Field Methodsp. 137
Foldsp. 139
Geometry of Foldsp. 139
Interpreting Foldsp. 142
Fractures in Rockp. 143
Jointsp. 144
Faultsp. 146
Summaryp. 155
Earthquakesp. 158
Causes of Earthquakesp. 160
Seismic Wavesp. 162
Body Wavesp. 162
Surface Wavesp. 162
Locating and Measuring Earthquakesp. 162
Determining the Location of an Earthquakep. 165
Measuring the Size of an Earthquakep. 166
Location and Size of Earthquakes in the United Statesp. 169
Effects of Earthquakesp. 171
Tsunamisp. 175
World Distribution of Earthquakesp. 177
First-Motion Studies of Earthquakesp. 180
Earthquakes and Plate Tectonicsp. 180
Earthquakes at Plate Boundariesp. 181
Subduction Anglep. 184
Earthquake Predictionp. 184
Earthquake Controlp. 185
Summaryp. 187
Time and Geologyp. 190
The Key to the Pastp. 192
Relative Timep. 192
Principles Used to Determine Relative Agep. 192
Correlationp. 197
The Standard Geologic Time Scalep. 200
Unconformitiesp. 201
Disconformitiesp. 201
Angular Unconformitiesp. 203
Nonconformitiesp. 204
Numerical Agep. 204
Isotopic Datingp. 204
Uses of Isotopic Datingp. 208
Combining Relative and Numerical Agesp. 208
Age of the Earthp. 209
Comprehending Geologic Timep. 209
Summaryp. 213
Atoms, Elements, and Mineralsp. 216
Atoms and Elementsp. 218
Chemical Activityp. 220
Ionsp. 220
Chemical Composition of the Earth's Crustp. 221
Crystallinityp. 222
The Silicon-Oxygen Tetrahedronp. 223
Mineralsp. 227
Crystalline Solidsp. 227
Natural and Inorganic Substancesp. 227
Definite Chemical Compositionp. 227
The Important Mineralsp. 228
The Physical Properties of Mineralsp. 230
Colorp. 230
Streakp. 230
Lusterp. 230
Hardnessp. 230
External Crystal Formp. 231
Cleavagep. 233
Fracturep. 235
Specific Gravityp. 235
Other Propertiesp. 236
Simple Chemical Testsp. 236
The Rock Cyclep. 237
Summaryp. 239
Volcanism and Extrusive Rocksp. 242
Effects on Humansp. 244
The Growth of Hawaiip. 244
Geothermal Energyp. 244
Effect on Climatep. 244
Volcanic Catastrophesp. 247
Eruptive Violence and Physical Characteristics of Lavap. 248
Extrusive Rocks and Gasesp. 249
Scientific Investigation of Volcanismp. 249
Gasesp. 250
Extrusive Rocksp. 250
Types of Volcanoesp. 253
Shield Volcanoesp. 254
Cinder Conesp. 254
Composite Volcanoesp. 256
Volcanic Domesp. 259
Lava Floodsp. 261
Submarine Eruptionsp. 262
Pillow Basaltsp. 263
Summaryp. 265
Igneous Rocks, Intrusive Activity, and the Origin of Igneous Rocksp. 268
Igneous Rocksp. 271
Identification of Igneous Rocksp. 271
Varieties of Granitep. 274
Chemistry of Igneous Rocksp. 274
Intrusive Bodiesp. 275
Shallow Intrusive Structuresp. 276
Intrusives That Crystallize at Depthp. 277
Abundance and Distribution of Plutonic Rocksp. 279
How Magma Formsp. 279
Heat for Melting Rockp. 280
Factors That Control Melting Temperaturesp. 280
How Magmas of Different Compositions Evolvep. 282
Differentiation and Bowen's Reaction Theoryp. 282
Partial Meltingp. 284
Assimilationp. 285
Mixing of Magmasp. 285
Explaining Igneous Activity by Plate Tectonicsp. 286
Igneous Processes at Divergent Boundariesp. 286
Intraplate Igneous Activityp. 286
Igneous Processes at Convergent Boundariesp. 287
Summaryp. 289
Weathering and Soilp. 292
Weathering, Erosion, and Transportationp. 294
How Weathering Alters Rocksp. 294
Effects of Weatheringp. 294
Mechanical Weatheringp. 294
Frost Actionp. 294
Abrasionp. 296
Pressure Releasep. 297
Chemical Weatheringp. 298
Role of Oxygenp. 298
Role of Acidp. 299
Solution Weatheringp. 300
Chemical Weathering of Feldsparp. 301
Chemical Weathering of Other Mineralsp. 302
Weathering and Climatep. 303
Weathering Productsp. 303
Soilp. 303
Soil Horizonsp. 304
Residual and Transported Soilsp. 304
Soils, Parent Rock, Time, and Slopep. 305
Organic Activityp. 306
Soils and Climatep. 306
Buried Soilsp. 307
Summaryp. 308
Mass Wastingp. 310
Classification of Mass Wastingp. 312
Rate of Movementp. 312
Type of Materialp. 312
Type of Movementp. 314
Controlling Factors in Mass Wastingp. 315
Gravityp. 316
Waterp. 316
Common Types of Mass Wastingp. 317
Creepp. 317
Debris Flowp. 318
Rockfalls and Rockslidesp. 324
Preventing Landslidesp. 327
Preventing Mass Wasting of Debrisp. 327
Preventing Rockfalls and Rockslides on Highwaysp. 328
Summaryp. 330
Sediments and Sedimentary Rocksp. 332
Sedimentp. 334
Transportationp. 334
Depositionp. 335
Preservationp. 336
Lithificationp. 337
Types of Sedimentary Rocksp. 338
Clastic Rocksp. 338
Breccia and Conglomeratep. 338
Sandstonep. 339
The Fine-Grained Rocksp. 340
Chemical Sedimentary Rocksp. 342
Carbonate Rocksp. 342
Chertp. 345
Evaporitesp. 346
Organic Sedimentary Rocksp. 347
Coalp. 347
The Origin of Oil and Gasp. 347
Sedimentary Structuresp. 347
Formationsp. 351
Interpretation of Sedimentary Rocksp. 352
Source Areap. 352
Environment of Depositionp. 354
Plate Tectonics and Sedimentary Rocksp. 357
Summaryp. 358
Metamorphism, Metamorphic Rocks, and Hydrothermal Rocksp. 362
Factors Controlling the Characteristics of Metamorphic Rocksp. 364
Composition of the Parent Rockp. 364
Temperaturep. 365
Pressurep. 365
Fluidsp. 367
Timep. 368
Classification of Metamorphic Rocksp. 368
Types of Metamorphismp. 368
Contact Metamorphismp. 368
Regional Metamorphismp. 370
Plate Tectonics and Metamorphismp. 374
Hydrothermal Processesp. 375
Hydrothermal Activity at Divergent Plate Boundariesp. 375
Metasomatismp. 377
Hydrothermal Rocks and Mineralsp. 378
Sources of Waterp. 379
Summaryp. 381
Streams and Floodsp. 384
The Hydrologic Cyclep. 386
Channel Flow and Sheet Flowp. 386
Drainage Basinsp. 388
Drainage Patternsp. 388
Factors Affecting Stream Erosion and Depositionp. 389
Velocityp. 389
Gradientp. 390
Channel Shape and Roughnessp. 390
Dischargep. 391
Stream Erosionp. 392
Stream Transportation of Sedimentp. 393
Stream Depositionp. 394
Barsp. 394
Braided Streamsp. 395
Meandering Streams and Point Barsp. 399
Flood Plainsp. 401
Deltasp. 403
Alluvial Fansp. 405
Floodingp. 406
Urban Floodingp. 406
Flash Floodsp. 409
Controlling Floodsp. 410
The Great Flood of 1993p. 411
Stream Valley Developmentp. 412
Downcutting and Base Levelp. 412
The Concept of a Graded Streamp. 414
Lateral Erosionp. 415
Headward Erosion and Stream Piracyp. 415
Stream Terracesp. 416
Incised Meandersp. 417
Superposed Streamsp. 419
Summaryp. 419
Ground Waterp. 422
Porosity and Permeabilityp. 424
The Water Tablep. 424
The Movement of Ground Waterp. 426
Aquifersp. 427
Wellsp. 428
Springs and Streamsp. 430
Pollution of Ground Waterp. 430
Balancing Withdrawal and Rechargep. 436
Effects of Ground-Water Actionp. 438
Caves, Sinkholes, and Karst Topographyp. 438
Other Effectsp. 440
Hot Water Undergroundp. 441
Geothermal Energyp. 442
Summaryp. 443
Deserts and Wind Actionp. 446
Distribution of Desertsp. 448
Some Characteristics of Desertsp. 448
Desert Features in the Southwestern United Statesp. 451
Wind Actionp. 454
Wind Erosion and Transportationp. 456
Wind Depositionp. 459
Summaryp. 464
Glaciers and Glaciationp. 468
The Theory of Glacial Agesp. 470
Glaciers--Where They Are, How They Form and Movep. 470
Distribution of Glaciersp. 470
Types of Glaciersp. 471
Formation and Growth of Glaciersp. 471
Movement of Valley Glaciersp. 474
Movement of Ice Sheetsp. 479
Glacial Erosionp. 480
Erosional Landscapes Associated with Alpine Glaciationp. 481
Erosional Landscapes Associated with Continental Glaciationp. 484
Glacial Depositionp. 485
Morainesp. 486
Outwashp. 488
Glacial Lakes and Varvesp. 489
Effects of Past Glaciationp. 489
The Glacial Agesp. 489
Direct Effects of Past Glaciation in North Americap. 491
Indirect Effects of Past Glaciationp. 496
Evidence for Older Glaciationp. 496
Summaryp. 497
Waves, Beaches, and Coastsp. 500
Water Wavesp. 502
Surfp. 503
Nearshore Circulationp. 504
Wave Refractionp. 504
Longshore Currentsp. 504
Rip Currentsp. 505
Beachesp. 505
Longshore Drift of Sedimentp. 506
Human Interference with Sand Driftp. 508
Sources of Sand on Beachesp. 508
Coasts and Coastal Featuresp. 508
Erosional Coastsp. 509
Depositional Coastsp. 512
Drowned Coastsp. 513
Uplifted Coastsp. 516
Coasts Shaped by Organismsp. 516
Summaryp. 517
Geologic Resourcesp. 520
Types of Resourcesp. 522
Resources and Reservesp. 523
Energy Usep. 523
Oil and Natural Gasp. 523
The Occurrence of Oil and Gasp. 524
Recovering the Oilp. 526
How Much Oil Do We Have Left?p. 527
Heavy Crude and Oil Sandsp. 528
Oil Shalep. 528
Coalp. 529
Varieties of Coalp. 529
Occurrence of Coalp. 530
Environmental Effectsp. 532
Reserves and Resourcesp. 532
Uraniump. 532
Alternative Sources of Energyp. 533
Metals and Oresp. 533
Origin of Metallic Ore Depositsp. 533
Ores Associated with Igneous Rocksp. 534
Ores Formed by Surface Processesp. 535
Metal Ores and Plate Tectonicsp. 536
Miningp. 536
Environmental Effectsp. 537
Some Important Metalsp. 538
Ironp. 538
Copperp. 538
Aluminump. 538
Leadp. 539
Zincp. 539
Silverp. 539
Goldp. 539
Other Metalsp. 540
Nonmetallic Resourcesp. 540
Construction Materialsp. 540
Fertilizers and Evaporitesp. 541
Other Nonmetallicsp. 542
Some Future Trendsp. 542
Summaryp. 543
Appendixes A-Gp. 546
Glossaryp. 556
Indexp. 570
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