Physics and Chemistry of the Deep Earth

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: eBook
  • Copyright: 2013-03-25
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

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Though the deep interior of the Earth (and other terrestrial planets) is inaccessible to humans, we are able to combine observational, experimental and computational (theoretical) studies to begin to understand the role of the deep Earth in the dynamics and evolution of the planet. This book brings together a series of reviews of key areas in this important and vibrant field of studies.

A range of material properties, including phase transformations and rheological properties, influences the way in which material is circulated within the planet. This circulation re-distributes key materials such as volatiles that affect the pattern of materials circulation. The understanding of deep Earth structure and dynamics is a key to the understanding of evolution and dynamics of terrestrial planets, including planets orbiting other stars.

This book contains chapters on deep Earth materials, compositional models, and geophysical studies of material circulation which together provide an invaluable synthesis of deep Earth research.

Readership: advanced undergraduates, graduates and researchers in geophysics, mineral physics and geochemistry.

Author Biography

Shun-ichiro Karato is an Earth scientist who conducts interdisciplinary studies encompassing mineral physics and geodynamics. He received his degrees from the University of Tokyo, and held faculty positions at the Universities of Tokyo and Minnesota, before moving to Yale University in 2001. He has received several awards, including the Japan Academy Award, the Vening Meinesz Medal and Birch Lectureship, and has authored some 200 publications, including 7 books.

Table of Contents

Contributors, vii

Preface, ix


1 Volatiles under High Pressure, 3
Hans Keppler

2 Earth’s Mantle Melting in the Presence of C–O–H–Bearing Fluid, 38
Konstantin D. Litasov, Anton Shatskiy, and Eiji Ohtani

3 Elasticity, Anelasticity, and Viscosity of a Partially Molten Rock, 66
Yasuko Takei

4 Rheological Properties of Minerals and Rocks, 94
Shun-ichiro Karato

5 Electrical Conductivity of Minerals and Rocks, 145
Shun-ichiro Karato and Duojun Wang


6 Chemical Composition of the Earth’s Lower Mantle: Constraints from Elasticity, 185
Motohiko Murakami

7 Ab Initio Mineralogical Model of the Earth’s Lower Mantle, 213
Taku Tsuchiya and Kenji Kawai

8 Chemical and Physical Properties and Thermal State of the Core, 244
Eiji Ohtani

9 Composition and Internal Dynamics of Super-Earths, 271
Diana Valencia


10 Seismic Observations of Mantle Discontinuities and Their Mineralogical and Dynamical Interpretation, 297
Arwen Deuss, Jennifer Andrews, and Elizabeth Day

11 Global Imaging of the Earth’s Deep Interior: Seismic Constraints on (An)isotropy, Density and Attenuation, 324
Jeannot Trampert and Andreas Fichtner

12 Mantle Mixing: Processes and Modeling, 351
Peter E. van Keken

13 Fluid Processes in Subduction Zones and Water Transport to the Deep Mantle, 372
Hikaru Iwamori and Tomoeki Nakakuki

Index, 393

Colour plate section can be found between pages 214–215

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