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9780521675680

The Physics of Particle Detectors

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780521675680

  • ISBN10:

    0521675685

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2005-07-14
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

This text provides a comprehensive introduction to the physical principles and design of particle detectors, covering all major detector types in use today. The book begins with a reprise of the size and energy scales involved in different physical processes. It then considers non-destructive methods, including the photoelectric effect, photomultipliers, scintillators, Cerenkov and transition radiation, scattering and ionisation and the use of magnetic fields in drift and wire chambers. A complete chapter is devoted to silicon detectors. In the final part of the book, the author discusses destructive measurement techniques including Thompson and Compton scattering, Bremsstrahlung and calorimetry. Throughout the book, emphasis is placed on explaining the physical principles on which detection is based, and showing, by considering appropriate examples, how those principles are best utilised in real detectors. This approach also reveals the limitations that are intrinsic to different devices. Exercises and detailed further reading lists are included.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments xiii
I. Introduction
1(28)
Size, energy, cross section
5(24)
Units
5(1)
Planck constant
6(1)
Electromagnetic units
6(6)
Coupling constants
12(1)
Atomic energy scales
12(3)
Atomic size
15(2)
Atomic spin effects
17(1)
Cross section and mean free path
17(2)
Partial waves and differential cross section
19(3)
Nuclear scales of energy and size
22(1)
Nuclear cross section
23(2)
Photon cross section
25(4)
Exercises
27(1)
References
28(1)
II. Non-destructive measurements
29(1)
IIA. Time and velocity
29(60)
The photoelectric effect, photomultipliers, scintillators
31(24)
Interaction Hamiltonian
31(1)
Transition amplitude and cross section
32(6)
The angular distribution
38(1)
The photomultiplier tube
38(1)
Time of flight
39(2)
Scintillators and light collection
41(2)
Gain and time structure
43(4)
Wavelength shifting
47(3)
Coincidence logic and deadtime
50(5)
Exercises
53(1)
References
53(2)
Cerenkov radiation
55(20)
Units
55(3)
Index of refraction
58(1)
Optical theorem
59(1)
Conducting medium and skin depth
59(2)
Plasma frequency
61(1)
Two `derivations' of the Cerenkov angle
62(7)
A `derivation' of the frequency spectrum
69(1)
Examples and numerical values
70(5)
Exercises
73(1)
References
74(1)
Transition radiation
75(14)
Cerenkov radiation for a finite length radiator
75(2)
Interference effects
77(2)
The vacuum phase shift
79(1)
The frequency spectrum
79(2)
Dependence on γ and saturation
81(2)
TRD foil number and thickness
83(2)
TRD data
85(4)
Exercises
85(2)
References
87(2)
IIB. Scattering and ionization
89(38)
Elastic electromagnetic scattering
91(15)
Single scattering off a nucleus
91(2)
The scattering cross section
93(1)
Feynman diagrams
94(1)
Relativistic considerations
95(1)
Multiple scattering
96(1)
The radiation length
97(1)
Small angle, three dimensional multiple scattering
98(2)
Maximum momentum transfer
100(3)
Energy transfer
103(1)
Delta rays
103(1)
Other force laws
104(2)
Exercises
105(1)
References
105(1)
Ionization
106(21)
Energy loss
106(1)
Minimum ionizing particle
107(1)
Velocity dependence
108(3)
Range
111(4)
Radioactive sources
115(2)
The logarithmic dependence and relativistic rise
117(2)
Fluctuations
119(2)
The critical energy
121(6)
Exercises
125(1)
References
125(2)
IIC. Position and momentum
127(76)
Magnetic fields
129(22)
Solenoidal fields
129(1)
Dipole fields -- fringe fields
130(3)
Particle motion in a uniform field
133(2)
Momentum measurement and error
135(3)
Exact solutions -- Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates
138(2)
Particle beam and quadrupole magnets
140(6)
The quadrupole doublet
146(5)
Exercises
148(2)
References
150(1)
Drift and diffusion in materials, wire chambers
151(26)
Thermal and drift velocity
151(2)
Mobility
153(1)
Pulse formation in `unity gain' detectors
154(4)
Diffusion and the diffusion limit
158(3)
Motion in E and B fields, with and without collisions
161(4)
Wire chamber electrostatics
165(2)
Pulse formation in a wire chamber
167(2)
Mechanical considerations
169(3)
The induced cathode signal
172(5)
Exercises
175(1)
References
175(2)
Silicon detectors
177(26)
Impact parameter and secondary vertex
177(4)
Band gap, intrinsic semiconductors and ionization
181(1)
The silicon diode fields
182(4)
The silicon diode: signal formation at depletion
186(4)
Noise sources -- thermal and shot noise
190(4)
Filtering and the `equivalent noise charge'
194(2)
Front end transistor noise
196(1)
Total noise charge
197(2)
Hybrid silicon devices
199(4)
Exercises
200(1)
References
201(2)
III. Destructive measurements
203(1)
IIIA. Radiation
203(32)
Radiation and photon scattering
205(30)
Non-relativistic radiation
205(2)
Thomson scattering
207(2)
Thomson scattering off objects with structure
209(1)
Relativistic photon scattering
210(1)
Compton scattering
211(2)
Relativistic acceleration
213(3)
Circular and linear acceleration
216(1)
Angular distribution
217(2)
Synchrotron radiation
219(2)
Synchrotron applications
221(3)
Photon emission kinematics
224(1)
Photon frequency spectrum
224(1)
Bremsstrahlung and pair production
225(2)
The radiation length
227(2)
Pair production by photons
229(1)
Pair production by charged particles
230(1)
Strong and electromagnetic interaction probabilities
231(4)
Exercises
231(1)
References
232(3)
IIIB. Energy measurements
235(56)
Electromagnetic calorimetry
237(21)
Radiation length and critical energy
237(1)
The electromagnetic cascade
238(3)
Energy -- linearity and resolution
241(2)
Profiles and single cascades
243(2)
Sampling devices
245(2)
Fully active devices
247(4)
Transverse energy flow
251(3)
Calibration methods
254(4)
Exercises
256(1)
References
257(1)
Hadronic calorimetry
258(33)
Properties of single hadronic interactions
259(3)
The hadronic cascade -- neutrals
262(2)
Binding energy effects
264(2)
Energy resolution
266(2)
Profiles and single cascades
268(5)
elh and the `constant term'
273(5)
Transverse energy flow
278(2)
Radiation damage
280(1)
Energy leakage
281(3)
Neutron radiation fields
284(2)
Neutron detection
286(5)
Exercises
288(1)
References
289(2)
IV. The complete set of measurements
291(12)
Summary
293(10)
Fundamental particles
293(1)
Detection of fundamental particles
294(4)
General purpose detectors
298(2)
The jumping off point
300(3)
References
301(2)
Appendices
303(50)
A Kinematics
305(6)
B Quantum bound states and scattering cross section
311(6)
C The photoelectric effect
317(3)
D Connecting cables
320(4)
E The emission of Cerenkov radiation
324(4)
F Motion in a constant magnetic field
328(3)
G Non-relativistic motion in combined constant E and B fields
331(2)
H Signal generation in a silicon diode for point ionization
333(3)
I Ideal operational amplifier circuits
336(6)
J Statistics introduction
342(6)
K Monte Carlo models
348(5)
Glossary of symbols 353(4)
Index 357

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