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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2012-04-30
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
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In many Western diets, the role of plants has been reduced in favour of more animal-based products and this is now being cited more widely as being the cause of increases in the incidence of diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. This important book covers the biochemistry and nutritional importance of a wide range of phytonutrients, including all the major macronutrients as well as the micronutrients and 'non-essential' nutrients. Phytonutrients is divided into three parts. The first deals with the role of plants in the human diet. Part II, representing the major part of the book covers in turn each of the major phytonutrient groups. Chapters include: non-lipid micronutrients, lipids and steroids, carotenoids, phenolics, vitamins C, E, folate/vitamin B12, phytoestrogens, other phytonutrients and minerals, and anti-nutritional factors. The final part of the book covers the methods used to manipulate levels of phytonutrients in the diet, such as fortification, supplementation and the use of genetically modified plants. Phytonutrients is an essential purchase for nutritionists, food scientists and plant biochemists, particularly those dealing with nutrients from plants, and their use in the human diet.

Author Biography

Andrew Salter is Professor of Nutritional Biochemistry in the School of Biosciences at the University of Nottingham. Helen Wiseman is Lecturer in Nutritional Sciences in the Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences Division at King's College London. Gregory Tucker is Professor of Plant Biochemistry in the School of Biosciences at the University of Nottingham.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
Contributorsp. xii
Abbreviationsp. xv
Plant foods and healthp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Historical changes in the plant content of the human dietp. 1
Changing composition of dietary constituents in the past 50 yearsp. 5
Plants - nutrients and other constituentp. 6
A summary of the evidence linking plant food intake and healthp. 6
Coronary heart disease and strokep. 9
Fruits and vegetablesp. 9
Pulses and nutsp. 13
Cerealsp. 15
Antioxidant nutrientsp. 17
Other bioactive substancesp. 18
Antioxidant hypothesisp. 20
Phytosterols and -stanolsp. 20
Conclusions for coronary heart disease and strokep. 21
Cancerp. 21
Fruit and vegetablesp. 21
Legumes and nutsp. 26
Foods containing fibrep. 26
Vitaminsp. 26
Other plant-derived substancesp. 28
Conclusions for cancerp. 28
Type 2 diabetesp. 29
Age-related macular degeneration and cataractp. 29
Age-related cognitive declinep. 30
Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseasep. 31
Osteoporosis and bone healthp. 31
Plant foods and health: overall conclusionsp. 32
Recommendations and current policy on plant food intakep. 33
Fruit and vegetablesp. 33
Wholegrain foodsp. 35
Current consumption patternsp. 35
Conclusionsp. 39
Acknowledgementp. 40
Carbohydrates and lipidsp. 52
Introductionp. 52
Major carbohydratesp. 53
Sugarsp. 54
Polysaccharidesp. 55
Starchp. 55
Cell wall polymersp. 58
Biosynthesis of cell wall polymersp. 60
Cell wall turnoverp. 62
Nutritional benefits of plant carbohydratesp. 64
Major sources of dietary fibre within the diet and recommended intakesp. 64
Definition and measurement of dietary fibrep. 65
Physiological effects of dietary fibrep. 66
Lipidsp. 68
Synthesis of fatty acids in plantsp. 69
Synthesis of glycerolipids in plantsp. 70
Modification of plant lipidsp. 73
Fatty acid composition of plant foodsp. 76
Vegetablesp. 76
Cerealsp. 77
Fruitp. 77
Oil seedsp. 77
Dietary lipids and human healthp. 79
Phytosterolsp. 80
Carotenoidsp. 89
Introductionp. 89
Structure, biosynthesis and function of plant carotenoidsp. 90
Dietary sources and health benefitsp. 93
Absorption and bioavailability of dietary carotenoidsp. 97
Carotenoid typep. 98
Food matrixp. 98
Carotenoid metabolism in humansp. 99
Meeting the dietary demand and consequences for imbalancep. 101
Acknowledgementsp. 102
Polyphenolsp. 110
Introductionp. 110
Polyphenol structurep. 110
Phenolic acids and stilbenesp. 110
Flavonoidsp. 113
Biosynthetic routes within the plantp. 115
Shikimic precursor and benzoic acid biosynthesisp. 115
Cinnamic acid biosynthesisp. 115
Stilbene biosynthesisp. 119
Flavonoid biosynthesisp. 119
Major sources within the dietp. 121
Phenolic acids and stilbenesp. 121
Flavonoidsp. 121
Flavonolsp. 121
Flavanonesp. 122
Flavanolsp. 123
Flavonesp. 123
Anthocyaninsp. 123
Isoflavonesp. 123
Metabolic fate of dietary polyphenolsp. 124
Gastrointestinal tract metabolismp. 124
Colonic metabolismp. 126
Role in human healthp. 127
Flavonoids as classical antioxidantsp. 128
Non-antioxidant activities of flavonoidsp. 130
Interactions with cell signalling pathwaysp. 131
Other potential mechanisms of actionp. 133
Conclusionp. 133
Summaryp. 134
Acknowledgementsp. 134
Vitamins C and Ep. 146
Introductionp. 146
Vitamin C: structure and chemistryp. 146
Dietary sources of vitamin Cp. 147
Vitamin C: biosynthesis and metabolism in plantsp. 148
Vitamin C functions in plantsp. 152
Vitamin C manipulation in plantsp. 154
Absorption and transport of vitamin C in mammalsp. 155
Vitamin E: structure and chemistryp. 156
Dietary sources of vitamin Ep. 159
Vitamin E: biosynthetic pathwaysp. 159
Roles of tocochromanols in plantsp. 161
Manipulation of tocochromanol concentrationp. 162
Absorption and transport of vitamin E in mammalsp. 164
Antioxidant functions of vitamin Ep. 164
Folatep. 173
Introductionp. 173
One-carbon metabolismp. 174
Generation and interconversion of Cl-unitsp. 176
Serine-glycine metabolismp. 176
Formate activationp. 176
Histidine catabolismp. 177
Interconvertion of C1-substituted folatesp. 178
Utilisation of C1-unitsp. 179
Methionine synthesisp. 179
Purine ring formationp. 179
Formylation of methionyl-tRNAp. 180
Thymidylate synthesisp. 180
Pantothenate synthesisp. 180
Folate synthesis and distribution in plantsp. 181
Biosynthesis of tetrahydrofolate in plantsp. 181
Pterin branchp. 182
pABA branchp. 183
Assembly of the pterin, pABA and glutamate moietiesp. 183
Reduction and polyglutamylationp. 184
Catabolism and salvage pathwayp. 185
Compartmentation and transport of folatesp. 185
Subcellular location of folatesp. 185
Folate transportersp. 186
Folates distribution in plantsp. 186
Physiology of folate in human health and diseasep. 188
Absorptionp. 188
Transport, storage, catabolism and excretionp. 189
Metabolic and clinical manifestations of folate deficiencyp. 189
Diagnosis of folate deficiencyp. 190
Folate bioavailability, requirements and food fortificationp. 191
Bioavailabilityp. 191
Dietary intake recommendationsp. 192
Dietary sources of folatep. 192
Food fortificationp. 194
Prospects for plant foods biofortificationp. 195
Phytoestrogensp. 203
Introductionp. 203
Biosynthesis of phytoestrogensp. 203
Introductionp. 203
Isoflavonoidsp. 203
Prenylated flavonoidsp. 205
Stilbenesp. 205
Lignansp. 205
Genetic engineeringp. 205
Isoflavonoidsp. 206
Introductionp. 206
Dietary sources and intakesp. 206
Metabolism and bioavailabilityp. 208
Isoflavonoids and cancer preventionp. 211
Hormone-dependent cancer prevention by isoflavonoidsp. 211
Oestrogens and risk of breast cancerp. 213
Oestrogen receptor-mediated eventsp. 213
Animal modelsp. 215
Mechanisms of anticancer action of isoflavonoidsp. 217
Clinical studiesp. 219
Protection by isoflavonoids against cardiovascular diseasep. 220
Cholesterol-lowering and isoflavonoidsp. 220
Antioxidant actionp. 222
Arterial functionp. 225
Cellular effectsp. 226
Protection by isoflavonoids against osteoporosis, cognitive decline and menopausal symptoms?p. 226
Osteoporosisp. 226
Menopausal symptoms and cognitive declinep. 227
Isoflavonoids: potential risksp. 228
Lignansp. 229
Introductionp. 229
Production of mammalian lignansp. 230
Cardiovascular diseasep. 230
Breast cancer preventionp. 230
Prostate cancer preventionp. 230
Prevention of other types of cancerp. 231
Other health benefitsp. 231
Prenylflavonoidsp. 231
Stilbenesp. 233
Miroestrolp. 235
Deoxybenzoinsp. 235
Coumestansp. 236
Phytoestrogens and human health: conclusionsp. 236
Plant mineralsp. 254
Introductionp. 254
Genetic variation in plant mineral concentrationp. 258
Introductionp. 258
Between-species genetic variation in plant mineral concentrationp. 258
Within-species genetic variation in plant mineral concentrationp. 259
tIron and zincp. 260
Iodine and seleniump. 263
Calcium and magnesiump. 264
Copperp. 266
Has the mineral concentration of crops declined due to breeding for increased yield?p. 266
Evidence for a decline in mineral concentration of horticultural cropsp. 266
Is there evidence for a decline in mineral concentration of staple crops?p. 267
A case study on potatoes; a précis of White et al. (2009)p. 268
Indexp. 278
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