9781118014752

Plumbing, Electricity, Acoustics : Sustainable Design Methods for Architecture

by
  • ISBN13:

    9781118014752

  • ISBN10:

    1118014758

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2011-11-29
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Supplemental Materials

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  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.
  • The Rental and eBook copies of this book are not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included. This is true even if the title states it includes any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.

Summary

The building systems related to plumbing, electricity, acoustics, fire protection and vertical transportation are critical to almost every building, and essential for the architect to understand. This companion to Lechner's best-selling Heating, Cooling, Lighting: Sustainable Design Methods for Architects makes the complex issues of these topics simpler, and together with that book provides complete coverage of all common building systems for architects. Plumbing, Electricity, Acoustics also presents these critical systems in the context of making decisions that support the sustainability of buildings. These include issues of water conservation, non-traditional sanitary and storm water drainage systems, and the energy impact of a building's transportation systems. The difficult subject of acoustics is explained not just on the physics of sound, but also on the perception and health aspects, including guidelines for sound absorbing materials and contruction systems. Whether offices or theaters, design to lessen impact noice, HVAC noise and outdoor noise are covered. Organized in Lechner's straightforward style, each chapter starts with a short historic overview, followed by an explanation of basic concepts, and the subject affects archtitectural design. Numerous guidelines help the architect's decision making.

Author Biography

Norbert M. Lechner is Professor Emeritus in the College of Architecture, Design, and Construction at Auburn University and was a registered architect in the state of Alabama. His articles have appeared in Architectural Lighting and Solar Today. In addition to writing, he has lectured and held workshops in the United States, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East.

Table of Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgments xi

1. Electricity – Basic Concepts 1

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 History of Electricity 2

1.3 The Water Analogy 4

1.4 Ohm’s Law 6

1.5 Types of Electricity 6

1.6 Power Factor 9

1.7 Types of Circuits 11

1.8 Power Generators in Series and Parallel 15

1.9 Voltage Drop 16

1.10 Electrical Power 18

1.11 Electrical Energy 19

1.12 Paying for Electricity 20

1.13 Reduction in Maximum Demand 22

1.14 Transformers 23

1.15 Electricity and Safety 24

1.16 Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) 26

1.17 Conclusion 26

Resources 26

2. Electrical Distribution in Buildings 27

2.1 Introduction 28

2.2 A Brief Historical Perspective 28

2.3 Centralized Electrical Power 30

2.4 Decentralized and Private Sources of Electricity 31

2.5 Electrical Distribution in Small Buildings 32

2.6 Electrical Distribution in Large Buildings 36

2.7 Switches, Fuses, and Circuit Breakers 39

2.9 Conduits and Raceways 42

2.10 Office Landscapes 43

2.11 Electrical Safety Systems 47

2.12 Low-Voltage Circuits 50

2.13 Emergency Power 51

2.14 Communication and Building Control Wiring 53

2.15 Electrical Construction Drawings 56

2.16 Lighting Protection 56

2.17 Sustainability 58

2.18 Conclusion 59

Resources 59

3. Plumbing—Water Supply 61

3.1 Introduction 62

3.2 Brief History of Water Supply 63

3.3 Sources of Drinking Water 64

3.4 Water Use 67

3.5 Private Water Supply 68

3.6 Rainwater Harvesting 71

3.7 Water Distribution in Buildings 79

3.8 Water Quality 85

3.9 Water Efficiency 85

3.10 Hot Water 88

3.11 Hot Water Conservation 97

3.12 Conclusion 103

Resources 103

4. Drainage 105

4.1 Introduction 106

4.2 Short History of Sanitary Drainage 106

4.3 Basic Principles of Drainage 114

4.4 Basic Concepts of Plumbing Fixtures 115

4.5 Drainage Piping 116

4.6 Water Closets and Alternatives 121

4.7 Composting Toilets 125

4.8 On-Site Septic Tank Systems 126

4.9 On-Site Aerobic Systems 128

4.10 Special and Innovative Treatment Systems 130

4.11 Constructed Wetlands 131

4.12 Biologic Machines 134

4.13 Graywater Systems 136

4.14 Alternative Community Sewage Systems 139

4.15 Stormwater 141

4.16 Special Drainage Systems 152

4.17 Case Study 153

4.18 Conclusions 155

Resources 155

5. Architectural Acoustics 157

5.1 Introduction 158

5.2 A Short History of Architectural Acoustics 159

5.3 The Physics of Sounds 161

5.4 The Biology of Sounds 170

5.5 Perception of Sound 175

5.6 Sound and Health 179

5.7 Sound-Absorbing Materials 180

5.8 Applications of Sound-Absorbing Materials 182

5.9 Sound Transmission 188

5.10 Design for Low Sound Transmission 189

5.11 Acceptable Noise Levels 194

5.12 Open-Plan Offices 196

5.13 Impact Noise 198

5.14 Mechanical Systems Noise Control 199

5.15 Theaters, Classrooms and Auditoriums 202

5.16 Rules for Drawing Ray Diagrams 205

5.17 Electronic Sound Systems 206

5.18 Noise Outdoors 206

5.19 Conclusions 210

Resources 211

6. Fire Protection 213

6.1 Introduction 214

6.2 A Short History of Fires in Buildings 216

6.3 Fire Principles 221

6.4 Fire Prevention 224

6.5 Passive Fire Protection 225

6.6 Detection 228

6.7 Alarms 229

6.8 Safe Egress 232

6.9 Fire Suppression 235

6.10 Non-Water Fire Suppression Systems 242

6.11 Smoke Control 243

6.12 Fire Codes 249

6.13 Elevators and Fires 250

6.14 Lightning Protection 250

6.15 Conclusion 251

7. Conveyance Systems in Buildings 253

7.1 Introduction 254

7.2 A Short History of the Elevator 254

7.3 Elevator Types 261

7.4 Elevator Design 265

7.5 Escalators 271

7.6 Moving Walkways and Ramps 275

7.7 Vertical Transport and Health 276

7.8 Special Lifts for People 280

7.9 Material Conveying Systems 282

7.10 Conclusion 284

Resources 284

Index 285 

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