The Police in America

by ;
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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2002-03-01
  • Publisher: Macmillan/McGraw-Hill School
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"The Police in America" provides a comprehensive introduction to the foundations of policing in the United States today. Descriptive and analytical, the text is designed to offer undergraduate students a balanced and up-to-date overview of who the police are and what they do, the problems they face, and the many reforms and innovations that have taken place in policing. Using timely articles and excerpts, the authors take readers beyond the headlines and statistics to present a comprehensive and contemporary overview of what it means to be a police officer.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1: Police and Society

Why Police?

Myths About Policing

Realities of Policing


The Implications of Change

Chapter 2: The History of the American Police

The Relevance of History

The English Heritage

Law Enforcement in Colonial America

American Policing in the Nineteenth Century, 1834-1900

The Origins of Police Professionalism

New Directions in Police Administration, 1930-1960

The Police Crisis of the 1960s

New Developments in Policing, 1970-2000

Conclusion: The Lessons of the Past

Chapter 3: The Contemporary Law Enforcement Industry


Components of the American Law Enforcement Industry

Government Agencies

Private Security

A Definition of Terms

Size and Scope of the Law Enforcement Industry

Municipal Police

The County Sheriff

Other Local Agencies

Native American Tribal Police

State Law Enforcement Agencies

The Private Security Industry

The Fragmentation Issue

Minimum Standards: American Style


Chapter 4: Patrol: The Backbone of Policing

The Central Role of Patrol

The Functions of Patrol

The Organization and Delivery of Patrol

The Call Service Workload

Aspects of Patrol Work

The Effectiveness of Patrol

Improving Patrol

Chapter 5: Peacekeeping and Order Maintenance

The Police Role

Calling the Police

Traffic Enforcement

Policing Domestic Disputes

Policing Vice

Policing the Homeless

Policing the Mentally Ill

Policing People with Aids

Policing Juveniles

Chapter 6: The Police and Crime

Chapter 7: Innovations in Policing

Imputus for Change in Policing

The Roots of Community Policing: The Broken Windows Hypothesis

Characteristics of Community Policing

Community Partnerships

The Effectiveness of Community Partnerships

Pulling It Together: Implementing Community Policy at the Department Level

The Roots of Problem-Oriented Policing


Characteristics of Zero Tollerance Policing

Summary: A New Era in Policing


Chapter 8: Police Discretion

Introduction: Discretion in Police Work

A Definition of Discretion

Aspects of Police Discretion

Decision Points and Decision Makers

Underlying Sources of Police Discretion

Factors Influencing Discretionary Decisions

The Control of Discretion

Administrative Rule Making


Chapter 9: Police-Community Relations

A Definition of Police-Community Relations

Different Racial and Ethnic Groups

Public Opinion and the Police

Police Perceptions of Citizens

Sources of Police-Community Relations Problems

Level of Police Protection

Police Field Practices

Administrative Practices

Police Employment Practices

Improving Police-Community Relations

New Approaches to Improving Police-Community Relations

Chapter 10: Police Corruption

A Definition of Police Corruption

The Costs of Police Corruption

Types of Corruption

Levels of Corruption

Theories of Police Corruption

Becoming Corrupt

Controlling Corruption

Internal Corruption Control Strategies

External Corruption Control Approaches

Chapter 11: Accountability of the Police

A Definition of Accountability

Basic Issues in Police Accountability

Accountability for What Police Do

Accountability for How Police Do Their Job

Internal Mechanisms of Accountability


Internal Affairs Units


External Mechanisms of Accountability

The Courts

Citizen Oversight of the Police

A Mixed Approach to Accountability


Chapter 12: Police Officers I: Entering Police Work

The Changing American Police Officer

Aspects of the Personnel Process


Choosing Law Enforcement as a Career


Predicting Who Will Be Good Officers

Equal Employment Opportunity

The Affirmative Action Controversy


The Probationary Period

Chapter 13: Policing Officers II: On The Job

Reality Shock: Entering Police Work

The Seniority System

Police Officer Attitudes and Behavior

The Changing Rank and File

The Relationship Between Attitudes and Behavior

Styles of Police Work

Career Development

Performance Evaluation

Job Satisfaction and Job Stress

The Rights of Police Officers

Outside Employment

Turnover: Leaving Police Work

Chapter 14: Police Organizations

The Quasi-Military Style of Police Organizations

Police Departments as Organizations

Problems with Police Organizations

Bureaucracy and Police Professionalism

Changing Police Organizations

Civil Service

Police Unions

Police Organizations and Their Environment

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