Police & Society

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2014-02-18
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Police & Society offers an in-depth and analytical look at the process of policing, from police behavior and organization to operations and historical perspectives. Focusing on the relationship between the police and the community and how it has changed throughout the years, the authors explore the most important theoretical foundations and incisive research on contemporary policing and show how that research is put into practice. Now in its sixth edition, this unique text incorporates expanded coverage of police technology, homeland security, privacy and surveillance, immigration, and evidence-based practices and includes the most current scholarship. A new companion website (www.oup.com/us/roberg) features an online student study guide, animated flashcards, and self-quizzes.

Author Biography

Roy Roberg is Professor Emeritus of Justice Studies at San Josť State University.

Kenneth Novak is Professor and Chair of Criminal Justice and Criminology at the University of Missouri-Kansas City.

Gary Cordner is Professor of Criminal Justice at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.

Brad Smith is Associate Professor of Criminal Justice at Wayne State University.

Table of Contents

Preface ?xiii
Acknowledgments ?xiv
About the Authors ?xv

CHAPTER 1 Police in a Democracy ?2
Policing a Free Society ?4
Police and Government ?5
Police and Rule of Law ?6
Police, Terrorism, and Homeland Security ?8
Police Systems ?9
The U.S. Police System ?11
Other Types of Law Enforcement Agencies ?15
Similarities and Differences ?16
Police Role and Purpose ?18
Law Enforcement or Politics ?20
Crime Fighting or Social Service ?20
Proactive or Reactive ?21
Police Activities and Workload ?21
Police Goals and Strategies ?23
Looking Ahead ?25
Summary ?26

CHAPTER 2 Police History ?29
Foundations of Policing ?30
Early Policing ?30
Policing in Nineteenth-Century England ?32
The Emergence of Modern Policing in the United States ?34
The First City Police Forces ?34
The County Sheriff ?36
Vigilance Committees ?36
Modern American Policing ?37
The Political Era ?37
Police Development ?37
Criticism in the Political Era ?40
The Reform Era ?40
Minority Perspective on to the Development of American Police ?46
State Police ?46
Texas and Massachusetts ?46
Pennsylvania ?47
Highway Patrol ?47
Federal Law Enforcement ?50
The Revenue Cutter Service and the U.S. Marshal Service ?50
Postal Inspectors ?50
The Secret Service ?50
The Federal Bureau of Investigation ?50
Summary ?53

CHAPTER 3 Legal Issues ?56
Criminal Procedure ?57
Searches and Seizures of Persons ?58
Searches and Seizures of Property ?64
Interrogations and Confessions ?68
Civil Liability ?71
Costs of Liability in Policing ?71
Avenues of Liability ?73
Civil Liability in State Courts ?74
Civil Liability in Federal Courts ?75
Emerging Liability Issues for the Twenty-First Century ?79
Use of Force ?80
Impact on Officers ?81
Summary ?84

CHAPTER 4: Police Strategies
Evolving Strategies of Policing
Landmark Studies of Police Effectiveness
Patrol Studies
Response Time Studies
Criminal Investigation Studies
Strategic Developments
Improving Crime-Control Effectiveness
Improving Police-Community Relations
Improving Professionalism
Developing Evidence-Based Practices
Strategic Alternatives
Community Policing
Problem-Oriented Policing
Intelligence-Led Policing
Predictive Policing
What Works in Policing

CHAPTER 5 Police Management?124
The Managerial Process?125
The Development of Police Management?127
Classical Police Management?128
Behavioral Police Management?128
Contemporary Police Management?129
Organizational Design?131
Criticisms of the Paramilitary Design?133
Increasing Influence of Police Paramilitary Units?134
Broken Windows and Zero-Tolerance Policing?135
Compstat Process
Police Legitimacy and Procedural Justice
Police Goals and Organizational Performance?140
Supervisory Styles and Officer Behavior?140
Measuring Police Performance?141
Changing Performance Masures?144
Managing Group Behavior?145
Police Subcultures?145
Employee Organizations?148
Police Unions?148
Media Relations?150

CHAPTER 6 Organization and Change?156
The Change Process?157
Resistance to Change?158
Overcoming Resistance to Change?159
The Madison Experience?161
Laying the Foundation?162
Key Elements to Change?162
Results From Madison?163
The Chicago Experience?165
Laying the Foundation?165
Key Elements to Change?165
Results From Chicago?168
Lessons Learned from Madison and Chicago?170
A Final Lesson: Surviving Leadership Change?171
Changing Officer Performance Measures?173
Compstat as a Change Process?176
Learning Organizations and R&D?178
Police-Researcher Partnerships?180
Utilize Middle Managers?180
NOTE: Next Entry Should BE: Critical Thinking Questions NOT Discussion Questions

CHAPTER 7 Selection and Development?184
Recruitment Methods?186
Targeting Females and Minorities?187
Targeting the Service Oriented?188
Preemployment Standards?191
General Suitability?193
Preemployment Testing?196
Recruit Screening Methods
Americans with Disability Act
Recruit Training?201
Program Orientation
Philosophy and Instructional Methods
Curriculum Development and Content
Curriculum Updates
Effectiveness of Recruit Training
Field Training?212
Career Growth?216

CHAPTER 8 Field Operations?226
The Patrol Function?228
Historical Development?228
Patrol Methods?231
Use of Patrol Methods?234
Focused Interventions?241
Proactive Arrests and Crackdowns?241
Guns and Gang Violence?242
Focused Deterrence Initiatiaves
Policing Disorder: Zero-Tolerance and Quality-of-Life Policing?245
Problem-Oriented Policing Focused on Disorder?246
Reactive Arrests and Intimate Partner Violence?249
Police Pursuits?250
The Investigative Function?252
Historical Development?253
Selected Research on Investigative Operations?255
Advances in Physical Evidence: AFIS and DNACareer Criminal Programs?259
Bias Crime Programs?260
Detective-Patrol Relationships?260
Enticement and Entrapment?261

CHAPTER 9 Behavior and Misconduct?270
Perspectives of Police Behavior?271
Universalistic Perspectives?271
Particularistic Perspectives?273
Socialization Versus Predisposition?273
Classic Studies of Police Behavior?276
Violence and the Police?276
Justice Without Trial?277
Varieties of Police Behavior?277
City Police?278
Working the Street: Police Discretion?278
Decision Making and Police Discretion?280
Organizational Variables?281
Neighborhood Variables?282
Situational Variables?283
Individual (Officer) Variables?288
Career Orientation?290
Police Deviance?290
Types of Deviance and Misconduct?291
The Prevalence of Police Deviance?292
The Trouble With Gratuities?294
Deviant Officers?295
The Persistence of Corruption?297
Police Sexual Misconduct?299
The Drug War and Police Deviance?301

CHAPTER 10 Force and Coercion?310
Police-Citizen Interactions?312
Context of Force?312
National Estimates on Police Use of Force?315
Learning to Use Force?317
Areas of Training?321
Police Culture and the Use of Force?323
Controversy and the Use of Force?324
Inappropriate Force?327
Brutality and Excessive Force?327
Physical and Psychological Force in Police History?329
Frequency of Excessive Force and Brutality?331
Brutality in the Twenty-First Century?332
Deadly Force?338
Individual and Situational Factors?340
Environmental and Departmental Variations?341
Racial Considerations?342
Legal and Policy Changes?343

CHAPTER 11 Accountability and Ethics?350
Internal Accountability Mechanisms?352
Bureaucratic Organization and Management?352
Internal Investigation?354
Issues in Internal Investigations?358
Early Warning/Early Identification Systems?360
Effectiveness of Internal Investigations?362
External Accountability Mechanisms?362
Civilian Review?362
Police Auditor Systems?365
The Limits of Oversight Mechanisms?368
Professional Standards?369
The Police Professionalization Movement?369
Criteria of Police Professionalization?370
Ethical Standards?374
Ethical Perspectives?375
Ethical Dilemmas?377
The Limits of Professional and Ethical Standards?378

CHAPTER 12 Diversity?386
Racial Minorities in Policing?389
Unequal Treatment?389
Performance of African American Police?390
Women in Policing?393
Unequal Treatment?393
Performance of Women Officers?394
Affirmative Action?396
Equal Employment Opportunity?397
Reverse Discrimination?398

Increasing Diversity in Police Departments?400
Promotional Opportunities?404
Integration of Minorities and Women
Into Policing?406
Police Culture?407
Structural Characteristics?408
Pregnancy and Maternity?409
Sexual Harassment?410
Future Prospects?412

CHAPTER 13 Stress and Officer Safety?418
The Concept of Stress?419
Occupational Stress?420
Overview of Stressors?421
Police Stressors?421
Emerging Sources of Stress?424
Line-of-Duty and Crisis Situations?425
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder?426
Shift Work?428
Social Supports and Police Stress?429
Consequences of Stress?431
Alcohol Abuse?431
Drug Abuse?433
Marital and Family Problems?435
Policies and Programs?436
Officer Safety?438
Danger and Police Work?440
Safety and the Mentally Ill?444
Improving Safety and Reducing Fatalities?445

CHAPTER 14 Higher Education?454
The Development of Higher Education Programs for Police?456
Federal Programs and Support for Higher Education?457
Quality of Higher Education Programs?458
Higher Education Requirements for Police?461
The Impact of Higher Education on Policing?463
Higher Education and Attitudes?463
Higher Education and Performance?465
Use of Force and Liability?466
Leadership and Promotion?467
Higher Education and Job Satisfaction?470
Higher Education and Terrorism?470
Higher Education and Chief's Scholar Program?472
Validating Higher Education for Police?473
Higher Education as a Bona Fide Occupational Qualification?473
Higher Education and Discrimination?474
Higher Education Incentive Programs?475
Higher Education Requirements and Policy Implications?477

CHAPTER 15 Emerging Issues?484
Changes in American Society?486
Aging Population?486
Cultural Diversity?488
Shifting Economics?489
Immigration and Migration?491
Modern Problems?494
Crime Trends
Cyber Crime
Eyewitness Identification?496
Shrinking Budgets
Modern Technology?499
Crime Detention and Crime Solving?501
Surveillance and Privacy
Communications and Interoperability?504
Social Media?504
Long-Term Trends?505
Terrorism and Homeland Security

Glossary of Key Terms?523
Name Index?540
Subject Index?546

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