Policy Studies for Educational Leaders An Introduction

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2012-03-14
  • Publisher: Pearson

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In this Fourth Edition of renowned authority Frances Fowler's Policy Studies for Educational Leaders,future educational leaders and actual K-12 administrators get a solid, comprehensive grounding in education policy and the policy process and the important political theories upon which it is based. Included is essential background information about the cultural, economic, demographic, and institutional roots of educational policy and an incisive look at the history of educational policy.

Author Biography

Frances Fowler worked as a classroom teacher in Tennessee for 15 years. During that time she was active in both her union and her school district and was also involved in state and local politics. Eventually, she became so interested in politics and policy that she completed her Ph.D. at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, where she majored in educational administration with a concentration in educational politics and policy. In 1990 she accepted a tenure-track position at Miami University, where she taught educational politics and policy for 19 years, ending her higher education career as a Full Professor and Director of Graduate Studies in her department.  Frances retired in 2009 and she remains politically active at the local level and is active on the Education Committee of the Cincinnati Area League of Women Voters. In addition to this book, she is also a co-author of Educational Governance and Administration

Table of Contents

The Background of Education Policyp. 1
Policy: What it is and Where it Comes Fromp. 3
Why Study Policy?p. 3
School Leaders in Ozp. 3
Defining Policyp. 4
A Brief Definitionp. 4
Policy and Expressed Government Intentions-Racial Segregationp. 5
Policy, Law, and Racial Segregationp. 6
The Transformation of the Education Policy Environmentp. 9
The Way it Used to Bep. 9
The New Policy Environmentp. 9
Reasons for these Changesp. 10
Changed Roles of School Leadersp. 12
The Policy Processp. 14
Policy Issuesp. 14
Applying the Stage Model to Standards-Based Reformp. 15
The School Leader and Policy Studiesp. 18
Administrators as Policymakersp. 19
Administrators as Implementers of Policyp. 19
Administrators as Followers of Policy Issuesp. 19
Administrators as Influencers of Policyp. 20
Final Pointsp. 20
Power and Education Policyp. 22
Introductory Commentsp. 22
Defining Powerp. 22
A "Contested" Conceptp. 22
A Working Definition of Powerp. 23
Discourse and Powerp. 24
School Administration as Talkp. 24
Textsp. 24
Social Eventsp. 24
Social Practicep. 25
The Three-Dimensional Model of Powerp. 25
The First Dimension of Power: Explicit Usescof Powerp. 25
The Second Dimension of Power: The Mobilization of Biasp. 30
The Third Dimension of Power: The Shaping of Consciousnessp. 35
Power in Educational Settingsp. 36
The Power of Education Policy Actorsp. 36
Building Powerp. 38
Power and Distributed Leadershipp. 41
Ethical Issues Surrounding Powerp. 41
The Dangers of Powerp. 41
Power as Means and Endp. 42
Using Discursive Power Ethicallyp. 43
Final Pointsp. 44
The Economy and Demographicsp. 46
Why Analyze the Policy Environment?p. 46 .
Defining Policy Environmentp. 46
Policy and Its Social Contextp. 46
The Economic Environmentp. 47
The Importance of the Economyp. 47
An Overview of U.S. Economic Historyp. 48
Short-Term Economic Changesp. 52
Long-Term Economic Trendsp. 54
Demographics and the Policy Environmentp. 57
The Importance of Demographicsp. 57
Long-Term Demographic Trendsp. 58
Implications for Education Policyp. 61
Implications of the Business Cyclep. 61
Implications of Long-Range Trendsp. 62
"Do More with Less"p. 63
"Do a Lot More with a Little More"p. 63
"Do a Lot More with a Lot Less"p. 64
Reading Between the Linesp. 64
Final Pointsp. 65
The Political System and Political Culturep. 67
The Importance of the Less Obviousp. 67
The U.S. Political Systemp. 68
Federalismp. 68
Separation of Powersp. 71
Fragmentation of Governancep. 71
Focus on Electionsp. 73
Judicial Reviewp. 74
Implications of the Political System for School Leadersp. 74
Competition Among Governance Bodiesp. 74
Multiple Veto Pointsp. 76
Timing Policy Concerns with Electionsp. 76
Network and Coalition Buildingp. 79
Political Culturep. 81
Defining Political Culturep. 81
Traditionalistic Political Culturep. 81
Moralistic Political Culturep. 83
Individualistic Political Culturep. 83
Political Culture and Education Policyp. 84
Implications for School Administratorsp. 86
Final Pointsp. 89
Values and Ideologyp. 91
The Importance of Ideasp. 91
Basic Values in U.S. Politicsp. 92
Self-Interest and Other Valuesp. 92
Self-Interest Valuesp. 93
General Social Valuesp. 94
Democratic Valuesp. 95
Economic Valuesp. 99
Values Interacting with Each Otherp. 103
Cyclical Shifts in Dominant Valuesp. 103
Important Value Conflictsp. 104
Ideologyp. 107
Defining Ideologyp. 107
Major U.S. Ideologiesp. 107
Conservatismp. 107
Liberalismp. 110
Other Ideologiesp. 112
Extremist Ideologies in the United Statesp. 112
Ideologies in Other Countriesp. 113
School Leaders Caught in Ideological Crossfirep. 115
Schools as Contested Terrainp. 115
Dealing Effectively with Ideological Conflictsp. 116
Final Pointsp. 120
Policy Actors and the Policy Processp. 123
The Major Education Policy Actorsp. 125
The Dramatis Personae of the Policy Dramap. 125
Government Actorsp. 126
The Legislative Branchp. 126
The Executive Branchp. 130
The Judicial Branchp. 133
Local Government Actorsp. 134
Nongovernmental Policy Actorsp. 136
Interest Groups: What they are and What they Dop. 136
Education Interest Groupsp. 137
Noneducation Interest Groupsp. 137
Policy Networksp. 138
Policy Planning Organizationsp. 139
The Mediap. 139
Identifying and Learning about Policy Actorsp. 142
Overall Approachp. 142
Locating Elected Government Officialsp. 142
Identifying Appointed Officials and Groupsp. 144
Identifying Policy Planning and Related Organizationsp. 144
Locating the "Neglected Stepchild"p. 146
Setting the Stage and Getting on It: Issue Definition and Agenda Settingp. 148
Perception and Reality in the Policy Processp. 148
Issue Definition: Setting the Stagep. 149
Defining Issue Definitionp. 149
The Education Policy Planning and Research Communityp. 150
The Policy Agendap. 161
Defining Policy Agendap. 161
Types of Policy Agendasp. 161
How Agendas Relate to Each Otherp. 162
Getting on the Governmental Policy Agendap. 164
Staying on a Policy Agendap. 166
Nondecisionsp. 167
School Leaders and the Early Stages of the Policy Processp. 167
Following the Early Stagesp. 167
Influencing the Early Stagesp. 168
Final Pointsp. 171
Getting the Words and the Money: Policy Formulation and Policy Adoptionp. 173
The High-Visibility Stages of the Policy Processp. 173
Policy Formulation and Adoption in Legislaturesp. 174
A Conservative Processp. 174
Legislative Proposals and Where They Come Fromp. 175
How Bills are Draftedp. 177
How Bills Move Through a Legislaturep. 178
The Politics of Getting a Policy Adoptedp. 180
Obtaining Fundingp. 182
Policy Formulation and Adoption in Administrative
Agenciesp. 186
Rule Makingp. 186
Rule Making in the Statesp. 190
Policy Formulation and Adoption in the Courtsp. 190
Judges as Policy Actorsp. 190
Taking Cases to Courtp. 191
How Judges Formulate and Adopt Policyp. 192
Examples of Education Policymaking by Judgesp. 193
Influencing Policy Formulation and Adoptionp. 195
General Principlesp. 195
Influencing Legislatures and Agenciesp. 197
Working Through Professional Organizationsp. 200
Lobbyingp. 203
Final Pointsp. 210
Looking at Policies: Policy Instruments and Cost Effectivenessp. 213
Learning to Analyze Public Policiesp. 213
Lowi's Techniques of Controlp. 214
Distributive Policiesp. 214
Regulatory Policiesp. 216
Redistributive Policiesp. 218
Do Lowi's Categories Overlap?p. 219
Using Lowi's Categories in School Leadershipp. 219
Exercises on the Techniques of Controlp. 222
McDonnell and Elmore's Policy Instrumentsp. 223
Mandatesp. 223
Inducementsp. 225
Capacity Buildingp. 226
System Changep. 227
Hortatory Policy, or Persuasionp. 228
The Use of Policy Instruments in the Statesp. 229
Using McDonnell and Elmore's Ideas in School Leadershipp. 230
Exercises on the Policy Instrumentsp. 232
Cost Analysis and Cost-Effectiveness Analysisp. 232
Thinking About Costsp. 232
Cost Analysisp. 233
Cost-Effectiveness Analysisp. 238
Final Pointsp. 239
Policy Implementation: Getting People to Carry Out a Policyp. 241
The Surprising Difficulty of Implementationp. 241
The Research on Implementationp. 242
Defining Implementationp. 242
A Rapidly Growing Fieldp. 242
First-Generation Research-The Difficulty of Implementationp. 243
Second-Generation Research-Analyses of Failure and Successp. 245
Third-Generation Research-Implementing Complex Policiesp. 248
Implementers as Learnersp. 249
Scaling Upp. 252
How to Implement a New Policyp. 255
Mobilizing for Implementationp. 255
Implementation Properp. 265
Stages of Implementationp. 265
Institutionalizationp. 270
Implementing Unpopular Policiesp. 271
Why Some Policies Are Unpopularp. 271
Issues Surrounding Resistancep. 272
Final Pointsp. 276
Policy Evaluation: Determining if the Policy Worksp. 278
A Nervous-Making Topicp. 278
Definitions Associated with Policy Evaluationp. 279
A Brief History of Educational Policy Evaluationp. 280
Early Evaluationp. 280
The War on Povertyp. 280
The Professionalization of Evaluationp. 281
Characteristics of Policy Evaluationsp. 281
The Evaluation Processp. 281
Criteria for Judging Evaluationsp. 283
Evaluation Accountabilityp. 284
Purposes of Evaluationsp. 285
Methodologies Used in Policy Evaluationp. 286
Indicatorsp. 288
Facilitating Meaningful Policy Evaluationsp. 289
The Politics of Evaluationp. 290
Suggestions for Achieving a Sound Evaluationp. 292
Acting on an Evaluation Reportp. 296
Inactionp. 296
Minor Modificationsp. 296
Major Modificationsp. 296
Terminationp. 297
Final Pointsp. 297
Education Policy in the United States: Retrospective and Prospectivep. 300
If We Aren't in Kansas, Where are We?p. 300
Four Theoretical Frameworksp. 301
Competing Valuesp. 301
Lowi's Policy Typesp. 301
Institutional Choicep. 301
International Convergencep. 303
Retrospective on U.S. Education Policyp. 303
The Young Republic, 1783-1830p. 303
The Rise of the Common School, 1831-1900p. 306
The "Scientific" Sorting Machine, 1900-1982p. 309
In Search of a New Paradigm, 1983-Presentp. 314
Is No Child Left Behind the New Paradigm?p. 318
Overviewp. 318
The Passage of NCLBp. 319
Major Provisions of NCLBp. 320
Applying Four Theoretical Lenses to NCLBp. 321
Will NCLB Be Repealed?p. 324
What, Then, Should Education Leaders Do?p. 325
Final Pointsp. 327
Glossaryp. 329
Appendixp. 331
Referencesp. 333
Name Indexp. 347
Subject Indexp. 353
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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