Political Worlds of Women

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2012-02-28
  • Publisher: Routledge

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Political Worlds of Womenprovides a comprehensive overview of women's political activism, comparing formal and informal channels of power from official institutions of state to grassroots mobilizations and Internet campaigns. Illuminating the politics of identity enmeshed in local, national, and global gender orders, this book explores women's creation of new political spaces and innovative political strategies to secure full citizenship and equal access to political power. Incorporating case studies from Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, Mary Hawkesworth analyzes critical issues such as immigration and citizenship, the politics of representation, sexual regulation, and gender mainstreaming in order to examine how women mobilize in this era of globalization. Political Worlds of Womendeepens understandings of national and global citizenship and presents the formidable challenges facing racial and gender justice in the contemporary world. It is an essential resource for students and scholars of women's studies and gender politics.

Author Biography

Mary Hawkesworth is professor of political science and women's and gender studio at Rutgers University. She has written extensively on feminist theory, women and politics, and gender and globalization. She currently serves as editor of Signs: Journal of Woman in Culture and Society.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgmentsp. xi
List of Imagesp. xv
Political Worlds of Women: Introductionp. 1
Strategies of Political Analysisp. 2
Comparative Assessmentp. 3
Multilevel Analysisp. 4
Feminist Theorizing in Contextp. 5
Tracing Historical Changep. 6
Expanding Political Framesp. 8
From Individual and Institutional Analysis to Structures of Oppressionp. 11
Chapter Overviewp. 14
Political Leadership, Gendered Institutions, and the Politics of Exclusionp. 25
Women in Executive Officesp. 27
Women in National Legislaturesp. 27
Explaining Women's Continuing Absencep. 32
Gendered Institutions and the Politics of Exclusion: Historical Precedentsp. 33
Body Politics in the American and French Revolutionsp. 35
The Consolidation of Separate Spheresp. 41
Political Parties and the Politics of Exclusion: Contemporary Practicesp. 43
Conclusionp. 45
From Demography to Development: Women's Worlds and the Politics of Knowledgep. 46
Global Gender Demographicsp. 48
Life Expectancyp. 50
Gender Ratiosp. 50
Marriage and Divorcep. 51
Pregnancy and Childbearingp. 51
Women's Laborp. 52
Migrationp. 57
War and Displacementp. 60
Developmentp. 66
Modernization Theory as Policy Practicep. 67
Gender and Gendering in Development Policiesp. 71
Women and Development: Reproduction and "Welfare"p. 73
Women in Development:p. 75
The Virtues of Waged Labor in the Formal Sector Gender and Developmentp. 78
Sustainable Developmentp. 81
Conclusionp. 81
Producing Raced-Gendered Citizensp. 85
Liberty, Equality, and Citizenship: Classical Liberal Presumptionsp. 86
The Political Demarcation of Public and Private Spheresp. 88
Producing Raced-Gendered Citizensp. 92
Birthright and Its Suspensionp. 92
Miscegenation Laws: Crafting the Complexion of Citizensp. 94
Immigrationp. 95
The Discursive Production of Raced-Gendered Citizensp. 99
Welfare Policyp. 100
Biopowerp. 108
Conclusionp. 112
From the Politics of Identity to Identity Politicsp. 113
Dispelling Caricatures of Identity Politicsp. 115
The Politics of Identityp. 119
The Microphysics of Power: Regulating Dressp. 119
Patrolling National Borders: Marriage and Reproductionp. 124
Reproducing Servilityp. 126
Sexual Terror as Feminizing Practicep. 127
Femicidep. 130
Making Injustice Visible and Actionablep. 133
Identity Politicsp. 138
Struggling for Visibilityp. 139
Expanding the National Imaginaryp. 142
Challenging Political Homophobiap. 143
Securing Constitutional Rights and Recognitionp. 145
Transnational Strategies for Sexual Democracyp. 147
Conclusionp. 149
Engaging the Statep. 151
Competing Conceptions of the Statep. 154
The Straggle for Equal Citizenshipp. 159
The Quest for Equality in the United Statesp. 159
Activism and Advocacy in Comparative Perspectivep. 165
Women's Movements and Democratization in Latin Americap. 165
Women's Movement Activism at the Grassroots in Indiap. 169
Feminist Civil Society: From Interest Groups to NGOsp. 171
NGOs in Postsocialist Statesp. 174
The European Women's Lobby: Coordinating Gender Equality Initiativesp. 177
Engaging the State in Africa:p. 181
From Apartheid to. the War on Terror Mobilizing for Equality it South Africap. 181
Engaging the State in Moroccop. 184
Conclusionp. 185
Becoming the Statep. 187
Portraits of Women Heads of Statep. 190
Routes to Power: From Kinship to Quotasp. 193
Political Parties and the Gender Politics of Partisanshipp. 195
Strategies to Limit Male Dominancep. 196
Reserved Seatsp. 198
Voluntary Party Quotasp. 201
Mandatory Quotasp. 201
Challenges in Governing: Gender Politics in Officep. 203
Obstacles Confronting Women in Political Officep. 206
Conclusionp. 214
Promoting Equality Through Policymaking and Policyp. 217
Equality Policies: From Women's Machinery to State Feminismp. 219
Women's Policy Machineryp. 220
State Feminismp. 225
Policy Interventions: Violence Against Womenp. 228
Brazil's Delegacia da Mulher (Women's Police Station)p. 229
Family Courts in Indiap. 232
Gender Mainstreamingp. 234
Comparative Approaches to Gender Mainstreamingp. 238
The Politics of Equalityp. 245
Conclusionp. 247
International and Transnational Political Activismp. 249
Activism Within International Institutionsp. 251
The UN Commission on the Status of Women and CEDAWp. 252
UW World Conferences and NGO Forumsp. 257
UN Womenp. 261
Transnational Activism:p. 262
Preventing War by Reconceptualizing Peace Early Twentieth-Century Interventionsp. 263
Promoting Peace in the Contemporary Erap. 264
Expanding the Framework of Peace Activismp. 267
Everyday Peacemakingp. 270
Conclusionp. 277
Virtual Politicsp. 279
The Technological Infrastructure for Virtual Politicsp. 283
New Media and the Politics of Mobilizationp. 285
Flash Mobsp. 286
Networkingp. 287
Bloggingp. 288
Information Politicsp. 289
Peer-to-Peer Exchangesp. 294
New Media, Electoral Politics, and Political Participation: Evidence from the United Statesp. 295
Inclusion and Exclusion in Virtual Politicsp. 299
The Microphysics of Power Within the Professionp. 299
The Politics of Representation and the Content of New Mediap. 303
North/South Inequitiesp. 306
Gendered Genres in New Mediap. 308
Refiguring the Public and the Privatep. 310
Conclusionp. 312
Political Worlds of Women: Future Prospectsp. 315
Prospects for Equitable Politicsp. 318
Obstaclesp. 319
Gendered States, Subordinating Practicesp. 319
Stereotyping and Bias in Evaluationp. 320
Norms Grounded in Men's Experiencep. 321
Frames That Mask Raced-Gendered Powerp. 322
Economic Practices That Fuel Inequalityp. 324
Resistance and Reactionp. 325
Fundamentalist Offensivesp. 327
Future Prospectsp. 329
Abbreviationsp. 333
Glossaryp. 335
Notesp. 343
Bibliographyp. 385
Indexp. 415
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