Polymer Adhesion, Friction, and Lubrication

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2013-04-01
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Specifically dedicated to polymer and biopolymer systems, Polymer Adhesion, Friction, and Lubrication guides readers to the scratch, wear, and lubrication properties of polymers and the engineering applications, from biomedical research to automotive engineering. Author Hongbo Zeng details different experimental and theoretical methods used to probe static and dynamic properties of polymer materials and biomacromolecular systems. Topics include the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to analyze nanotribology, polymer thin films and brushes, nanoparticles, rubber and tire technology, synovial joint lubrication, adhesion in paper products, bioMEMS, and electrorheological fluids.

Author Biography

HONGBO ZENG, PHD, is an Associate Professor in the Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering at the University of Alberta. Dr. Zeng leads a research group that investigates various areas of surface and colloid science, and nanotechnology, with a special focus on the intermolecular and surface forces in polymer materials, complex fluids, biological systems, oils, and minerals. In addition, he works on the development of advanced functional materials that provide novel engineering and biomedical applications.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Fundamentals of Surface Adhesion, Friction and Lubrication

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Basic Concepts

1.2.1 Intermolecular and Surface forces

1.2.2 Surface Energy

1.3 Adhesion and Contact Mechanics

1.3.1 Hertz Model

1.3.2 Johnson-Kendal-Roberts (JKR) Model

1.3.3 Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov (DMT) Model

1.3.4 Maugis Model

1.3.5 Indentation

1.3.6 Effect of Environmental Conditions on Adhesion

1.3.7 Adhesion of Rough Surfaces

1.3.8 Adhesion Hysteresis

1.4 Friction

1.4.1 Amontons’ Laws of Friction

1.4.2 The Basic Models of Friction

1.4.3 Stick-Slip Friction

1.4.4 Directionality of Friction

1.5 Rolling Friction

1.6 Lubrication

1.7 Wear

1.8 Real Contact Area

1.9 Modern Tools in Tribology

1.9.1 X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)

1.9.2 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

1.9.3 Infrared Spectroscopy (IR)

1.9.4 Optical Tweezers or Optical Trapping

1.9.5 Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)

1.9.6 Surface Forces Apparatus (SFA)

1.10 Computer Simulation in Tribology



Chapter 2. Adhesion and Tribological Characteristics of Ion-Containing Polymer Brushes Prepared by Controlled Radical Polymerization

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Controlled Synthesis of Ion-containing Polymer Brushes

2.3 Wettability of Polyelectrolyte Brushes

2.4 Adhesion and Detachment between Polyelectrolyte Brushes

2.5 Water Lubrication and Frictional Properties of Polyelectrolyte Brushes

2.6 Conclusions


Chapter 3 Lubrication and wear protection of natural (bio) systems

3.1. Introduction

3.1.1. What makes biolubrication unique?

3.1.2. Theory of friction

3.2. Boundary lubrication

3.2.1. Dry/contact lubrication

3.2.2. Thin film boundary lubrication

3.2.3. Hydration layers

3.2.4. Intermediate boundary lubrication

3.2.5. Thick film boundary lubrication

3.3. Fluid film lubrication

3.3.1 Elastohydrodynamic lubrication in biological systems

3.3.2 Weeping Lubrication

3.4. Multimodal Lubrication

3.4.1 Mixed Lubrication and the ‘Stribeck Curve’

3.4.2 Adaptive Lubrication

3.4.3 Mechanically Controlled Adaptive Lubrication

3.5. Wear

3.5.1. How are friction and wear related?

3.5.2. Characterization, measurement, and evaluation of wear

3.5.3 Biological strategies for controlling wear

3.5.4 Wear of soft, compliant biological materials:

3.5.5 Controlling wear in hard biological materials: Self-sharpening mechanism in rodent teeth

3.6. Biomimetic and engineering approaches of biolubrication

3.6.1 Hydrogels coatings as artificial cartilage materials

3.6.2 Mimicking synovial fluid lubricating properties: polyelectrolytes lubrication

3.6.3 Superlubrication by aggrecan mimics: end grafted polymers and the brushes paradigm

3.6.4 Perspectives and future research avenues


Chapter 4 Polymer brushes and surface forces

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Some generic properties of polymer brushes

4.3 Sliding of high-Tg polymer brushes: the semi-dilute to vitrified transition

4.4 Sliding mechanism and relaxation of sheared brushes

4.5 Compression, shear and relaxation of melt brushes

4.6 Shear swelling of polymer brushes

4.7 Telechelic brushes

4.8 Brushes in aqueous media

4.9 Zwitterionic Polymer Brushes

4.10 Summary

4.11 Appendix: Self-regulation and velocity-dependence of brush-brush friction


Chapter 5. Adhesion, wetting and superhydrophobicity of polymeric surfaces

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Adhesion between polymeric surfaces

5.2.1. Van der Waals forces

5.2.2. Capillary Forces

5.2.3. Electrostatic Double-Layer Force

5.2.4. Solvation Forces

5.2.5. Mechanical contact force

5.3. Wetting of polymeric surfaces

5.3.1. Definition of contact angle: Young’s equation

5.3.2. Rough surfaces: Wenzel’s model

5.3.3. Heterogeneous surfaces: Cassie-Baxter model

5.4. Fabrication of Superhydrophobic materials

5.4.1. Replication of natural surface Direct replication of natural surface Replication by using an intermediate Nickel template

5.4.2. Molding or Template-assisted techniques Molding by using Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) templates Molding by using silicon templates Other molding methods

5.4.3. Roughening through introduction of nanoparticles Silica nanoparticles Polymer particles Carbon nanotubes

5.4.4. Electrospinning

5.4.5. Surface modification by low surface energy materials

5.4.6. Solution Method

5.4.7. Plasma, electron and laser Treatment

5.5. Surface characterization

5.5.1. Surface chemistry

5.5.2. Wetting property Experimental study

5.5.3. Microscopy Techniques Scanning Electron Microscopy Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

5.6. Conclusions


Chapter 6. Marine Bioadhesion on Polymer Surfaces and Strategies for its Prevention

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Protein Adsorption on Solid Surfaces

6.2.1 Protein-Repellant Surfaces Design Rules and Exceptions Polymer Brushes Nonionic Polymer Brushes with Hydrophilic Groups Bio-inspired Anchors for Surface-Initiated Polymerization Zwitterionic Surfaces Dendritic Coatings Hydrogel Coatings Hydrophobic and Superhydrophobic Surfaces Nanopatterned Surfaces

6.3 Polymer Coatings Resistant to Marine Biofouling

6.3.1 Hydrophobic Marine Fouling-Release Coatings: The Role of Surface Energy and Modulus Siloxane Polymers Fluorinated Polymers Fluorinated Polyurethanes Liquid Crystalline Block copolymers with Semifluorinated Alkyl Side Groups and Hydrophobic Surfaces Perfluoropolyether-Based Elastomers Fluorinated Siloxane Block Copolymers

6.3.2 Hydrophilic Coatings Polymers Polysaccharides

6.3.3 Amphiphilic Coatings

6.3.4 Self-polishing Coatings

6.3.5 Coatings with Topographically Patterned Surfaces

6.3.6 Anti-fouling Surfaces with Surface-Immobilized Enzymes and Bioactive Fouling-Deterrent Molecules

6.4 Conclusion



Chapter 7. Molecular Engineering of Peptides for Cellular Adhesion Control

7.1. Introduction: Cells, Biomacromolecules, and Lipidated Peptides

7.2. Biomaterials

7.3. Chemistry Tools

7.3.1. Bioconjugate Chemistry

7.3.2. Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis (SPPS)

7.4. Self-Assembly of Lipidated Peptides: Peptide Amphiphiles Engineering

7.4.1. Double Tailed Peptide Amphiphile

7.4.2. Single Tailed (Mono-Alkylated) Peptide Amphiphile

7.5. Biomimetic Peptide Amphiphile Surface Engineering Case Studies

7.5.1. Melanoma Cell Adhesion on a Lipid Bilayer Incorporating RGD

7.5.2. Adhesion of α5β1 Receptors to Biomimetic Substrates

7.5.3. Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell Adhesion

7.5.4. Cell Adhesion on a Polymerized Monolayer

7.5.5. Cell Adhesion and Growth on Patterned Lipid Bilayers

7.5.6. Single-Tail Fibrous Systems Bioactivation of Titanium Surface Mixed Peptide Amphiphile System PHSRN and RGD Incorporating Peptide Amphiphile

7.6. Neural Stem Cells on Surfaces: A Deeper Look at Cell Adhesion Control

7.6.1. The Stem Cell Microenvironment

7.6.2. Neural Stem Cells on Lipid Bilayers

7.6.3. Vesicle Fusion and Bilayer Characterization

7.6.4. Initial NSC Adhesion on Peptide Surfaces

7.6.5. Proliferation on Peptide Surfaces

7.6.6. NSC Differentiation on Peptide Surfaces

7.7. Overview of Molecular Engineering Designs for Cellular Adhesion

7.7.1. Self-Assembled Peptide Surfaces

7.7.2. Cell Adhesion Molecule RGD Surface Density Control: An Example

7.7.3. Cell Adhesion Molecule Accessibility (Exposure) Control

7.8. Ending Remarks

7.9. Acknowledgments


Chapter 8. A microcosm of wet adhesion – Dissecting protein interactions in mussel attachment plaques

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Mussel adhesion

8.2.1. Marine surfaces

8.2.2. Byssal attachment

8.2.3. Direct observation of plaque attachment

8.3 Surface forces apparatus.

8.3.1 Making the SFA relevant to biological environments.

8.4. Assessing protein contributions by SFA 

8.4.1. Asymmetric/Symmetric configurations.

8.4.2. Protein-surface interactions.

8.4.3. Protein-protein interactions

8.5. Conclusions.


Chapter 9 Gecko-Inspired Polymer Adhesives

9.1 Introduction

9.1.1 A note on terminology

9.2 Biological Inspirations

9.2.1 Key discoveries in gecko adhesion

9.2.2 Structured adhesion in other animals

9.2.3 Summary of observed principles of micro-structured adhesives

9.3 Mechanical Principles of Structured Adhesive Surfaces

9.3.1 Adhesion Contact splitting The importance of the terminal tip geometry Matting condition as a limiting principle Flaw insensitivity The effect of surface roughness Additional principles

9.3.2 Friction Classic friction theory for smooth flat surfaces Theory and experimental results of structured interfaces in shear

9.4 Gecko-Inspired Adhesives and their Fabrication

9.4.1  Macro- and Microscale Fibers Modifications leading to Adhesion Control Angled Fibers Tip Modifications

9.4.2 Nanoscale Fibers

9.4.3 Hierarchical Fibers

9.5 Applications of Bio-inspired Adhesives

9.5.1 Robotics Mobile Robots Manipulators

9.5.2 Safety and Medical Devices

9.6 Future Directions: Unsolved Challenges and Possible Applications


Chapter 10 Adhesion and Friction Mechanisms of Polymer Surfaces and Thin Films

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Adhesion and contact mechanics

10.2.1 Surface energies

10.2.2 Advances in contact and adhesion mechanics

10.3 Adhesion of glassy polymers and elastomers

10.3.1 Adhesion interface: chain pull-out

10.3.2 Glassy polymers: transition from chain pull-out, chain scission to crazing

10.3.3 Adhesion promoters for polymer systems

10.4 Experimental advances in adhesion and friction between polymer surfaces and thin films

10.5 Adhesion and fracture mechanism of polymer thin films: from liquid to solid-like behaviors

10.6 Adhesion and friction between rough polymer surfaces

10.7 Friction between immiscible polymer melts

10. 8 Hydrophobic interactions between polymer surfaces

10.9  Perspectives and future research avenues



Chapter 11. Recent advances in rubber friction with context in tire traction

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Background on rubber friction and tire traction

11.2.1 Characterization of surface roughness and contact mechanics

11.3. Recent innovations on tire tread compounds

11.4. Rubber friction under stationary sliding on rough surfaces

11.4.1 Theory of rubber friction on rough surfaces by Klüppel and Heinrich

11.4.2 Persson’s model on rubber friction

11.4.3 The model by Heinrich and Klüppel vs. the model by Persson: some comparisons

11.5. Rubber friction under non-stationary conditions

11.6. Interfacial effects on rubber friction

11.6.1 rubber surface treatment

11.6.2 Molecular scale probing of contact/sliding interface

11.7. Rubber friction involving textured surfaces

11.8. Field measurements within a frictional contact

11.9. Other studies on or related to rubber friction

11.10. Concluding remarks


Chapter 12 Polymers, Adhesion and Paper Materials

12.1. Introduction

12.2. Polymer nature of paper  

12.2.1. Paper as a network of fibers

12.2.2 Wood fibers and its natural polymeric constituents

12.2.3 Cellulose fibers

12.3 Functional polymers and sizing agents used in papermaking

12.3.1 Major functions of polymer additives

12.3.2 Common functional polymers Starch Chitin and chitosan Polyacrylamide (PAM) Polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) Polyethyleneoxide (PEO) Polyethylenimine (PEI) Polyaminopolyamide-epichlorohydrin (PAE) resins Polyvinylamine (PVAm) Polydiallyldimethylammoniumchloride (PDADMAC)

12.3.3. Sizing agents Rosin Sizing Agents Alkyl Ketene Dimers (AKDs)

12.3.3. 3. Alkenyl succinide anhydrides (ASAs)

12.3.3. 4. Flurosizing

12.4. Polymer adhesion and the formation of paper

12.4.1 Intermolecular forces or molecular adhesion processes van der Waals attraction Electrical Double Layer force DVLO Theory Steric Repulsion Hydration Force

12.4.2. Capillary forces

12.4.3 Work of adhesion and JKR contact mechanics

12.4.4 The formation of interfiber bonds

12.4.5 Linkage between molecular adhesion to paper strength Role of thermodynamic compatibility Contact mechanics aspects of interfiber bonds

12.5.  Polymer adhesion measurement

12.5.1 Shear adhesion testing

12.5.2 Peeling adhesion testing

12.5.3 JKR-type contact adhesion testing

12.5.4 AFM colloidal probe testing

12.6.  Summary and perspectives


Chapter 13. Carbohydrates and their Roles in Biological Recognition Processes

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Recent Advances in the Field of Carbohydrate Chemistry

13.2.1    Glycopolymers

13.2.2    Carbohydrate Microarrays

13.2.3    Carbohydrate-based Vaccines

13.3 Molecular Interactions of Carbohydrates in Cell Recognition

13.4 Techniques Used in the Identification of Carbohydrate Interactions in Cell Recognition

13.4.1    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

13.4.2    Cantilever Microarray Biosensors

13.5        Conclusions and Future Trends


Chapter 14. The impact of bacterial surface polymers on bacterial adhesion        

14.1. Bacterial adhesion

14.1.1 Significance of bacterial adhesion

14.1.2 Mechanisms of bacterial adhesion

14.2 The impact of bacterial surface polymers on bacterial adhesion

14.2.1 Bacterial surface polymers 

14.2.2 Impact of bacterial surface polymers on adhesion Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Pili, fimbriae, and flagella

14.3 Methods and models for understanding interaction mechanisms of bacterial adhesion

14.3.1 Techniques for studying bacterial surface polymers Electron microscopy Atomic force microscopy (AFM) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) Optical tweezers (OT) Surface forces apparatus (SFA)

14.3.2 Models to explain bacterial adhesion mechanisms Thermodynamic model Classical DLVO model Extended DLVO theory Steric (polymer-mediated) interactions Steric repulsion Polymer bridging (polymer-mediated and tethering forces)


Chapter 15 Adhesion, Friction and Lubrication of Polymeric Nanoparticles and Their Applications

15.1. Applications of Polymeric Nanoparticles

15.1.1 Biomedical Applications of PNP

15.1.2 Energy Storage

15.1.3    Skin Care

15.1.4    Sensors

15.1.5 Electronic Devices

15.2 Methods of Preparation of Polymeric Nanoparticles (PNP)

15.2.1 Dispersion of Preformed Polymers Solvent Evaporation Salting-Out Nanoprecipitation Dialysis Supercritical Fluid Technology Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solution (RESS) Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solution into Liquid Solvent (RESOLV)

15.2.2 Polymerization of Monomers Conventional Emulsion Polymerization Surfactant-Free Emulsion Polymerization Miniemulsion Polymerization Microemulsion Polymerization

15.3. Adhesion of Polymeric NP

15.3.1 Hertz Theory 

15.3.2 JKR Theory

15.3.3 DMT Theory 

15.3.4 Examples on Adhesion of Polymeric NP

15.4. Adsorption of Polymeric Nanoparticles

15.4.1 Adsorption onto Polymeric Nanoparticles

15.4.2 Adsorption of Polymeric Nanoparticles on Large Surfaces

15.4.3 Adsorption Isotherms

15.4.4 Adsorption Kinetics of Polymeric Nanoparticles onto Substrates

15.5  Friction of Polymeric NP

15.6. Summary


Chapter 16. Electro/magneto-rheological materials and mechanical properties

16.1. ER/MR history

16.2. ER/MR phenomenon

16.3. ER/MR materials

16.4. ER/MR effect models

16.5. Properties of ER/MR fluids under shearing, tension, and squeezing

16.5.1    Shear properties of ER/MR fluids

16.5.2    Tensile behaviour of ER/MR fluids

16.5.3 Compression of ER/MR fluids

16.6. Transient response to field strength, shear rate, and geometry

16.7. Shear thickening in ER/MR fluids at low shear rates

16.8. Applications


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