Polymer Nanocomposites: Processing, Characterization, and Applications, Second Edition

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2019-07-08
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education

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Table of Contents

Title Page
Copyright Page
About the Author
Part 1 Nanomaterials, Processing, and Characterization
1 Introduction to Nanotechnology
1.1 Definition of Nanotechnology
1.2 Brief History of Nanotechnology
1.3 What Is the Significance of Nanoscale Materials?
1.4 Why Is This Nanoscale So Special and Unique?
1.5 How Polymer Nanocomposites Work
1.6 Strengths and Weaknesses of Nanoparticles
1.7 Safety of Nanoparticles
1.8 Overview of the Book
1.9 Summary
1.10 Study Questions
1.11 References
1.12 Further Reading
2 An Overview of Nanomaterials
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Types of Nanomaterials
2.2.1 One Nanoscale Dimension in the Form of Lamellar
2.2.2 Two Nanoscale Dimensions in the Form of Fibers
2.2.3 Three Nanoscale Dimensions in the Form of Particulates
2.3 Summary
2.4 Study Questions
2.5 References
3 Selecting Resin Matrix and Nanomaterials for Applications
3.1 Characteristics of Polymer Nanocomposites
3.2 Different Types of Polymer Nanocomposites
3.2.1 Thermoplastic-Based Nanocomposites
3.2.2 Thermoset-Based Nanocomposites
3.2.3 Elastomer-Based Nanocomposites
3.3 Summary
3.4 Study Questions
3.5 References
4 Processing of Multifunctional Polymer Nanocomposites
4.1 Synthesis Methods
4.2 Solution Intercalation
4.2.1 Solution Intercalation from Polymers in Solution
4.2.2 Solution Intercalation from Prepolymers in Solution
4.3 Melt Intercalation
4.3.1 Thermoplastic Nanocomposites
4.3.2 Elastomer Nanocomposites
4.4 Three-Roll Milling
4.5 Centrifugal Processing
4.6 In Situ Polymerization
4.6.1 Thermoplastic Nanocomposites
4.6.2 Thermoset Nanocomposites
4.6.3 Rubber-Modified Epoxy Nanocomposites
4.7 Emulsion Polymerization
4.8 High-Shear Mixing
4.9 Ultrasonic Mixing
4.10 Summary
4.11 Study Questions
4.12 References
5 Structure and Property Characterization
5.1 Global Characterization Methods
5.2 Optical Microscopy
5.3 X-Ray Diffraction
5.4 Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy
5.4.1 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
5.4.2 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
5.4.3 Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS or EDX)
5.5 Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS)
5.6 Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM)
5.6.1 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)
5.6.2 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)
5.7 Raman Spectroscopy
5.8 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
5.9 Other Techniques
5.10 Mechanical Properties
5.11 Thermal Properties
5.11.1 Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA)
5.11.2 Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
5.11.3 Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA)
5.11.4 Thermal Conductivity
5.11.5 Other Thermal Properties
5.12 Flammability Properties
5.12.1 Cone Calorimeter (CC)
5.12.2 Mass Loss Calorimetry (MLC)
5.12.3 Microscale Combustion Calorimetry (MCC)
5.12.4 Oxygen Index—Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI)
5.12.5 UL 94
5.12.6 Steiner Tunnel Test (ASTM E 84)
5.13 Ablation Properties
5.13.1 Simulated Solid Rocket Motor (SSRM)
5.13.2 Subscale Solid Rocket Motor (Char Motor)
5.13.3 Oxyacetylene Test Bed (OTB)
5.13.4 Char Strength Sensor
5.13.5 In Situ Ablation Recession and Thermal Sensors
5.14 Electrical Properties
5.15 Other Properties
5.16 Summary, Future Needs, and Assessments
5.17 Study Questions
5.18 References
Part 2 Multifunctional Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites
6 Mechanical Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Thermoplastic-Based Nanocomposites
6.2.1 Nanoclay-Based Thermoplastic Nanocomposites
6.2.2 Carbon-Based Thermoplastic Nanocomposites
6.2.3 Other Nanomaterial-Based Thermoplastic Nanocomposites
6.2.4 Summary of Thermoplastic-Based Nanocomposites
6.3 Thermoplastic Elastomer–Based Nanocomposites
6.3.1 Nanoclay-Based Thermoplastic Elastomer Nanocomposites
6.3.2 Carbon-Based Thermoplastic Elastomer Nanocomposites
6.3.3 Other Nanomaterial-Based Thermoplastic Elastomer Nanocomposites
6.3.4 Summary of Thermoplastic Elastomer–Based Nanocomposites
6.4 Thermoset-Based Nanocomposites
6.4.1 Epoxy Nanocomposites
6.4.2 Special Types of CNT-Based Thermoset-Based Nanocomposites
6.4.3 Summary of Thermoset-Based Nanocomposites
6.5 Overall Summary
6.6 Study Questions
6.7 References
7 Thermal Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Thermoplastic-Based Nanocomposites
7.2.1 Polypropylene-Clay Nanocomposites
7.2.2 PEEK–Carbon Nanofiber Nanocomposites
7.2.3 PVC-Layered Double-Hydroxide Nanocomposites
7.2.4 Hybrid Systems
7.2.5 Summary of Thermal Properties of Thermoplastic-Based Nanocomposites
7.3 Thermoplastic Elastomer–Based Nanocomposites
7.3.1 Thermoplastic Polyurethane–Montmorillonite Clay
7.3.2 Thermoplastic Polyurethane–MWNT Nanocomposites
7.3.3 Thermoplastic Polyurethane Mixed with Laponite and Cloisite
7.3.4 Poly(dimethyl siloxane)/Boron Nitride
7.3.5 Polyethylene/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
7.3.6 Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer/ZnO
7.3.7 Summary of Thermal Properties of Thermoplastic Elastomer–Based Nanocomposites
7.4 Thermoset-Based Nanocomposites
7.4.1 Epoxy Nanocomposites
7.4.2 Thermal Conductivity of Epoxy-Based Nanocomposites
7.4.3 Heterogeneously Structured Conductive Resin Matrix/Graphite Fiber Composite for High Thermal Conductive Structural Applications
7.5 Summary of Thermal Conductivity Properties of Thermoset-Based Nanocomposites
7.6 Phenylethynyl Polyimide–Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites
7.7 Summary of Thermal Properties of Thermoset-Based Nanocomposites
7.8 Overall Summary
7.9 Study Questions
7.10 References
8 Flammability Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Thermal and Flame Retardancy Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites
8.2.1 One Nanoscale Dimension–Based Nanocomposites
8.2.2 Two Nanoscale Dimensions–Based Nanocomposites
8.2.3 Three Nanoscale Dimensions–Based Nanocomposites
8.2.4 Multicomponent FR Systems: Polymer Nanocomposites Combined with Additional Materials
8.3 Flame-Retardant Mechanisms of Polymer Nanocomposites
8.4 Concluding Remarks and Trends of Polymer Nanocomposites
8.5 Study Questions
8.6 References
9 Ablation Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Behavior of Thermal Protection Materials
9.3 Polymer Nanocomposite Review
9.3.1 Thermoplastic Nanocomposite Studies
9.3.2 Polymer-Clay Nanocomposite Studies
9.3.3 EPDM Nanocomposite Studies
9.3.4 Natural Rubber (NR) and Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (HNBR) Nanocomposite Studies
9.3.5 Thermoplastic Polyurethane Nanocomposite (TPUN) Studies
9.3.6 Phenolic Nanocomposite Studies
9.4 In Situ Ablation Sensing Technology
9.4.1 A Comparison Among the Temperature Profiles of High-, Mid-, and Low-Density Materials
9.4.2 Summary and Conclusions of Ablation Recession Rate of Different Types of Ablatives and Future Outlook
9.5 Overall Summary and Conclusions
9.6 Study Questions
9.7 References
10 Electrical Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Electrical Properties of Thermoplastic-Based Nanocomposites
10.2.1 Carbon Nanotube–Reinforced Thermoplastic-Based Nanocomposites
10.2.2 Carbon Nanofiber–Reinforced Thermoplastic-Based Nanocomposites
10.2.3 Graphite-Reinforced Thermoplastic-Based Nanocomposites
10.3 Electrical Properties of Thermoset-Based Nanocomposites
10.3.1 Carbon Nanotube–Reinforced Thermoset-Based Nanocomposites
10.3.2 Carbon Nanofiber–Reinforced Thermoset-Based Nanocomposites
10.3.3 Carbon Black–Reinforced Thermoset-Based Nanocomposites
10.3.4 Graphite-Reinforced Thermoset-Based Nanocomposites
10.4 Electrical Properties of Thermoplastic Elastomer–Based Nanocomposites
10.4.1 Inorganic Filler in Thermoplastic Elastomer–Based Nanocomposites
10.4.2 Organic Fillers in Thermoplastic Elastomer–Based Nanocomposites
10.5 Summary
10.6 Study Questions
10.7 References
11 Widespread Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Tribological Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites
11.2.1 Abrasion, Wear, and Scratch Resistance Characterization Techniques
11.2.2 Wear and Abrasion Resistance of Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites
11.2.3 Wear and Scratch Resistance of Polymer–Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites
11.2.4 Wear Resistance of PTFE-Graphene Nanocomposites
11.2.5 Summary of Tribological Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites
11.3 Permeability Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites and Applications of Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials in the Oil Field
11.4 Overall Summary
11.5 Study Questions
11.6 References
11.7 Further Reading
Part 3 Opportunities and Trends for Polymer Nanocomposites
12 Opportunities, Trends, and Challenges for Nanomaterials and Polymer Nanocomposites
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Government and Commercial Research Opportunities
12.2.1 U.S. Government Research Opportunities, Program Plans, and Progress
12.2.2 Commercial Market Opportunities
12.2.3 Cost and Property and Geographical Breakdown Analyses
12.2.4 Technical and Funding Developments
12.3 Nanotechnology Research Output
12.4 Trend and Forecast
12.5 Challenges
12.5.1 Manufacturability of Nanoparticles
12.5.2 Manufacturability of Polymer Nanocomposites
12.6 Concluding Remarks
12.7 References

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