Poultry Science

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2003-07-07
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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This unique book explains how changes in poultry and egg production and processing have paced the entire agricultural field. Completely revised to include current information on the North American and global poultry industry, this comprehensive overview brings together the biology and technology of poultry, and includes a complete accounting of all phases of the industry.Topics covered include: poultry biology, incubation, genetics and breeding, nutrition, feeds and additives, management, animal waste, food safety, health, housing and equipment, eggs, layers, and meat production; as well as comprehensive appendices that discussing the raising of poultry, game, and ornamental birds.For employees, managers, and owners of poultry producing businesses.

Author Biography

George Brant is a Professor of Animal Science at Iowa State University.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
About the Authorsp. xi
The Poultry Industry--An Overview
Domestication and Early Use of Chickensp. 1
Transformation of the American Poultry Industryp. 3
Domestication and Early Use of Turkeysp. 4
Development of American Poultry Productionp. 5
Poultry Products: Basics for Good Nutritionp. 8
Health Issues and Poultry Productsp. 9
Poultry Products to Feed the Hungryp. 10
World Poultry Distributionp. 12
U.S. Poultry Industryp. 13
Poultry Biology
Evolution and Classification of Birdsp. 22
Integumentp. 23
Structural Systemsp. 25
Circulatory Systemp. 26
Respiratory Systemp. 27
Digestive Systemp. 28
Excretory Systemp. 33
Reproductive Systemp. 33
Integration of Body Processesp. 39
Poultry Reproductionp. 46
Incubationp. 47
Broodingp. 57
Poultry Genetics and Breeding
Geneticsp. 58
Breeding of Chickensp. 65
Breeds and Breeding Turkeysp. 72
Fundamentals of Poultry Nutrition
Nutrient Composition of Poultry and Eggsp. 75
Classification of Nutrientsp. 76
Functions of Nutrientsp. 76
Nutrientsp. 78
Feeds and Additives
Feeds for Poultryp. 97
Evaluating Poultry Feedsp. 112
Buying Feedsp. 114
Feed Substitutionsp. 116
Feed Preparationp. 116
Presence of Substances Affecting Product Qualityp. 119
Toxic Levels of Inorganic Elements for Poultryp. 119
Poultry Feeding Standards-Diet Formulation and Feeding Programs
Factors Involved in Formulating Poultry Dietsp. 122
Nutrient Requirement Determinationp. 122
Feeding Standardsp. 122
How to Balance Dietsp. 123
Feeding Programsp. 126
Feeding Turkeysp. 129
Feeding Ducksp. 130
Feeding Geesep. 130
Feeding Ostrichesp. 131
Feeding Pigeonsp. 131
Feeding Game Birdsp. 131
Poultry Management
The Poultry Enterprisep. 133
Managementp. 134
Improving Efficiencyp. 135
Management of Poultryp. 136
Caponizingp. 136
Cannibalismp. 137
Troubleshootingp. 137
Computersp. 139
Communication Systemp. 139
Management of Lightp. 139
Broodingp. 140
Save Energy, Save Costsp. 141
Control Pestsp. 142
Rodentsp. 142
Litterp. 144
Animal Waste and Other Environmental Issues
Animal (Poultry) Wastep. 147
Poultry Behavior, Stress, and Welfare
Animal Behaviorp. 153
Stressp. 159
Welfarep. 159
Poultry Health
Normal Mortality and Morbidity Lossesp. 162
Monitoring Healthp. 162
Causes of Avian Diseasesp. 163
Pathogenic or Infectious Diseasesp. 163
Parasitesp. 172
Immunity and Other Defenses Against Diseasep. 179
Infectious Disease Prevention and Controlp. 180
Metabolic Diseasesp. 186
Environmental Stressp. 187
Behavioral Problemsp. 188
Food Safety
Government and Food Safetyp. 191
Pathogens and Microorganisms and Food Safetyp. 193
Food Safety Aspects of Eggs and Poultry Meatp. 193
Role of USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Servicep. 196
Irradiationp. 197
Antibioticsp. 198
Poultry Houses and Equipment
Locationp. 199
Space Requirements of Buildings and Equipmentp. 200
Other Poultry Facilities and Equipmentp. 212
Specialized Buildings and Equipment for Specialized Purposesp. 213
Housing and Equipment for Layersp. 213
Brooder Houses and Equipment for Chicksp. 215
Housing and Equipment for Replacement (Started) Pulletsp. 215
Houses and Equipment for Broilersp. 216
Houses and Equipment for Turkeysp. 216
Eggs and Layers
The Composition of the Eggp. 218
Biology of the Production of the Eggp. 223
Commercial Production of Eggs-Layersp. 223
Management of Egg Productionp. 234
Marketing Eggsp. 240
Chicken Meat and Its Production (Broilers)
Marketing of Chicken Meatp. 242
Composition of Chicken Meatp. 245
The Biology of Meat Productionp. 246
Commercial Production of Broilersp. 247
Broiler Managementp. 255
Broiler Breeders and Reproductionp. 257
Harvesting and Processingp. 260
Roastersp. 263
Caponsp. 264
Turkeys and Turkey Meat
Marketing of Turkey Meatp. 265
Composition of Turkey Meatp. 267
The Biology of Meat Productionp. 267
Commercial Production of Turkeysp. 267
Breeding and Geneticsp. 268
Nutrition and Feedingp. 272
Turkey Managementp. 274
Processing Turkeysp. 278
Turkey Breeders (Turkey Poult Production)p. 280
Marketing and Grading
Poultry and Egg Consumption and Pricesp. 288
Market Value of Poultry and Eggsp. 293
Factors Affecting the Price of Poultry Productsp. 293
Market Changesp. 294
Market Channels and Selling Arrangementsp. 294
Marketing Eggsp. 296
Grading and Sizing of Eggsp. 299
Marketing Poultry Meatp. 301
Current and Emerging Issues in Marketing (Consumer Trends)p. 305
Trends Ahead in Marketingp. 307
Poultry Industry and Business
Vertical Coordination of the Poultry Industryp. 309
Vertical Integrationp. 309
World Trade in Poultry and Eggsp. 311
International Competitivenessp. 313
Poultry Business Issuesp. 315
Records and Databasesp. 316
Allied Poultry Industriesp. 317
Poultry Researchp. 317
Careers for Poultry Science Graduatesp. 318
Other Poultry-Ducks, Geese, Pigeons, Ratites (Ostriches Plus Emus and Rheas), Game, and Ornamental Birds
Ducks and Geesep. 319
The Ratites-Ostriches, Emus, and Rheasp. 327
Pigeonsp. 332
Game and Ornamental Birdsp. 333
Business Suggestions for Small- and Moderate-Sized Poultry Producersp. 337
Raising Ducks and Geese in Free-Range Conditionsp. 346
Raising Ostrichesp. 354
Raising Pigeonsp. 355
Raising Game and Ornamental Birdsp. 356
Indexp. 363
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.


Just as poultry production throughout the world has undergone tremendous changes and growth, this book has been radically revised to reflect this. Building on the strengths of the series of books by M. E. Ensminger, we have concentrated in this extensive revision on accurately reflecting both the science on which poultry production is based and the fundamentals of the industry. This is an extensive revision and updating of the third edition of Poultry Science (published in 1992). Many new figures and photographs are included to illustrate formation and to reflect today's poultry production and the diversity of poultry. The book includes the various facets of poultry production ranging from broiler chickens, eggs, turkeys, ducks, geese, ostriches, and other ratites and game birds. It includes the industry (U.S. and world), poultry biology, development, genetics, production, processing, and marketing. New chapter/sections have been added on food safety, welfare, and environmental issues together with emerging issues including organic production. Increased attention is focused on the structure of the industry, the wide variety of poultry products on the market, new developments (including social and ethical issues), and broiler breeders.The book is intended as an introduction to poultry science courses, particularly units in poultry science at colleges in North America and throughout the world. It should also provide a useful overview of the poultry industry for business and engineering and other graduates entering the poultry industry. To aid updating, reference is made to pertinent websites. It is hoped the volume will be useful to small- and medium-sized producers, for poultry and game birds, poultry farmers, and future farmers. The appendices specifically address issues of special interest to these types of producers. The volume will provide a useful resource for extension educators and instructors in general courses in animal sciences.Although written in the United States, the book attempts to be useful to students, faculty, and the industry throughout North America together with South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. Units are provided in both the U.S. and metric systems. Issues particularly appropriate to countries in the European Union are now included. Recognizing the role of small- and medium-sized producers and critical niche markets (e.g., organic and free range), pertinent issues are addressed in the text together with a series of appendices specifically directed toward the small- and medium-sized producer.We recognize the invaluable role of our mentors throughout our careers and lives including in date order: the late John Phillips, Sir Brian Follett, Frank Cunningham, Arthur Chadwick, Mike Forties, Paul Griminger, Hans Fisher, the late Ed Oleski, David Topel, John Kozak, Paul Siegel, and many others (for Colin Scanes) and J. C. Gilbreath, Rollin Thayer, Sergio Brambila, F. W. Hill, Emmitt Haynes, and Rex Thomas, among others (for George Brant).We would like to thank the following reviewers for their valuable input: Kevin Downs-Middle Tennessee State University; Richard A. Barczewski-Delaware State University; Alan Sams-Texas AM; and Jason Emmert-University of Arkansas.We are indebted to our colleagues and particularly Susan Lamont and David Topel of Iowa State University's Department of Animal Science for their advice and wisdom. The tremendous support from our wives and families during the writing is gratefully acknowledged. Colin G. Scanes and George Brant Ames, Iowa, 2003

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