9780190852719

The Power of Critical Thinking Effective Reasoning about Ordinary and Extraordinary Claims

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780190852719

  • ISBN10:

    0190852712

  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2018-09-20
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

The Power of Critical Thinking: Effective Reasoning About Ordinary and Extraordinary Claims, Sixth Edition, provides the broadest range of tools to show students how critical thinking applies in their lives and the world around them. It explores the essentials of critical reasoning, argumentation, logic, and argumentative essay writing while also incorporating important topics that most other texts leave out, such as "inference to the best explanation," scientific reasoning, evidence and authority, visual reasoning, and obstacles to critical thinking.

Author Biography


Lewis Vaughn is the author or coauthor of several textbooks, including Philosophy Here and Now, Third Edition (2018), Writing Philosophy, Second Edition (2018), Living Philosophy, Second Edition (2017), and Concise Guide to Critical Thinking (2017), all published by Oxford University Press.

Table of Contents


Preface
PART 1. BASICS
1. The Power of Critical Thinking
Why It Matters
How It Works
Claims and Reasons
Reasons and Arguments
Arguments in the Rough
Key Words
Summary
Exercises
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Writing Assignments
2. Obstacles to Critical Thinking
Psychological Obstacles
The Almighty Self
The Power of the Group
Philosophical Obstacles
Subjective Relativism
Social Relativism
Skepticism
Key Words
Summary
Exercises
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
3. Making Sense of Arguments
Argument Basics
Judging Arguments
Finding Missing Parts
Argument Patterns
Diagramming Arguments
Assessing Long Arguments
Key Words
Summary
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
PART 2. REASONS
4. Reasons for Belief and Doubt
When Claims Conflict
Experts and Evidence
Personal Experience
Impairment
Expectation
Innumeracy and Probability
Fooling Ourselves
Resisting Contrary Evidence
Looking for Confirming Evidence
Preferring Available Evidence
* Evaulating Sources: The Internet and Beyond
* Fake News
Advertising and Persuasion
Identification
Slogans
Misleading Comparisons
Weasel Words
Key Words
Summary
Exercises
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
5. Fallacies and Persuaders
Fallacies: Irrelevant Premises
Genetic Fallacy
Composition
Division
Appeal to the Person
Equivocation
Appeal to Popularity
Appeal to Tradition
Appeal to Ignorance
Appeal to Emotion
Red Herring
Straw Man
Two Wrongs Make a Right
Fallacies: Unacceptable Premises
Begging the Question
False Dilemma
Decision-Point Fallacy
Slippery Slope
Hasty Generalization
Faulty Analogy
Persuaders: Rhetorical Moves
Innuendo
Euphemisms and Dysphemisms
Stereotyping
Ridicule
Rhetorical Definitions
Key Words
Summary
Exercises
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
PART 3. ARGUMENTS
6. Deductive Reasoning: Propositional Logic
Connectives and Truth Values
Conjunction
Disjunction
Negation
Conditional
Checking for Validity
Simple Arguments
Tricky Arguments
Streamlined Evaluation
Proof of Validity
Rules of Inference
Rules of Replacement
Key Words
Summary
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
7. Deductive Reasoning: Categorical Logic
Statements and Classes
Translations and Standard Form
Terms
Quantifiers
Diagramming Categorical Statements
Sizing Up Categorical Syllogisms
The Square of Opposition
Categorical Equivalence
Key Words
Summary
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
8. Inductive Reasoning
Enumerative Induction
Sample Size
Representativeness
Opinion Polls
Analogical Induction
Causal Arguments
Testing for Causes
Causal Confusions
Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
Key Words
Summary
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
PART 4. EXPLANATIONS
9. Inference to the Best Explanation
Explanations and Inference
Theories and Consistency
Theories and Criteria
Testability
Fruitfulness
Scope
Simplicity
Conservatism
Telling Good Theories from Bad
A Doomed Flight
An Amazing Cure
Key Words
Summary
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
10. Judging Scientific Theories
Science and Not Science
The Scientific Method
Testing Scientific Theories
Judging Scientific Theories
Copernicus Versus Ptolemy
Evolution Versus Creationism
Science and Weird Theories
Making Weird Mistakes
Leaping to the Weirdest Theory
Mixing What Seems with What Is
Misunderstanding the Possibilities
Judging Weird Theories
Crop Circles
Talking with the Dead
Summary
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
11. Critical Thinking in Morality and the Law
Moral Arguments
Moral Premises
Moral Theories
Evaluating Moral Theories
Two Important Theories
Legal Reasoning
A Coherent Worldview
Key Words
Summary
Exercises
Field Problems
Self-Assessment Quiz
Integrative Exercises
Writing Assignments
* Appendix A: The Truth About Philosophy Majors
Appendix B: Essays for Evaluation
1. Death Penalty Discriminates Against Black Crime Victims
2. Marine Parks
3. A Feminist Defense of Pornography
4. A Defense of Homosexuality
5. More Innocents Die When We Don't Have Capital Punishment
6. What's Wrong with Adultery?
7. A Pat-Down Is Better Than a Blow-Up
8. The Cohabitation Epidemic
9. Not Being Vaccinated Is Not Acceptable
10. Women and the Afghanistan Peace Process
11. A Deviance from God's Norm
12. Marriage Still Evolving, as Ever
13. Slouching Toward Chimeras
14. Fighting Islamic Extremists Who Stifle Free Speech
15. Is Sluttishness a Feminist Statement?
16. Torture: Time for Congress to End the Debate,
17. Torture: Severe Interrogations Work
18. Freedom of Expression: Protect Student Speech-Even "Unwise" Bong Banner
19. Freedom of Expression: Policy Reflects Common Sense
20. It's Irresponsible to Spread Fear of Vaccine
21. Flag Amendment: Flag Needs Protection
Appendix C. Answers to Exercises
Appendix D. Answers to Self-Assessment Quizzes
Appendix E. Critical Thinking and Writing
Notes
Glossary
Credits
Index

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