Practical Argument A Text and Anthology

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  • Edition: 3rd
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  • Copyright: 2016-09-02
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
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Get to heart of argumentative writing with the accessible, step-by-step introduction to the process found in Practical Argument.

Author Biography

During their long collaboration, Laurie Kirszner and Stephen Mandell have written a number of best-selling college texts for Bedford/St. Martin's, including Patterns for College Writing, Foundations First, Writing First, Focus on Writing, and, most recently, Practical Argument. Laurie Kirszner is a Professor of English, Emeritus at the University of the Sciences, where she has taught composition, literature, creative writing, and scientific writing, and served as coordinator of the first-year writing program.  Stephen Mandell is a Professor of English at Drexel University, where he founded and directed the basic writing program and has taught composition, literature, speech, and technical and business writing.

Table of Contents

Part 1—Understanding Argument

An Introduction to Argument

Recognizing Arguments

     Why Instructors Assign Argument [box]

Defining Argument

     What Kinds of Statements Are Not Debatable? [box]

Arguments in Real Life

Winning and Losing Arguments

The Rhetorical Situation

Considering the Writer

Considering the Purpose

Considering the Audience

Considering the Question

Considering the Context

Logos, Pathos, and Ethos

     The Appeal to Reason (logos)

     Logos in Action

     The Appeal to the Emotions (pathos)

     Pathos in Action

     The Appeal to Authority (ethos)

     Ethos in Action

The Rhetorical Triangle

The Audience for Argument

1—The Four Pillars of Argument

AT ISSUE: Is a College Education Worth the Money?

The Elements of Argument

     Thesis Statement



     Concluding Statement

     Checklist: Does Your Argument Stand Up?

     Nia Tuckson, Why Foreign-Language Study Should Be Required [student essay]  

    Andrew Herman, Raise the Drinking Age to Twenty-Five

READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Is a College Education Worth the Money?

*David Leonhardt, Is College Worth It? Clearly, New Data Say

Marty Nemko, We Send Too Many Students to College

Jennie Le, What Does It Mean to Be a College Grad?

Dale Stephens, College Is a Waste of Time

*Bridget Terry Long, College Is Worth It – Some of the Time

*Mary C. Daly and Leila Bengali, Is It Still Worth Going to College?

Tony Brummel, Practical Experience Trumps Fancy Degrees

Part 2—Reading and Responding to Arguments

2—Thinking and Reading Critically

AT ISSUE: Do Violent Media Images Trigger Violent Behavior? Thinking Critically

     Using Critical-Thinking Skills [box]

Reading Critically

     Guidelines for Reading Critically [box]

Becoming an Active Reader


     Close Reading

     Comprehension Clues [box]

Gerard Jones, Violent Media Is Good for Kids


    John Leo, When Life Imitates Video [student highlighting]


     Checklist: Questions for Annotating

    John Leo, When Life Imitates Video [student annotations]

     Jessica Robbins, Don’t Withhold Violent Games

    *American Psychological Association, Violence in Mass Media

Writing a Critical Response

     Checklist: Questions for Critical Reading

     Katherine Choi, Response to "When Life Imitates Video" [student response]

Template for Writing a Critical Response

3—Decoding Visual Arguments

AT ISSUE: Do Violent Media Images Trigger Violent Behavior? [continued]

Thinking Critically about Visual Arguments

     Visuals versus Visual Arguments [box]

Using Active Reading Strategies with Visual Arguments

     Comprehension Clues [box]

     Appeals: Logos, Pathos, and Ethos [box]

     Todd Davidson, Media Violence [visual]

    *Max Fisher, Gun-related murders and video game consumption [graphs]

    *Bob Engelhart, Violent Video Games [cartoon]  

     Parenthood Library, Distribution of Language, Sex, and Violence Codes in PG-Rated Movies [chart]  

    Boy Playing a First Person Shooter Game [photograph]

    Ways to Die in a Children’s Cartoon [Chart]  

    * Lauren Dazzara, Why Gaming Is a Positive Element in Life [Infographic]

Highlighting and Annotating Visuals

    Rockstar North, Grand Theft Auto IV [advertisement]

  *Nate Londa, Silence the Violence [image]

Responding Critically to Visual Arguments

     Checklist: Questions for Responding to Visual Arguments

     Jason Savona, Response to Grand Theft Auto IV [student response]  

     Template for Responding to Visual Arguments

4—Writing a Rhetorical Analysis

AT ISSUE: Is It Ethical to Buy Counterfeit Designer Merchandise?

What Is a Rhetorical Analysis?

     Overview: "Letter from Birmingham Jail" by Martin Luther King Jr. [box]

Considering the Rhetorical Situation

     Analyzing the Rhetorical Situation [box]

     The Writer

    Analyzing the Writer [box]

     The Writer’s Purpose

    Analyzing the Writer’s Purpose [box]

     The Writer’s Audience

    Analyzing the Writer’s Audience [box]

     The Question

Analyzing the Question [box]

     The Context

    Analyzing the Context [box]

Considering the Means of Persuasion: Logos, Pathos, Ethos

     The Appeal to Reason (logos)

     The Appeal to the Emotions (pathos)

     The Appeal to Authority (ethos)

Considering the Writer’s Rhetorical Strategies




     Stylistic Techniques

Assessing the Argument

     Checklist: Preparing to Write a Rhetorical Analysis

Sample Rhetorical Analysis

     Dana Thomas, Terror's Purse Strings

     Deniz Bilgutay, A Powerful Call to Action [student essay]

     Rajeev Ravisankar, Sweatshop Oppression

    Template for Writing a Rhetorical Analysis

     Nicholas D. Kristof, Where Sweatshops Are a Dream

5—Understanding Logic and Recognizing Logical Fallacies

AT ISSUE: How Free Should Free Speech Be?

What Is Deductive Reasoning?

Constructing Sound Syllogisms

     Syllogism with an Illogical Middle Term

     Syllogism with a Key Term Whose Meaning Shifts

     Syllogisms with Negative Premise

Recognizing Enthymemes

     Bumper-Sticker Thinking [box]

Writing Deductive Arguments

     Crystal Sanchez, College Should Be for Everyone [student essay]

What Is Inductive Reasoning?

     Reaching Inductive Conclusions [box]

Making Inferences

Constructing Strong Inductive Arguments

     Generalization Too Broad

     Insufficient Evidence

     Irrelevant Evidence

     Exceptions to the Rule

Writing Inductive Arguments

     William Saletan, Please Do Not Feed the Humans

Recognizing Logical Fallacies

     Begging the Question

     Circular Reasoning

     Weak Analogy

     Ad Hominem Fallacy (Personal Attack)

     Creating a Straw Man

     Hasty or Sweeping Generalization (Jumping to a Conclusion)

     Either/Or Fallacy (False Dilemma)


     Red Herring

     Slippery Slope

     You Also (Tu Quoque)

     Appeal to Doubtful Authority

     Misuse of Statistics

     Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc (After This, Therefore Because of This)

     Non Sequitur (It Does Not Follow)

     Bandwagon Fallacy

Patrick J. Buchanan, Immigration Time-Out


*Thane Rosenbaum, Should Neo-Nazis Be Allowed Free Speech?  

*Sol Stern, The Unfree Speech Movement

*American Association of University Professors, On Freedom of Expression and Campus Speech Codes  

*Wendy Kaminer, Progressive Ideas Have Killed Free Speech on Campus

*Judith Shulevitz, In College and Hiding from Scary Ideas

*Eric Posner, Universities Are Right to Crack Down on Speech and Behavior

Template for Writing a Deductive Argument

Template for Writing an Inductive Argument

6—Rogerian Argument, Toulmin Logic, and Oral Arguments

AT ISSUE: Is Online Education Better than Classroom Education?

Understanding Rogerian Argument

Structuring Rogerian Arguments

Writing Rogerian Arguments

     Zoya Kahn, Why Cell Phones Do Not Belong in the Classroom [student essay]

Understanding Toulmin Logic

Constructing Toulmin Arguments

Writing Toulmin Arguments

     Jen Davis, Competitive Cheerleaders Are Athletes [student essay]

Understanding Oral Arguments

Planning an Oral Argument

Checklist: Designing and Displaying Visuals

Delivering Oral Arguments

Dealing with Nervousness [box]

Composing an Oral Argument

     Chantee Steele, An Argument in Support of the "Gap Year" [student speech]  

READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Is Online Education Better Than Classroom Education?

    *Scott Newstok, A Plea for Close Learning

CollegeDegreeSearch.net, The Evolution of Online Learning (Infographic)

     Chris Bustamante, The Risks and Rewards of Online Learning

     David Smith, Reliance on Online Materials Hinders Learning Potential for Students

     Elena Kadvany, Online Education Needs Connection

     John Crisp, Short Distance Learning

Ray McNulty, Old Flames and New Beacons

    *Pete Rorabaugh, Trading Classroom Authority for Online Community

Template for Writing a Rogerian Argument

Template for Writng a Toulmin Argument

Part 3—Writing an Argumentative Essay

7—Planning, Drafting, and Revising an Argumentative Essay

AT ISSUE: Should College Campuses Go Green?

Choosing a Topic

     Topics to Avoid [box]

Thinking about Your Topic




     Informal Outline

Drafting a Thesis Statement

Understanding Your Purpose and Audience

Gathering Evidence

     Evaluating the Evidence in Your Sources

     Detecting Bias in Your Sources

Refuting Opposing Arguments

Using Analogies as Evidence [box]

Strategies for Refuting Opposing Arguments

Revising Your Thesis Statement

Structuring Your Essay

     Supplying Background Information [box]

     Using Induction and Deduction

Identifying a Strategy for Your Argument

     Constructing a Formal Outline

Establishing Credibility

     Being Well-Informed

     Being Reasonable

     Being Fair

     Maintaining Your Credibility [box]

Drafting Your Essay

     Suggested Transitions for Argument [box]

GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Using Parallelism

Revising Your Essay

     Asking Questions

Checklist: Questions about Your Essay’s Structure and Style

Checklist: Questions about Your Essay’s Supporting Evidence

Checklist: Questions about Your Essay’s Purpose and Audience

     Using Outlines and Templates

     Getting Feedback

     Adding Visuals

Polishing Your Essay


GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement


GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Contractions vs. Possessive Pronouns

     Choosing a Title

     Checking Format

Shawn Holton, Going Green [student essay]

Part 4—Using Sources to Support Your Argument

8—Finding and Evaluating Sources

AT ISSUE: Is Technology a Serious Threat to Our Privacy?

Finding Sources

     Finding Information in the Library

     Finding Information Online

Evaluating Sources

Evaluating Print Sources

     Nicholas Thompson, Bigger Brother: The Exponential Law of Privacy Loss

     USA Today Editorial Board, Time To Enact "Do Not Track"

    *Rebecca MacKinnon, Privacy and Facebook

    Evaluating Online Sources

     Using a Site’s URL to Assess Its Objectivity [box]

     Avoiding Confirmation Bias [box]

     *The Chronicle of Higher Education, Home Page [website]

     *Glamour Magazine, Home Page [website]

   *The Chronicle of Higher Education, About the Chronicle [website]

     *Glamour Magazine, About Glamour [website]

    *Jonathan Mahler, Who Spewed That Abuse? Anonymous YikYak App Isn’t Telling

    *Jennifer Golbeck, All Eyes on You

    *Craig Desson, My Creepy Instagram Map Knows Where I Live

    *Sharon Jayson, Is Online Dating Safe?

    *Sam Laird, Should Athletes Have Social Media Privacy? One Bill Says Yes

9—Summarizing, Paraphrasing, Quoting, and Synthesizing Sources

AT ISSUE: Is Technology a Serious Threat to Our Privacy? (continued)

Summarizing Sources

     When to Summarize [box]

     Summarizing Sources [box]

Paraphrasing Sources

     When to Paraphrase [box]

     Paraphrasing Sources [box]

Quoting Sources

     When to Quote [box]

     Quoting Sources [box]

   *Shelley Fralic, Don’t Fall for the Myths about Online Privacy

Working Source Material into Your Argument

     Using Identifying Tags

     Template for Using Identifying Tags [box]

     Working Quotations into Your Sentences

     Misrepresenting Quotations [box]

Synthesizing Sources

10—Documenting Sources: MLA

Using Parenthetical References

Preparing the Works-Cited List


     Guidelines for Citing a Periodical Article    


     Guidelines for Citing a Book

Audiovisual Sources

     Internet Sources

     Guidelines for Citing a Website

     Legal Case

     Government Document

MLA Paper Guidelines [box]

     Erin Blaine, Should Data Posted on Social Networking Sites Be "Fair Game" for Employers? [Model MLA Paper]

11—Using Sources Responsibly

AT ISSUE: Where Should We Draw the Line with Plagiarism?

Understanding Plagiarism

     Two Definitions of Plagiarism [box]

Avoiding Unintentional Plagiarism

   Online Sources and Plagiarism [box]

     Intentional Plagiarism [box]

Knowing What to Document

     Loos Diallo, Plagiarism Policy [image]

Austin American-Statesman, Cheaters Never Win

Revising to Eliminate Plagiarism

READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Where Should We Draw the Line with Plagiarism?

     Jack Shafer, Sidebar: Comparing the Copy

     Lawrence M. Hinman, How to Fight College Cheating

Trip Gabriel, Plagiarism Lines Blur for Students in Digital Age

Elizabeth Minkel, Too Hard Not to Cheat in the Internet Age?

     Richard A. Posner, The Truth about Plagiarism

   *Dylan Byers, Plagiarism and BuzzFeed’s Achilles’ Heel

   *K. Balibalos and J. Gopalakrishnan, OK or Not?

*Dan Ariely, Essay Mills: A Course Lesson in Cheating

Term Papers for Sale Advertisement [Web page]

Template for Writing an Argument about Plagiarism

Writing Assignments: Avoiding Plagiarism

Part 5— Strategies for Argument

12—Definition Arguments

AT ISSUE: Is Wikipedia a Legitimate Research Source?

What Is a Definition Argument?

Developing Definitions

     Dictionary Definitions (Formal Definitions)

     Extended Definitions

     Operational Definitions

Structuring a Definition Argument

     Adam Kennedy, Why I Am a Nontraditional Student [student essay]

     GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Avoiding Is Where and Is When

*Ej Garr, Athlete vs. Role Model

     Firefighters at Ground Zero
[photograph]; The Tuskegee Airmen [photograph]

READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Is Wikipedia a Legitimate Research Source?

     Neil Waters, Wikiphobia: The Latest in Open Source    

    *Michael Martinez, Why Citations Do Not Make Wikipedia and Similar Sites Credible

   *Kevin Morris, After a Half-Decade, Massive Wikipedia Hoax Finally Exposed

   *Alison Hudson, Stop Wikipedia Shaming

   *Andreas Kolbe, Debunking the "Accurate as Britannica" Myth

Randall Stross, Anonymous Source Is Not the Same as Open Source

, "Wikipedia: About"; Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "About the IEP"

     Neil Waters, Wikiphobia: The Latest in Open Source    

Template for Writing a Definition Argument

Writing Assignments: Definition Arguments

13—Cause-and-Effect Arguments

AT ISSUE:  Should Vaccination Be Required for All Children?

What Is a Cause-and-Effect Argument?

       Surgeon General’s Warning [photograph]

       In One Year, Guns Murdered [advertisement]

Buzzed Driving Is Drunk Driving [advertisement]

     Bumper Stickers [photograph]

Understanding Cause-and-Effect Relationships

     Main and Contributory Causes

     Immediate and Remote Causes

     Causal Chains

     Key Words for Cause-and-Effect Arguments [box]

     Post Hoc Reasoning

     Nora Ephron, The Chicken Soup Chronicles

Structuring a Cause-and-Effect Argument

     Kristina Mialki, Texting: A Boon, Not a Threat, to Language [student essay]

     GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Avoiding "The reason is because"

     Peggy Orenstein, Should the World of Toys Be Gender-Free?

READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Should Vaccination Be Required for All Children?

*Clyde Haberman, A Discredited Vaccine Study’s Continuing Impact on Public Health

   *Janet D. Stemwedel, Saying No to Vaccines

*Mahesh Vidula, Individual Rights vs. Public Health: The Vaccination Debate

*Ben Carson, Vaccinations Are for the Good of the Nation 

*Russell Saunders, Pediatrician: Vaccinate Your Kids — Or Get Out of My Office

Jeffrey Singer, Vaccination and Free Will

*Jenny McCarthy, The Gray Area on Vaccines

*Facts about the Measles Graphic

Template for Writing a Cause-and-Effect Argument

Writing Assignments: Cause-and-Effect Arguments

14—Evaluation Arguments

AT ISSUE: Do the Benefits of Fracking Outweigh the Environmental Risks?

What Is an Evaluation Argument?

     Making Evaluations [box]

  Identifying Bias [box]

     Criteria for Evaluation

Structuring an Evaluation Argument

     Kevin Murphy, Evaluation of a Website: RateMyProfessors.com [student essay]  

     GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Comparatives and Superlatives

     Vernon R. Wiehe, Nothing Pretty in Child Pageants

READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Do the Benefits of Fracking Outweigh the Environmental Risks?

    *Elizabeth Kolbert, Burning Love

    *Sean Lennon, Destroying Precious Land for Gas

    *Thomas L. Freidman, Get It Right on Gas

    *Scott McNally, Water Contamination: Fracking is not the problem

    *Shale Gas Production Subcommitte, from Shale Gas Production Subcommitte 90-Day Report

    *John Stossel, Fracking Is Wonderful

Template for Writing an Evaluation Argument

Writing Assignments: Evaluation Arguments

15—Proposal Arguments

AT ISSUE: Should the Government Do More to Relieve the Student-Loan Burden?

What Is a Proposal Argument?

     PETA, Let Vegetarianism Grow on You [advertisement]

Stating the Problem

Problem Solving Strategies [box]

Proposing a Solution    

, Let the Sunshine In [advertisement]  

Demonstrating That Your Solution Will Work

Establishing Feasibility

Discussing Benefits

Refuting Opposing Arguments

     Nyc.gov, It’s Your City. It’s Your Earth. [advertisement]

     Susan Engel, Teach Your Teachers Well  

Structuring a Proposal Argument

     Melissa Burrell, Colleges Need Honor Codes [student essay]

     GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Will versus Would

    *Adam Cohen, Self-Driving Cars Will Change the Rules of the Road  

READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: Should the Government Do More to Relieve the Student-Loan Burden?

     Student Debt Crisis Solution [visual]

     Richard Vedder, Forgive Student Loans?

Kevin Carey, The U.S. Should Adopt Income-Based Loans Now

   *Astra Taylor, A Strike against Student Debt

Lee Siegel, Why I Defaulted on My Student Loans

   *Sam Adolphsen, Don’t Blame the Government

Template for Writing a Proposal Argument

Writing Assignments: Proposal Arguments

16—Ethical Arguments

AT ISSUE: How Far Should Schools Go to Keep Students Safe?

What is an Ethical Argument?

Stating an Ethical Principal

Ethics versus Law

Understanding Ethical Dilemmas

     Treadlighly.org, Ride Hard, Tread Lightly [advertisement]  

     *PETA, Adopt, Don’t Buy [advertisement]   

     Linda Pastan, Ethics [poem]  

Structuring an Ethical Argument

     Chris Muñoz, Are Colleges Doing Enough for Nontraditional Students? [student essay]  

     GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Subordination and Coordination

     *Daniel Suleiman, More Than "Moral Complicity" at Auschwitz  

READING AND WRITING ABOUT THE ISSUE: How Far Should Schools Go to Keep Students Safe?

     Brett A. Sokolow, How Not to Respond to Virginia Tech – II

     Jesus M. Villahermosa Jr., Guns Don’t Belong in the Hands of Administrators, Professors, or Students

     Timothy Wheeler, There’s a Reason They Choose Schools  

   *Greg Hampikian, When May I Shoot a Student?  

   *Todd C. Frankel, Can We Invent Our Way Out of School Violence?

   *Alan Schwarz, A Bid for Guns on Campuses to Deter Rape

     Isothermal Community College, Warning Signs: How You Can Help Prevent Campus Violence

     Amy Dion, Gone but Not Forgotten

Template for Writing an Ethical Argument

Writing Assignments: Ethical Arguments

Part 5 Review: Combining Argumentative Strategies

     Anthony Prieto, Get the Lead Out of Hunting

Kevin Carey, Fulfill George Washington’s Last Wish — a National University

Part 6—Debates, Casebooks, and Classic Arguments


17— Are Helicopter Parents Ruining Their Children’s Lives?

     *Don Aucoin, For Some, Helicopter Parenting Delivers Benefits

      *Madeline Levine, Raising Successful Children

18—Should Controversial Sports Mascots Be Replaced?

     Jack Shakley, Indian Mascots — You’re Out

Ellie Reynolds, Native Americans Have Become a Political Pawn

19—Under What Circumstances Do Bystanders Have an Ethical Obligation to Intervene?

     *Lenore Skenazy,
How Kitty Genovese Destroyed Childhood

     *Joe Nocera, It’s Hard to Be a Hero

20—Should Bottled Water Be Banned on College Campuses?

     *Charles Fishman,
Bottled Water Is Silly, But So Is Banning It   

The Crimson Staff, Vote Yes on the Bottled Water Ban


21—Should Every American Go to College?

    *Eric Hoover,
College’s Value Goes Deeper Than the Degree

    *Liz Weston, When a Two-Year College Degree Pays Off

     Charles Murray, What's Wrong with Vocational School?

     Pharinet, Is College for Everyone?

22—Should We Eat Meat?

     Jonathan Safran Foer,
Let Them Eat Dog

Nicolette Hahn Niman, The Carnivore’s Dilemma

    *Daniel Payne, Why You Should Eat ‘Humane’ Meat

    *Sunaura Taylor, Humane Meat? No Such Thing


23—Is America Safer Now than Before 9/11?

 Omar Ashmawy, Ten Years after 9/11, We’re Still in the Dark

*Paul Brandus, Remembering 9/11: How Safe Are We Today?

*Jonathan Rauch, Be Not Afraid

*Christopher Elliott, The TSA Has Never Kept You Safe: Here’s Why


24—Does It Pay to Study the Humanities?  

*Christina H. Paxson,
The Economic Case for Saving the Humanities

*Anthony P. Carnevale and Michelle Melton, Major Differences: Why Undergraduate Majors Matter

*Kim Brooks, Is It Time to Kill the Liberal Arts?

*Thomas Frank, Course Corrections


, The Allegory of the Cave

     Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress

     Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal

     Thomas Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence

Abraham Lincoln, The Gettysburg Address

     Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions  

     George Orwell, Politics and the English Language  

     Rachel Carson, The Obligation to Endure  

     Betty Friedan, The Importance of Work

James Baldwin, If Black English Isn’t a Language, Then Tell Me, What Is?

Appendix A—Writing Literary Arguments

What Is a Literary Argument?

Stating an Argumentative Thesis

Choosing Evidence

Writing a Literary Argument

Megan McGovern, Confessions of a Misunderstood Poem: An Analysis of "The Road Not Taken" [student essay]

Loren Martinez, Not Just a "Girl"[student essay]

Appendix B—Documenting Sources: APA

Using Parenthetical References

Preparing a Reference List

Examples of APA Citations



     Internet Sources

Deniz A. Bilgutay, The High Cost of Cheap Counterfeit Goods [student essay]


Subject Index

Index of Titles and Authors

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