Practical Biotransformations : A Beginner's Guide

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2009-05-11
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
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The development of new asymmetric catalytic methods is of fundamental importance to industrial synthetic chemistry. The demand for optically pure synthetic intermediates and the drive to adopt greener methods of synthesis have stimulated a growing interest in biocatalysis as a selective and environmentally benign synthetic technique.Practical Biotransformations: A Beginner's Guide provides an introduction to microbes and enzymes and demonstrates their practical applications in synthetic organic chemistry. Designed as a laboratory manual, this user-friendly guide discusses standard laboratory techniques, with appropriate advice on aspects of microbial practice and associated safety.Topics covered include: An introduction to equipment in a biotransformations laboratory An overview of biocatalyst sources Maintenance and growth of biocatalysts Example biotransformations using commercially available microbes and enzymes Basic gene cloning and the use of 'designer' biocatalystsThis book will be a valuable resource for synthetic organic chemists with little or no experience of biochemistry or microbiology. It is the author's hope that this text will inspire readers to consider biocatalytic methods as real alternatives to traditional synthetic solutions.

Author Biography

Gideon Grogan is a lecturer at the University of York, Department of Chemistry. He is also Science Manager of the Bioscience for Business Knowledge Transfer Network (a UK DTI-funded organisation for biocatalysis collaborations between academe and industry) and Deputy Director of the Centre of Excellence for Biocatalysis, Biotransformation and Biomanufacture (at York).

Table of Contents

Table of Contents.1. Introduction to biotransformations.A historical overview of the field of interest including some key development points in techniques that have led to the rapid expansion of the use of biotransformations, particularly in industry. This would also include a brief description of the various enzyme classes, and some description of the relative frequency of use of each enzyme class in both industry and the academic literature (hydrolases, lyases etc.)..2. Setting up a lab.A general introduction to the equipment that would be found in a biotransformations lab that might be easily incorporated into an established organic chemistry laboratory. There would be four sets of recommendations - first those for using catalogue enzymes; second for using microbes; third for isolating and analysing enzymes from microbes; fourth, basic DNA manipulations and analysis. Suggested lists of necessary equipment purchases would be provided, and an estimate of costs..3. An overview of biocatalyst sources.This would include: a description of currently available enzymes - there are now many companies worldwide who have wide-ranging collections of powdered enzymes that can be used 'off-the-shelf'; a description of microbiological culture collections and contact information; a brief introduction to bioinformatics-based searches for new catalysts using available websites such as EXPASY, BRENDA and others for selecting genes encoding biocatalysts based on sequence. Information on sources of genomic DNAs and basic molecular biology consumables..4. Biotransformations catalysed by isolated enzymes.A brief summary of the advantages associated with using powdered commercially available enzymes. Four exemplary protocols of using commercially available enzymes from the literature that would illustrate the relative simplicity (or complexity) of using: a hydrolase for a resolution reaction, in both hydrolytic and synthetic (organic solvent) modes; an alcohol dehydrogenase or other nicotinamide dependent enzyme requiring cofactor regeneration; a multi enzyme system as required for e.g. a cytochrome-P450 dependent reaction; a carbon-carbon bond forming reaction using e.g. transketolase or aldolase..5. Biotransformations using microbes.A general introduction, including an explanation of the difference between resting cell transformations and 'fermentative' biotransformations; problems associated with reaction work-up and product isolation. The rest of the chapter would be split into separate treatments of the use of bacteria and filamentous fungi, the two most-commonly-used microbial biocatalysts.a) Wild-type bacteria: microorganism maintenance and growth (recommended medium formulations; monitoring bacterial growth, special requirements for sporulating bacteria etc.), containment issues, with a brief description of ACDP (Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens) guidelines. Eliciting activity from both constitutively and inducible expressed enzymes in whole cells using examples of e.g. dehydrogenase activity in a Streptomyces sp. and monoxygenase activity using a bacterium grown on a cycloalkanol as sole-carbon source..b) Wild-type filamentous fungi: microorganism maintenance and growth (relevant details as above), containment issues, with a brief description of ACDP guidelines). Hydroxylation reactions using whole-cell fungi, with particular emphasis on the generation of drug metabolites and fungi as eukaryotic models of mammalian drug metabolism..6. Basic gene cloning from genomic DNA templates and the use of 'designer' biocatalysts.A short section on the laboratory implications of handling GMOs. A brief explanation of PCR and its use in amplifying genes from

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