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9780470694299

Practical Field Ecology : A Project Guide

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  • ISBN13:

    9780470694299

  • ISBN10:

    0470694297

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-06-20
  • Publisher: Wiley

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What is included with this book?

Summary

This book introduces experimental design and data analysis / interpretation as well as field monitoring skills for both plants and animals. Clearly structured throughout and written in a student-friendly manner, the main emphasis of the book concentrates on the techniques required to design a field based ecological survey and shows how to execute an appropriate sampling regime. The book evaluates appropriate methods, including the problems associated with various techniques and their inherent flaws (e.g. low sample sizes, large amount of field or laboratory work, high cost etc). This provides a resource base outlining details from the planning stage, into the field, guiding through sampling and finally through organism identification in the laboratory and computer based data analysis and interpretation. The text is divided into twelve distinct chapters. The first chapter covers planning, including health and safety together with information on a variety of statistical techniques for examining and analysing data. Following a chapter dealing with site characterisation and general aspects of species identification, subsequent chapters describe the techniques used to survey and census particular groups of organisms. The final chapter covers interpreting and presenting data and writing up the research. The emphasis here is on appropriate wording of interpretation and structure and content of the report.

Author Biography

C. Philip Wheater Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK James R. Bell Rothamsted Research, Hertfordshire, UK Penny A. Cook Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK

Table of Contents

Tablesp. xi
Figuresp. xiii
Boxesp. xvii
Case Studiesp. xix
Prefacep. xxi
Acknowledgementsp. xxiii
Preparationp. 1
Choosing a topic for studyp. 3
Ecological research questionsp. 4
Monitoring individual species and groups of speciesp. 4
Monitoring species richnessp. 5
Monitoring population sizes and densityp. 5
Monitoring community structurep. 6
Monitoring behaviourp. 6
A note of cautionp. 6
Creating aims, objectives and hypothesesp. 7
Reviewing the literaturep. 8
Primary literaturep. 9
Secondary literaturep. 9
Other sources of informationp. 9
Search termsp. 10
Reading papersp. 10
Practical considerationsp. 11
Legal aspectsp. 11
Health and safety issuesp. 12
Implementationp. 13
Time managementp. 16
Project design and data managementp. 18
Designing and setting up experiments and surveysp. 20
Types of datap. 20
Sampling designsp. 22
Planning statistical analysisp. 28
Choosing sampling methodsp. 33
Summaryp. 34
Monitoring site characteristicsp. 35
Site selectionp. 35
Site characterisationp. 36
Habitat mappingp. 36
Examination of landscape scalep. 41
Measuring microclimatic variablesp. 42
Monitoring substratesp. 45
Monitoring waterp. 51
Other physical attributesp. 54
Measuring biological attributesp. 56
Identificationp. 58
Sampling static organismsp. 67
Sampling techniques for static organismsp. 70
Quadrat samplingp. 73
Pin-framesp. 83
Transectsp. 84
Distribution of static organismsp. 88
Forestry techniquesp. 90
Sampling mobile organismsp. 95
General issuesp. 96
Distribution of mobile organismsp. 97
Direct observationp. 97
Behaviourp. 98
Indirect methodsp. 103
Capture techniquesp. 104
Marking individualsp. 106
Radio-trackingp. 108
Invertebratesp. 111
Direct observationp. 112
Indirect methodsp. 114
Capture techniquesp. 115
Marking individualsp. 117
Capturing aquatic invertebratesp. 121
Nettingp. 123
Suction samplingp. 127
Benthic coringp. 128
Drags, dredges and grabsp. 128
Wet extractionp. 129
Artificial substrate samplersp. 131
Baited trapsp. 132
Capturing soil-living invertebratesp. 133
Dry sievingp. 133
Floatation and phase-separationp. 134
Tullgren funnels as a method of dry extractionp. 134
Chemical extractionp. 137
Electrical extractionp. 138
Capturing ground-active invertebratesp. 139
Pitfall trapsp. 139
Suction samplersp. 148
Emergence trapsp. 150
Capturing invertebrates from plantsp. 152
Pooteringp. 153
Sweep nettingp. 154
Beatingp. 156
Foggingp. 156
Capturing airborne invertebratesp. 158
Sticky trapsp. 161
Using attractantsp. 162
Refugesp. 165
Flight interception (window and malaise) trapsp. 165
Light trapsp. 167
Rotary trapsp. 172
Water trapsp. 172
Fishp. 174
Direct observationp. 176
Indirect methodsp. 176
Capture techniquesp. 177
Marking individualsp. 181
Amphibiansp. 184
Direct observationp. 186
Indirect methodsp. 187
Capture techniquesp. 187
Marking individualsp. 192
Reptilesp. 193
Direct observationp. 193
Indirect methodsp. 194
Capture techniquesp. 195
Marking individualsp. 199
Birdsp. 200
Direct observationp. 201
Indirect methodsp. 209
Capture techniquesp. 211
Marking individualsp. 213
Mammalsp. 216
Direct observationp. 217
Indirect methodsp. 219
Capture techniquesp. 225
Marking individualsp. 233
Analysing and interpreting informationp. 235
Keys to testsp. 238
Exploring and describing datap. 244
Transforming and screening datap. 244
Spatial and temporal distributionsp. 252
Population estimation techniques: densities and population sizesp. 252
Richness and diversityp. 256
Similarity, dissimilarity and distance coefficientsp. 258
Recording descriptive statisticsp. 261
Testing hypotheses using basic statistical tests and simple general linear modelsp. 261
Differences between samplesp. 265
Relationships between variablesp. 269
Associations between frequency distributionsp. 274
More advanced general linear models for predictive analysisp. 276
Multiple regressionp. 276
Analysis of covariance and multivariate analysis of variancep. 277
Discriminant function analysisp. 279
Generalized linear modelsp. 280
Extensions of the generalized linear modelp. 285
Statistical methods to examine pattern and structure in communities: classification, indicator species and ordinationp. 286
Classificationp. 287
Indicator species analysisp. 292
Ordinationp. 294
Presenting the informationp. 305
Structurep. 306
Titlep. 307
Abstractp. 307
Acknowledgementsp. 308
Contentsp. 308
Introductionp. 309
Methodsp. 310
Resultsp. 311
Discussionp. 316
Referencesp. 317
Appendicesp. 321
Writing stylep. 321
Tensep. 324
Numbersp. 324
Abbreviationsp. 325
Punctuationp. 327
Choice of fontp. 328
Common mistakesp. 329
Computer filesp. 331
Summaryp. 331
Referencesp. 333
Glossary of statistical termsp. 345
Indexp. 351
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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