Prentice Hall Reference Guide

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  • Edition: 8th
  • Format: Spiral Bound
  • Copyright: 2010-11-18
  • Publisher: Longman
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Thirty years of experience at the Purdue University writing center told Muriel Harris that few students could effectively use their handbook.

A truly useful textbook, she felt, would have ways to help students find the information they were seeking without having to know the terminology, would be clear and easy to understand for all students, and would be written in a student-friendly language and tone to avoid the intimidating formal instructional tone of some handbooks. These principles became the foundation of Harris’s Prentice Hall Reference Guide.

This tabbed, spiral-bound handbook is written to help students who may not know proper terminology quickly find the information they need.

With new material and emphasis on writing for college and career, plagiarism, research, documentation, argument, and thesis development, PHRG 8e continues to make it easy for students to find and understand the information they need.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents




Tab 1:  Compare and Correct, Question and Correct

     Compare and Correct                      CC1

     Question and Correct                      QC1


Tab 2:  Writing Processes

      1  Thinking About Writing

            a  The Rhetorical Triangle

            b  Topic

            c  Audience

            d  Purpose

            e  Medium


      2  Writing Processes and Strategies

            a  Planning

            b  Thesis

            c  Drafting

            d  Organizing

            e  Collaborating

            f  Revising

            g  Editing and Proofreading


      3  Paragraphs

            a  Unity

            b  Coherence

            c  Development

            d  Introductions and Conclusions

            e  Patterns of Organization


      4  Document Design

            a  Principles of Document Design

            b  Incorporating Visuals

            c  Paper Preparation

            d  Multimedia Presentations

            e  Writing for the Web


Tab 3:  Writing for College and Career

      5  Writing in the Disciplines           

            a  Writing for the Sciences

            b  Writing for the Social Sciences

            c  Writing for the Humanities

            d  Writing Essay Exams


       6  Writing About Literature           

            a  Ways to Write about Literature

            b  Writing the Assignment

            c  Conventions in Writing about Literature

            d  Sample Literature Paper


      7  Critical Reading, Thinking, and Arguing

            a  Reading Arguments Critically

            b  Finding an Arguable Topic

            c  Developing Arguments

            d  Recognizing and Avoiding Logical Fallacies

            e  Organizing Your Argument

            f  Sample Argument Paper


      8  Visual Argument           

            a  Similarities and Differences Between Written and Visual Arguments

            b  Appeals in Visual Argument

            c  Logical Fallacies in Visual Argument

            d  Creating Visual Arguments


      9  Professional Writing

            a  Memos

                Sample Memo

            b  E-Mail

                 Sample E-mail

            c  Business Letters

                 Sample Letter

            d  Cover Letters

                 Sample Cover Letter

            e  Résumés

                 Sample Résumés


      10  Creating Print and Electronic Portfolios

            a  Developing Portfolios

            b  E-Portfolios


Tab 4:  Revising Sentences for Accuracy, Clarity, and Variety

       11  Comma Splices and Fused Sentences

            a  Comma Splices

            b  Fused or Run-On Sentences


       12  Subject-Verb Agreement

            a  Singular and Plural Subjects

            b  Buried Subjects

            c  Compound Subjects

            d  Or and Either/Or in Subjects

            e  Clauses and Phrases as Subjects

            f  Indefinites as Subjects

            g  Collective Nouns and Amounts as Subjects

            h  Plural Words as Subjects

            i  Titles, Company Names, Words, and Quotations as Subjects

            j  Linking Verbs

            k  There (is/are), Here (is/are), and It

            Who, Which, That, and One of as Subjects


       13  Sentence Fragments

            a  Unintentional Fragments

            b  Intentional Fragments


       14    Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers

            a  Dangling Modifiers

            b  Misplaced Modifiers


       15    Parallel Constructions

            a  Parallel Structure

            b  Faulty Parallelism


       16    Consistency (Avoiding Shifts)

            a  Shifts in Person or Number

            b  Shifts in Verb Tense

            c  Shifts in Tone

            d  Shifts in Voice (Active/Passive)

            e  Shifts in Discourse


       17    Faulty Predication


       18    Coordination and Subordination

            a  Coordination

            b  Subordination


       19    Sentence Clarity

            a  Moving from Known (Old) to Unknown (New) Information

            b  Using Positive Instead of Negative Statements

            c  Avoiding Double Negatives

            d  Using Verbs Instead of Nouns

            e  Making the Intended Subject the Sentence Subject

            f  Using Active Instead of Passive Voice


       20    Transitions

            a  Repetition of a Key Term or Phrase

            b  Synonyms

            c  Pronouns

            d  Transitional Words and Phrases

            e  Transitions In and Between Paragraphs


       21    Sentence Variety

            a  Combining Sentences

            b  Adding Words

            c  Changing Words, Phrases, and Clauses



Tab 5:  Parts of Sentences

       22    Verbs

            a  Verb Phrases

            b  Verb Forms

            c  Verb Tense

            d  Verb Voice (Active/Passive)

            e  Verb Mood

            f  Modal Verbs


       23    Nouns and Pronouns

            a  Nouns

            b  Pronouns


       24    Pronoun Case and Reference

            a  Pronoun Case

            b  Pronoun Reference


       25    Adjectives and Adverbs

            a  Adjectives and Adverbs

            b  A/An/The

            c  Comparisons


       26    Prepositions

            a  Common Prepositions

            b  Idiomatic Expressions

            c  Other Prepositions


       27    Subjects


       28    Phrases


     29  Clauses

            a  Independent Clauses

            b  Dependent Clauses


       30    Essential and Nonessential Clauses and Phrases

            a  Essential Clauses and Phrases

            b  Nonessential Clauses and Phrases


       31    Sentences

            a  Sentence Purposes

            b  Sentence Structures


Tab 6:  Style and Word Choice

       32  Style Versus Grammar


       33  General and Specific Language

           a  General Versus Specific Statements

           b  General Versus Specific Words

           c  Concrete Versus Abstract Words


       34  Glossary of Usage


       35  Conciseness and Wordiness


       36  Passive Versus Active Voice


       37    Unnecessary and Inappropriate Language

            a  Clichés

            b  Pretentious Language

            c  Offensive Language


       38    Appropriate Language

            a  Standard English

            b  Levels of Formality

            c  Emphasis

            d  Denotation and Connotation

            e  Colloquialisms, Slang Terms, and Regionalisms

            f  Jargon and Technical Terms


       39    Nonsexist Language

            a  Alternatives to Man

            b  Alternative Job Titles

            c  Alternatives to the Male or Female Pronoun


Tab 7:  Punctuation

       40    Commas

           a  Commas in Compound Sentences

           b  Commas After Introductory Words, Phrases, and Clauses

           c  Commas with Essential and Nonessential Words, Phrases, and Clauses

           d  Commas in Series and Lists

           e  Commas with Adjectives

           f  Commas with Dates, Addresses, Geographical Names, and Numbers

           g  Other Uses for Commas

           h  Unnecessary Commas


       41   Apostrophes

           a  Apostrophes with Possessives

           b  Apostrophes with Contractions

           c  Apostrophes with Plurals

           d  Unnecessary Apostrophes


       42   Semicolons

           a  Semicolons in Compound Sentences

           b  Semicolons in a Series

           c  Semicolons with Quotation Marks

           d  Unnecessary Semicolons


       43   Colons

           a  Colons to Announce Elements at the End of a Sentence

           b  Colons to Separate Independent Clauses

           c  Colons to Announce Quotations

           d  Colons in Salutations and Between Elements

           e  Colons with Quotation Marks

           f  Unnecessary Colons


       44   Quotation Marks

           a  Quotation Marks with Direct and Indirect Quotations

           b  Quotation Marks for Minor Titles and Parts of Wholes

           c  Quotation Marks for Words

           d  Use of Other Punctuation with Quotation Marks

           e  Unnecessary Quotation Marks


       45   Hyphens

           a  Hyphens to Divide Words

           b  Hyphens to Form Compound Words

           c  Hyphens to Join Word Units

           d  Hyphens to Join Prefixes, Suffixes, and Letters to a Word

           e  Hyphens to Avoid Ambiguity


       46   End Punctuation

           a  Periods

           b  Question Marks

           c  Exclamation Points


       47  Other Punctuation

            a  Dashes

            b  Slashes

            c  Parentheses

            d  Brackets

            e  Ellipses (Omitted Words)


Tab 8:  Mechanics and Spelling

       48  Capitals


       49  Abbreviations

            a  Abbreviating Numbers

            b  Abbreviating Titles

            c  Abbreviating Place Names

            d  Abbreviating Measurements

            e  Abbreviating Dates

            f  Abbreviating Initials Used as Names

            g  Abbreviating Latin Expressions

            h  Abbreviating Documentation


      50    Numbers


      51    Italics

            a  Italics for Titles

            b  Italics for Other Uses


       52    Spelling

            a  Proofreading

            b  Spell-Checkers

            c  Some Spelling Guidelines

            d  Plurals

            e  Sound-Alike Words (Homonyms)


Tab 9:  For Multilingual Writers

        53    American Style in Writing

            a  American Style

            b  English Grammar vs. Grammar of Other Languages

            c  American English and World Englishes

            d  Web Sites for ESL Resources


      54   Verbs

            a  Verbs

            b  Helping Verbs with Main Verbs

            c  Two-Word (Phrasal) Verbs

            d  Verbs with –ing and to+ Verb Forms


       55  Omitted and Repeated Words

            a  Omitted Subjects

            b  Repeated Subjects


       56  Pronouns and Adverbs


       57    Count and Noncount Nouns


        58   Adjectives and Adverbs

           a  Order of Adverbs

           b  Order of Adjectives

           c  A/An/The

           d  Some/Any, Much/Many, Little/Few, Less/Fewer, Enough, No


        59  Prepositions


        60      Idioms


Tab 10:  Research

       61  Finding a Topic

            a  Deciding on a Purpose and Audience

            b  Deciding on a Topic

            c  Narrowing the Topic

            d  Formulating a Research Question

            e  Formulating a Thesis


       62  Choosing Primary and Secondary Sources

            a  Primary Sources

            b  Secondary Sources


       63  Searching Libraries and Library Databases       

            a  Libraries

            b  Library Databases and Subscription Services


       64  Using Web Resources

            a  Internet Search Strategies

            b  Types of Internet Sources


       65  Conducting Firsthand Research

            a  Observations

            b  Interviews

            c  Surveys


      66  Evaluating Sources

            a  Getting Started

            b  Evaluating Authors’ Credibility

            c  Evaluating Content

            d  Evaluating Internet Sources


      67  Collecting Information

            a  Keeping Notes

            b  Printing and Annotating Photocopies and Printouts

            c  Writing an Annotated Bibliography


      68  Using Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism

            a  Understanding Plagiarism

            b  Documenting Sources Responsibly

            c  Summarizing without Plagiarism

            d  Paraphrasing without Plagiarism

            e  Using Quotation Marks to Avoid Plagiarism

            f  Using Signal Words and Phrases to Integrate Sources


       69 Writing the Research Paper

            a  Getting Started

            b  Planning and Organizing

            c  Writing a Draft

            d  Reviewing the Draft

            e  Revising, Editing, and Checking the Format


Tab 11:  MLA Documentation

          70  Documenting in MLA Style

            a  In-Text Citations

            b  Notes

            c  Works Cited List

            d  Sample MLA-Style Research Paper


Tab 12:  APA, CM, and CSE Documentation

           71  Documenting in APA Style

            a  In-Text Citations

            b  Footnotes

            c  References List

            d  Sample APA-Style Research Paper


         72  Chicago Manual (CM)Style

            a  Numbered Notes

            b  Author-Date Citation Format

            c  Bibliography Entries


         73  Council of Science Editors (CSE) Style

            a  Name-Year Style

            b  Citation Sequence Style

            c  References List


            74  Resources for Other Styles


Glossary of Grammatical Terms









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