Principles of Addictions and the Law

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2010-02-26
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
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The book includes an examination of sources of law important to addiction and its treatment. The foundations for forensic work in professional legal testimony is explored (e.g., legal system, case law precedent, statutes governing addictions, civil and criminal procedures). The science of addiction is featured including the biology of addiction, addiction as a brain disease, responsibility vs. loss of control, development of addictions, and the role of genetics and environment. Drug testing, its uses with forensic populations, what the tests show and do not show, controversies in using tests in the general population also receives extensive treatment. Addiction and mental illness in forensic populations is highlighted for addiction treatment and continuing care. Case studies and landmark cases illustrate the role of alcohol, drug use, and addictions in legal decisions. *Focused primarily on alochol and drug addictions *Case studies and landmark cases are included to illustrate the role of alcohol/drugs in legal decisions (e.g., the Exxon Valdez case) *Brief overview of legal system and drug courts will be useful to clinicans, lawyers, administrators, and other professionals

Table of Contents

Contributorsp. xv
Prefacep. xvii
The Basic Legal Structure and Organization Anna Baumgrasp. 1
Introduction: Sources of Lawp. 1
The Judicial Branchp. 2
Civil Law Versus Criminal Lawp. 3
Criminal Lawp. 4
Defenses to Crimesp. 4
Civil Lawp. 6
Offenses Related to Addictionsp. 7
Basic Constitutional Rightsp. 9
The Bill of Rightsp. 9
The Legislative Branchp. 11
Statutes Regulating Addictionsp. 12
Conclusionp. 16
Referencesp. 16
Addictions and the Law Normanp. 17
Mens Rea and Capacityp. 18
Definition and Relevance to Addictionsp. 18
Legal Precedentp. 19
Addictive Diseasep. 19
Intoxication and Addictionp. 19
Legal Precedentp. 20
Criminal Lawp. 20
Insanity Defensep. 20
Legal Precedentp. 20
Criminal Competencep. 21
Civil Competencep. 21
Alcohol and Drug Use and Addiction as Risk Factors in Crime and Criminal Intentp. 21
Civil Law in Selected Populationsp. 22
Child Abuse and Custodyp. 22
Sexual Offendersp. 23
Malingeringp. 23
Corrections and Coerced Treatmentp. 24
Goals of Treatmentp. 24
Diversionp. 24
Prevalence of Alcohol and Drug Disorders during Incarcerationp. 25
Prevalence of Suicide and Alcohol and Drug Disorders during Incarcerationp. 25
Legal Precedentp. 25
The Death Penalty and Addictionsp. 26
Involuntary Hospitalizationp. 26
Malpracticep. 26
Competence to Sign into an Institutionp. 27
Informed Consentp. 27
Injury to a Third Party by Alcoholics and Drug Addictsp. 28
Adolescents and Juvenile Court and Addictionsp. 29
Prevalence of Alcohol and Drug Use and Disorders in Juvenile Populationsp. 29
Legal Precedentsp. 30
Forensic Pathology and Drug Testingp. 30
Forensic Pathologyp. 30
Drug Testingp. 30
Medical Recordsp. 30
Rehabilitation Actsp. 31
Conclusionp. 31
Referencesp. 32
Physician Practice of Addictions in Medical Practicep. 37
Introductionp. 37
Clinical Prevalencep. 38
Prevalence of Alcohol and Drug Dependencep. 38
in the General Population
Prevalence-of Multiple Drug Use andp. 38
Dependence in Treatment
Prevalence in the Medical Populationp. 39
Prevalence in Family and Workplace Populationsp. 39
Clinical Diagnosisp. 39
Risk Assessment by Physiciansp. 40
Physical Examination and Laboratory Testingp. 40
Clinical Course and Pathophysiologyp. 41
Clinical Comorbidityp. 41
Treatment of Medical Disorders Associated with Alcohol and Drug Use and Addictionp. 41
Physician Interventionp. 41
Requirements of Physicians for Diagnosing and Treating Addictive Diseasep. 42
Abstinence-Based Methodp. 43
Improving Treatment for Alcoholismp. 44
Why Physicians are Unprepared to Treatp. 45
Drug-and Alcohol-Related Disorders
Recommendations for Improving Education Trainingp. 46
Research Studies on Medical Education in the Area of Addictive Medicinep. 47
Conclusionp. 49
Referencesp. 49
Medical Licensure and Credentialingp. 55
Introductionp. 55
Peer Reviewp. 57
Immunityp. 57
Confidentialityp. 59
Physician Profile Databasesp. 60
Medical Licensing Boardsp. 64
Judicial Oversightp. 65
Federation of State Medical Boardsp. 67
The Model Policyp. 67
Compulsory Reportingp. 67
Examination/Evaluationp. 68
Grounds for Actionp. 68
Disciplinary Action against Licenseesp. 68
Impaired Physiciansp. 68
The Impaired Healthcare Professionalp. 69
Identifying the Problemp. 69
Ethical Responsibility and Legal Riskp. 69
Confidentiality versus Disclosurep. 71
Physician Health Program (PHP)p. 72
Referencesp. 72
Privacy within the First Decade of the Twenty-First Centuryp. 75
Introductionp. 75
Codes of Conduct for Privacyp. 76
Patient Access to Medical Recordsp. 76
Electronic Health Recordsp. 77
Update from the Privacy Commissionerp. 78
Practice Auditsp. 79
Conclusionp. 79
Referencesp. 80
Bioethical Decisions, Substance Use and Addiction: The Clinical Contextp. 81
Introductionp. 81
Substance Use, Addiction and Informed Consentp. 82
Pregnancy, Substance Use and Addictionp. 83
The Effects of Substance Use on the Fetusp. 83
Legal Responses to Maternal Substance Use during Pregnancyp. 85
Ethical Issues for the Healthcare Providerp. 86
Liver Transplantationp. 87
Treating Painp. 89
Conclusionp. 92
Referencesp. 92
Domestic Public Health Lawp. 97
Introductionp. 97
Controlled Substancesp. 98
Harrison Narcotics Act of 1914p. 98
Federal Bureau of Narcotics and Henry Anslingerp. 99
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)p. 102
Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938p. 103
Prescription Drug User Fee Act of 1992 (PDUFA)p. 103
Federal Agency and Policy: Supply and Demandp. 105
Reducing the Supply of Illegal Drugs in the United Statesp. 105
The Other Side of the Coin: Reducing Demand for Drugs in the United Statesp. 107
Conclusionp. 110
Referencesp. 110
International Law, Public Health and Addictionp. 113
What is International Law?p. 114
International Law in the Field of Addictionp. 115
Addiction: The Perspective of Drug Controlp. 115
International Organizations and the Infrastructure of Drug Controlp. 119
Addiction: The Perspective of Public Healthp. 121
Why is International Law Relevant to Addiction Practitioners?p. 124
Physicians and Scientistsp. 125
Lawyers and Judgesp. 126
Social Workers, Community Activists, Policymakers and Sufferers of Addictionp. 130
Addiction and Human Rightsp. 130
International Advocacy and the Framework Convention on Tobacco Controlp. 131
Referencesp. 132
Medical Malpracticep. 135
Overview of Medical Malpractice Lawp. 135
The Essential Elementsp. 135
The Standard of Care: Duty and Breachp. 135
Application to Addiction Casesp. 136
Standard of Care and Breachp. 136
Causation of Damagesp. 143
Expertsp. 146
Informed Consentp. 146
Defensesp. 149
Comparative Negligencep. 149
Assumption of Riskp. 152
Statute of Limitationsp. 154
Referencesp. 156
Expert Witness in Civil and Criminal Testimonyp. 159
Expert Qualificationsp. 159
Federal Rule of Evidence 702p. 159
Federal Rule of Evidence 703p. 160
Role of Expertsp. 161
Duties of Expertsp. 161
Mens Rea and Capacityp. 162
Expert Role in Criminal Casesp. 162
Medical Malpracticep. 163
Expert Role in Medical Malpractice Casesp. 163
Medical Expertsp. 163
Admissibility of a Medical Expertp. 165
Damage Expertsp. 165
Conclusionp. 166
Referencesp. 166
Forensic Considerations in Blood Alcohol Evaluationp. 167
Introductionp. 167
Alcoholismp. 167
Referencesp. 174
Pharmacological Drug Effects on Brain and Behaviorp. 177
Introductionp. 177
Influence of Neurobiology and Neurotransmittersp. 178
Molecular Mechanisms and Neurobiological Consequences of Drug and Alcohol Usep. 179
Performance-Enhancing Drugsp. 184
Conclusionp. 188
Referencesp. 188
Forensic Toxicologyp. 193
Introductionp. 193
Postmortem Forensic Toxicologyp. 194
Human Performance Forensic Toxicologyp. 195
Forensic Urine Drug Testingp. 195
Standard Operating Procedural Manualp. 196
Chain of Custodyp. 196
Dual-Testing Philosophyp. 196
Sample Preparationp. 197
Liquid-Liquid Extractionp. 197
Solid-Phase Extractionp. 198
Detection Techniquesp. 198
Immunoassayp. 198
Gas Chromatographyp. 199
Liquid Chromatographyp. 199
Mass Spectrometryp. 199
Method Validationp. 200
Referencesp. 201
Forensic Psychiatry, Substance Use and Mental Illnessp. 203
Introductionp. 203
Epidemiologyp. 203
Basic Legal Concepts and Statutesp. 205
Affirmative Defense Statutesp. 211
Inherent Conflict Between Free Will, Public Safety and the Disease Concept and Substance Addictionp. 213
Free Willp. 213
Disease Conceptp. 214
The Conflict between Free Will, Public Safety and the Disease Modelp. 214
Criminal and Civil Competence for the Addictedp. 216
Competence to Stand Trialp. 217
Civil Competenciesp. 218
Treatment Issues for this Population in Different Clinical Settingsp. 219
Clinical Assessment in Forensic Settingsp. 219
Treatment in Forensic Settingsp. 219
Civil Commitmentp. 220
Correctional Settings, Diversion and Coerced Treatment, Community Reentry and Reintegrationp. 221
Conclusionp. 223
Referencesp. 223
Legal Rights of Fetuses and Young Childrenp. 229
Introductionp. 229
Impact of Prenatal Drug Exposure on thep. 230
Developing Fetus
Impact of Substance Abuse on Childrenp. 231
Need for and Access to Treatmentp. 231
Rights of Fetuses Generallyp. 232
Rights of Fetuses: Civil Child Protective Proceedingsp. 234
Response to Reportp. 235
Courts' Responses to Child Protection Actions on Behalf of Fetusesp. 236
Courts' Responses to Substance Exposed Neonatesp. 237
Other Civil Remediesp. 238
Public Health Approachesp. 239
Criminal Chargesp. 240
Search and Seizure and Consentp. 241
Charges that Can be Sustainedp. 242
Charges that Cannot be Sustainedp. 244
Access to Substance Abuse Treatment Recordsp. 245
Access to Records and HIPAAp. 247
Conclusionp. 248
Referencesp. 249
Criminal Populations and Substance Abusep. 253
Introductionp. 253
Interventions for Substance Abuse in Correctional Facilitiesp. 254
Correctional Treatment Programsp. 254
Legal Standards for Substance Abuse Treatment in Correctional Facilitiesp. 255
Judicial and Statutory Approaches top. 256
Civil Commitment for Substance Use Substance Abuse Disordersp. 256
Drug Courtsp. 257
State and Federal Drug Lawsp. 259
Laws Regulating Drinking and Drivingp. 261
Information Sharing Between the Justice and Treatment Systemsp. 262
International Approaches to Criminal Populations and Substance Abusep. 264
Legal Foundations for Treatment Provided in Justice Settingsp. 265
Points of Intervention for Offender Drug Treatmentp. 266
Conclusionp. 269
Referencesp. 270
Legal Authority, Medical Basis and Public Policy for Controlling Scheduling Controlled Substancesp. 277
Overview of Controlling and Scheduling Drugs and Other Substancesp. 277
Legal Authority to Control Substances: Standards and Schedulesp. 278
Federal Rules and Regulations for Controlled Substancesp. 278
State Statutes and Regulations for Controlled Substancesp. 279
Drug Enforcement Administration and Food and Drug Administrationp. 280
Immediate Precursorsp. 280
Temporary Scheduling to Avoid Imminent Hazards to Public Safetyp. 280
Abuse Potentialp. 281
Evaluation of Drugs and Other Substancesp. 281
Factors Determinative of Control or Removal from Schedulesp. 282
Legislative Intent for Potential for Abusep. 283
Levels of Drug Control and Schedulingp. 284
Medical Basis for Potential of Abusep. 287
FDA Rolep. 287
Public Policy for Controlling and Scheduling Substancesp. 288
Referencesp. 290
Use of Addictive Medications and Drugs in Athleticsp. 293
Introductionp. 293
Historical Perspectivep. 296
Overviewp. 299
Factors Influencing Athletes Use ofp. 299
Performance-Enhancing Drugsp. 300
Anabolic Steroidsp. 300
Central Nervous System Stimulantsp. 305
Erythropoietin and Blood Dopingp. 313
Alcoholp. 314
Referencesp. 315
Class Action to Protect Against Discrimination of Individuals with Alcohol and Drug Addictionsp. 323
Introductionp. 323
Class Action as a Thesis to Promote Change for Discriminated Membersp. 323
History of Mixed Success in Class Action Litigation for Addictionsp. 324
Unfair and Lethal Discrimination against Classes of Addicted Individuals Evident in Government Policyp. 325
Discriminatory Policies and Laws against Cigarette Smokersp. 325
Addictionp. 326
Addiction is a Disease Defined as a Medical Disorder and by Legal Statusp. 326
Addiction as a Medical Diseasep. 327
Class Actionsp. 327
Class Action Litigation is an Effective Strategy to Protect against Discriminatory Policy and Lawsp. 327
History of Tobacco Cases Demonstrate Powerful and Unethical Forces against
Traditional Litigationp. 328
Form a Discriminated Class of Harmed Individuals with Small Claims to Make Class
Tight and Class Action Superiorp. 329
Public Support for a Class Consisting of Alcoholics and Drug Addicts Suffering from a Diseasep. 329
Class Definedp. 330
Numerosity and Commonality: Prevalent Disordersp. 331
Define Damages and Fraud Where Individual Issues do not Predominate and Class Action is Superior to Traditional Litigation for a Discriminated Classp. 332
Core Legal Theories and Causalityp. 332
Specific Areas of Class Action Litigationp. 333
Liability for Fraudulent Marketing of in Medically-Related Cases Controlled Substances: Litigation against Purdue Pharmap. 334
Class Certification Upheldp. 334
Class Certification Deniedp. 335
Medical Monitoring of a Classp. 335
Class Action is Superior to Other Methodsp. 335
Superiority of Class Action Frequently Determines Success of Litigationp. 336
Superiority can be a Single Forump. 337
Predominance Requirement Depends on Individual Issues for Causes in Addictionp. 338
Individual Interests in Controlling Individual Suits in Mass Tort Litigationp. 339
Common Knowledge Theoryp. 339
Conclusions from Class Actions in Addictionp. 340
Legacies from Tobacco, Opiate Medications and Alcoholp. 340
The Road Less Traveledp. 341
Referencesp. 341
Indexp. 345
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