Principles of Biomedical Ethics

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2008-05-23
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Building on the best-selling tradition of previous editions, Principles ofBiomedical Ethics, Sixth Edition, provides a highly original, practical, andinsightful guide to morality in the health professions. Acclaimed authors Tom L.Beauchamp and James F. Childress thoroughly develop and advocate for fourprinciples that lie at the core of moral reasoning in health care: respect forautonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice. Drawing from contemporaryresearch--and integrating detailed case studies and vivid real-life examples andscenarios--they demonstrate how these prima facie principles can be expanded toapply to various conflicts and dilemmas, from how to deliver bad news to whetheror not to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining treatments. Illuminating both theory and method throughout, Principles of BiomedicalEthics, Sixth Edition, considers what constitutes moral character and addressesthe problem of moral status: what rights are due to people and animals, andwhen. It also examines the professional-patient relationship, surveys majorphilosophical theories--including utilitarianism, Kantianism, rights theory, andCommunitarianism--and describes methods of moral justification in bioethics.Ideal for courses in biomedical ethics, bioethics, and health care ethics, thetext is enhanced by hundreds of annotated citations and a substantialintroduction that clarifies key terms and concepts. Features of the Sixth Edition: * Integrates case studies throughout the text, rather than presenting them inan appendix as in previous editions * A new chapter on moral status (Chapter 3) * Extensively revised and expanded material on the theory of the commonmorality (Chapters 1 and 10) * A reworked discussion of the ethics of care as a form of virtue ethics(Chapter 2) * Revised and updated treatments of nonmaleficence and beneficence, which takeinto account recent legal and philosophical literature and discussions (Chapters5 and 6) * A new section on vulnerability and exploitation as it applies to justice(Chapter 7) * A more concise treatment of the principles of biomedical ethics throughoutthe text, featuring developed, refined, and modified perspectives

Table of Contents

Moral Foundations
Moral Normsp. 1
Normative and Nonnormative Ethicsp. 1
The Common Morality as Universal Moralityp. 2
Particular Moralities as Nonuniversalp. 5
Moral Dilemmasp. 10
A Framework of Moral Normsp. 12
Conflicting Moral Normsp. 14
Conclusionp. 25
Moral Characterp. 30
Moral Virtuesp. 30
Virtues in Professional Rolesp. 33
The Virtue of Caringp. 36
Five Focal Virtuesp. 38
Moral Virtues and Action Guidesp. 45
Moral Idealsp. 47
Moral Excellencep. 51
Conclusionp. 57
Moral Statusp. 64
The Problem of Moral Statusp. 64
Theories of Moral Statusp. 66
From Theories to Practical Guidelinesp. 81
Vulnerable Populationsp. 89
Conclusionp. 93
Moral Principles
Respect for Autonomyp. 99
The Nature of Autonomyp. 99
The Capacity for Autonomous Choicep. 111
The Meaning and Justification of Informed Consentp. 117
Disclosurep. 121
Understandingp. 127
Voluntarinessp. 132
A Framework of Standards for Surrogate Decision Makingp. 135
Conclusionp. 140
Nonmaleficencep. 149
The Concept of Nonmaleficencep. 149
Distinctions and Rules Governing Nontreatmentp. 155
Optional Treatments and Obligatory Treatmentsp. 166
Killing and Letting Diep. 172
The Justification of Intentionally Arranged Deathsp. 176
Protecting Incompetent Patientsp. 185
Conclusionp. 190
Beneficencep. 197
The Concept of Beneficencep. 197
Obligatory Beneficence and Ideal Beneficencep. 198
Paternalism: Conflicts between Beneficence and Autonomyp. 206
Balancing Benefits, Costs, and Risksp. 221
The Value and Quality of Lifep. 230
Conclusionp. 233
Justicep. 240
The Concept of Justicep. 241
Theories of Justicep. 244
Fair Opportunity and Unfair Discriminationp. 248
Vulnerability and Exploitationp. 253
National Health Policy and the Right to Health Carep. 258
Global Health Policy and the Right to Healthp. 264
Allocating, Setting Priorities, and Rationingp. 267
Conclusionp. 280
Professional-Patient Relationshipsp. 288
Veracityp. 288
Privacyp. 296
Confidentialityp. 302
Fidelityp. 311
The Dual Roles of Clinician and Investigatorp. 317
Conclusionp. 324
Theory and Method
Moral Theoriesp. 333
Criteria for Theory Constructionp. 334
Utilitarianismp. 336
Kantianismp. 343
Rights Theoryp. 350
Communitarianismp. 356
Convergence of Theoriesp. 361
Conclusionp. 363
Method and Moralp. 368
Justificationp. 368
Justification in Ethicsp. 368
Top-Down Models: Theory and Applicationp. 369
Bottom-Up Models: Cases and Analogyp. 375
An Integrated Model Using Reflective Equilibriump. 381
Common-Morality Theoryp. 387
Conclusionp. 397
Indexp. 403
Table of Contents provided by Blackwell. All Rights Reserved.

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