9780849320149

Principles of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: Theory and Practice

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780849320149

  • ISBN10:

    0849320143

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2005-05-26
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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Summary

As witnessed in landmark criminal cases, the quality and integrity of bloodstain evidence can be a crucial factor in determining a verdict. Principles of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: Theory and Practice is an authoritative reference that presents an in-depth investigation of this vital topic. A multidisciplinary approach is presented throughout the book that uses scene and laboratory examinations in conjunction with forensic pathology, forensic serology, and chemical enhancement techniques. Dramatic color images of bloodletting images, bloodstains, and crime scenes are presented to compliment the technical content of this resource.

Table of Contents

Foreword vii
Preface ix
The Authors xiii
Contributors xv
Acknowledgments xvii
Introduction to Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
1(10)
Introduction
1(1)
Objectives of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
1(1)
Scientific Approach to Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
2(1)
Historical Development
3(4)
International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts
7(1)
Classification of Bloodstains
7(1)
Low-Velocity Impact Blood Spatter
7(1)
Medium-Velocity Impact Blood Spatter
7(1)
High-Velocity Impact Blood Spatter
7(1)
Acceptance within the Scientific Community
8(1)
Scientific Working Group for Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
8(1)
Education and Training in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
9(1)
Conclusion
10(1)
Medical and Anatomical Aspects of Bloodshed
11(30)
Introduction
11(1)
The Circulation of Blood
11(2)
Rate of Bleeding
13(1)
Blood Volume
13(2)
Causes of Blood Volume Loss
15(17)
Blood Loss Resulting from Medical Conditions
15(1)
Bleeding from the Skin
15(1)
Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
16(4)
Bleeding from the Respiratory System
20(1)
Bleeding from the Gastrointestinal Tract
20(1)
Blood Loss Resulting from Injuries
21(1)
Abrasions
21(1)
Lacerations
21(3)
Incised Wounds
24(2)
Stab Wounds
26(1)
Gunshot Wounds
27(2)
Contact Wounds
29(1)
Intermediate-Range Gunshot Wounds
30(1)
Distant or Long-Range Gunshot Wounds
31(1)
Gunshot Exit Wounds
31(1)
Postmortem Aspects of Blood in the Body
32(7)
Bloodstain Patterns within the Body
34(1)
Patterns Associated with Postmortem Lividity
34(1)
Patterns Associated with Postmortem Marbling of the Skin
35(1)
Petechial Hemorrhaging (Tardieu Spots)
35(1)
Patterns Associated with Bruises
36(1)
Patterns Associated with Abrasions
37(2)
Conclusion
39(2)
Biological and Physical Properties of Human Blood
41(18)
Biological Functions of Human Blood
41(1)
Composition of Blood
42(6)
Volume and pH
42(1)
Plasma
42(2)
White Blood Cells (Leucocytes)
44(1)
Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)
45(1)
Hemoglobin
45(1)
Platelets (Thrombocytes) and Clotting Factors
45(3)
Physical Properties of Blood
48(7)
Viscosity
48(1)
Blood --- A Non-Newtonian Fluid
49(1)
Poiseuille's Equation
49(1)
Surface Tension
50(3)
Adhesion, Cohesion, and Capillarity
53(1)
Relative Density
53(2)
Effects of Drugs and Alcohol on Bloodstains
55(1)
Blood Use in Experiments
56(3)
Physical Properties of Bloodstain Formation
59(12)
Drop Formation and Travel
59(2)
The Shape of a Falling Drop
61(2)
Volume of a Drop of Blood
63(1)
Drop Volume as a Function of Source
63(2)
Distance Fallen
65(2)
Classification of Bloodstain Patterns
67(4)
Passive
68(1)
Spatter
68(1)
Altered
69(2)
Passive Bloodstains
71(28)
Introduction
71(1)
Free-Falling Drops on Horizontal Surfaces
71(2)
Free-Falling Drops on Angular Surfaces
73(3)
Drip Patterns
76(3)
Drip Trails
79(3)
Splashed Bloodstain Patterns
82(2)
Flow Patterns
84(3)
Blood Pools
87(1)
Saturation
87(1)
Transfer Bloodstains
88(4)
Recognizable Blood Transfer Stains
92(1)
Conclusion
92(7)
Formation of Spatter and Spatter Associated with a Secondary Mechanism
99(20)
Introduction
99(1)
Physical Properties of Blood Relative to Spatter Formation
99(1)
Physical Characteristics of Spatter Patterns
100(8)
Size Range and Quantity of Spatters
100(2)
Distribution and Location of Spatter
102(1)
Shape of Spatters
103(3)
Effect of Target Surface Texture on Spatter Appearance
106(1)
Mechanisms Associated with the Creation of Spatter Patterns
107(1)
Significance of Spatter Identification
108(1)
Spatter Associated with a Secondary Mechanism
108(2)
Satellite Spatters on Horizontal Surfaces
110(2)
Satellite Spatters on Vertical Surfaces
112(7)
Impact Spatter Mechanisms
119(30)
Introduction
119(1)
Impact Spatter Associated with Beating and Stabbing Events
119(12)
Impact Spatter Associated with Gunshot, Explosions, and Power Tools
131(5)
Back Spatter
136(2)
Forward Spatter
138(9)
Detection of Blood in the Barrels of Firearms
147(1)
Caveats
148(1)
Spatter Associated with a Projection Mechanism
149(30)
Introduction
149(1)
Arterial Mechanisms
149(9)
Bloodstain Patterns Produced by Medical Conditions of the Venous System
158(2)
Expiratory Mechanisms
160(7)
Expiratory Bloodstain Experiments
167(2)
Cast-Off Mechanisms
169(10)
Altered Bloodstain Patterns
179(38)
Introduction
179(1)
Diffusion and Capillarity of Bloodstains
179(1)
Aging of Blood
180(2)
Drying of Blood
182(6)
Clotting of Blood
188(6)
Diluted Bloodstains
194(2)
Removal of Bloodstains
196(4)
Effects of Fire and Soot on Bloodstains
200(6)
Fly and Other Insect Activity
206(4)
Void Patterns
210(2)
Sequencing of Bloodstains
212(4)
Conclusion
216(1)
Determination of the Area of Convergence and Area of Origin of Bloodstain Patterns
217(24)
Introduction
217(1)
A Pattern
217(3)
Area of Convergence
217(2)
Area of Origin
219(1)
Basic Trigonometry of a Right Triangle
220(4)
Angle of Impact
221(2)
Measuring Bloodstains
223(1)
Selection of Stains
224(1)
Methods of Area of Origin Determination
225(1)
Documentation
226(7)
Alternative Methods
233(8)
Trigonometric Method
233(1)
Graphic Method
234(1)
``Using'' Surfaces
234(7)
Directional Analysis of Bloodstain Patterns with a Computer
241(22)
Introduction
241(1)
Some Basic Theory
241(1)
Locating the Blood Sources
242(1)
An Example of Virtual Paths Compared to Actual Flight Paths
243(1)
The Two Impact Angles (α and γ) Depend on the Shape of the Bloodstain
244(2)
Using Ellipses to Analyze Bloodstains
246(2)
More about Ellipses
248(1)
Laboratory Study of a Double Blow with the BackTrack Software
249(4)
Summary
253(1)
A Case Study by Detective Craig C. Moore of the Niagara Regional Police Service, Ontario, Canada
254(3)
Two Case Studies by Sgt. Mike Illes of the Ontario Provincial Police, Peterborough Detachment
257(4)
Case #1 Multiple impacts in a limited space
257(2)
Case #2 Expirated bloodstaining
259(2)
Credits
261(2)
Documentation and Examination of Bloodstain Evidence
263(34)
Introduction
263(1)
Methods of Documenting Bloodstain Patterns
264(11)
Notes
264(1)
Sketches and Diagrams
265(2)
Photographs
267(7)
Basic Photographic Equipment List
274(1)
Video
274(1)
Documentation of the Crime Scene
275(1)
Indoor Crime Scenes
275(6)
Outdoor Crime Scenes
281(1)
Documentation and Examination of Motor Vehicles
282(1)
Documentation and Examination of Bloodstains in the Laboratory
282(1)
Examination of Bloodstained Clothing
283(11)
Collection and Preservation of Bloodstain Evidence
294(3)
Evaluation of Bloodstain Patterns at the Scene
297(52)
Introduction
297(1)
Processing Scenes
297(3)
General Processing for Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
300(4)
Processing for Data
304(15)
Doors and Locks
305(1)
Refrigerator
306(1)
Knife Blocks
307(2)
Medicines/Medicine Cabinets
309(1)
Sinks and Faucets
310(1)
Trash Cans
311(3)
Temperature
314(1)
Lighting
315(1)
Transient Evidence
316(1)
Sequencing
316(3)
Vehicles as Crime Scenes
319(10)
Negative Checklist for Vehicles
323(1)
Collisions
323(1)
Seatbelts
323(1)
Airbags
323(4)
Effects of Motion and Impact
327(2)
Processing the Body for Bloodstain Patterns
329(14)
Documentation of Bodies at the Scene
329(1)
Use of Scales
330(1)
Body Removal
330(3)
Alterations in Transport
333(1)
Mouth and Nose of the Decedent
334(1)
Feet or Shoes of the Decedent
334(2)
Nonambulatory Movement
336(1)
Posture at Time of Injury
336(3)
Claims of Self-Defense
339(1)
Time Lapse
339(1)
Sequencing Injuries
339(2)
Victim Viability
341(1)
Manner of Death
342(1)
Sample Collection
343(6)
Suspect Clothing
343(1)
Separating Contributors
344(1)
Linking an Accused
344(5)
Presumptive Testing and Species Determination of Blood and Bloodstains
349(20)
Introduction
349(1)
The Analysis of Blood in Forensic Serology
350(1)
Presumptive Tests for Blood
351(10)
Catalytic Color Tests
351(1)
Benzidine (Adler Test)
352(1)
Phenolphthalein (Kastle-Meyer Test)
353(1)
o-Tolidine
353(1)
Leucomalachite Green
354(1)
Tetramethylbenzidine
355(1)
Comparing the Tests
356(1)
Tests Using Chemiluminescence and Fluorescence
357(1)
Luminol
358(2)
Fluorescein
360(1)
Other Methods
361(1)
Confirmatory Tests for Blood
361(3)
Teichmann Test
362(1)
Takayama Test
363(1)
Species Origin Determination for Blood
364(1)
Serum Protein Analysis
364(1)
General Methods
364(1)
Ring Precipitin Test
365(1)
Ouchterlony Double Diffusion Test
365(2)
Crossed-Over Electrophoresis
366(1)
Nonserum Protein Analysis
367(2)
Antihuman Hemoglobin
367(1)
Other Techniques
368(1)
The Detection of Blood Using Luminol
369(22)
Introduction
369(1)
Discovery
369(2)
The Luminol Reaction
371(3)
Preparation of Luminol
374(2)
Interpretation of Luminescence
376(1)
Use of Additional Presumptive Tests
377(1)
Interpretation of Patterns
377(1)
Effect of Substrates
378(1)
Collection of Samples
378(1)
Effects of Luminol on the Subsequent Analysis of Bloodstains
379(1)
Luminol Photography
380(3)
Report Writing
383(1)
Testimony
384(1)
Case Studies
384(7)
Case 1
384(2)
Case 2
386(1)
Case 3
387(4)
Chemical Enhancement of Latent Bloodstain Impressions
391(30)
Introduction
391(1)
Preliminary Procedures
392(1)
Fixing Blood Impressions
392(2)
Fixative with 2% Aqueous Solution of 5-Sulphosalicylic Acid
393(1)
Preparation of the Fixing Solution 2% Aqueous 5-Sulphosalicylic Acid
393(1)
Fixing Impressions with Methanol
394(1)
General Methods for Application of the Fixing Solutions
394(1)
Method 1
394(1)
Method 2
394(1)
Method 3
395(1)
General Methods for the Application of the Chemical Dye Reagents
395(1)
Method 1
395(1)
Method 2
395(1)
Method 3
395(1)
Rinsing Procedure
395(1)
Preparation of the Rinse Solution for Water-Based Chemical Dyes
395(1)
Application of the Rinse Solution for Methanol-Based Chemical Dyes
396(1)
Preparation of the First and Second Rinse Solutions for Methanol-Based Chemical Dyes
396(1)
Rinse Solution 1
396(1)
Rinse Solution 2
396(1)
General Methods for the Application of the Rinse Solutions
396(2)
Method 1
396(1)
Method 2
397(1)
Method 3
397(1)
Caveats
397(1)
Amido Black Water-Based
398(4)
Advantages
398(1)
Disadvantages
398(2)
Preparation of Amido Black Water-Based Without Fixative
400(1)
Preparation of Amido Black Water-Based with Fixative
400(1)
Method of Use
401(1)
Caveats
402(1)
Amido Black Methanol-Based
402(1)
Advantages
402(1)
Disadvantages
402(1)
Preparation of Methanol-Based Amido Black
403(1)
Method of Use
403(1)
Amido Black Water-Ethanol Based
403(2)
Preparation of Amido Black Water-Ethanol Based
403(1)
Preparation of the Rinse Solution for Amido Black Water-Ethanol Based
404(1)
Method of Use
404(1)
Caveats
404(1)
Hungarian Red Water-Based
405(3)
Advantages
406(1)
Disadvantages
406(1)
Method of Use
406(1)
Caveats
406(2)
Aqueous Leucocrystal Violet
408(4)
Advantages
408(1)
Disadvantages
409(1)
Preparation of ALCV
409(1)
Method of Use
409(1)
Caveats
409(3)
Coomassie Brilliant Blue
412(1)
Advantages
412(1)
Disadvantages
412(1)
Preparation of Coomassie Brilliant Blue Methanol Based
412(1)
Coomassie Brilliant Blue Water-Methanol Based
413(1)
Preparation of Coomassie Brilliant Blue Water-Methanol Based
413(1)
Preparation of the Rinse Solution for Water-Methanol Based Coomassie Brilliant Blue
414(1)
Method of Use
414(1)
Caveats
414(1)
Crowle's Double Stain
414(2)
Advantages
415(1)
Disadvantage
415(1)
Preparation of Crowle's Double Stain
415(1)
Method of Use
415(1)
Caveats
416(1)
Titanium Dioxide Suspension
416(3)
Advantages
417(1)
Disadvantages
417(1)
Preparation of Titanium Dioxide Suspension
417(1)
Method of Use
417(2)
Caveats
419(1)
General Notes of Precaution
419(2)
Approaching the Bloodstain Pattern Case
421(12)
Introduction
421(1)
Sequence for Approaching Bloodstain Cases
422(3)
Obtain a Brief Background of the Case
422(1)
Examination of the Crime Scene
423(1)
Initial Review of Crime Scene and Evidence Photographs
424(1)
Examination of Autopsy or Hospital Photographs
424(1)
Examination of Autopsy Protocol or Hospital Records
425(1)
Examination of Crime Scene Sketches/Diagram(s)
425(3)
Examination of Crime Scene and Evidence Photographs
426(1)
Examination of Physical Evidence
427(1)
Sequencing Evidence Examinations
428(4)
Serology Reports
429(1)
Crime Scene Investigator's Notes and Reports
429(1)
Responding Officer's Notes
430(1)
Emergency Medical Technicians' Notes or Depositions
430(1)
Additional Forensic Reports
430(1)
Synthesizing the Data
431(1)
Data Synthesis for Bloodstain Pattern (A)
431(1)
Formulation and Testing of Hypotheses
431(1)
Data Synthesis for Bloodstain Pattern (A)
431(1)
Hypothesis for Bloodstain Pattern (A)
431(1)
Testing of Hypothesis of Bloodstain Pattern (A)
431(1)
Formulation of a Scenario
432(1)
Factors to Consider When Analyzing a Bloodstain Pattern Case
432(1)
Report Writing
433(10)
Introduction
433(1)
Scene-Specific Reports
434(1)
Evidence-Specific Laboratory Reports
434(1)
Final Report
434(1)
Report Content
434(3)
Report Phrases
435(1)
Introduction of the Report
436(1)
Sample Introduction
436(1)
Body of the Report
437(3)
Crime Scene
438(1)
Physical Evidence
438(1)
Special Issues
438(2)
Conclusion(s) of the Report
440(1)
The Finished Report
441(2)
Legal and Ethical Aspects of Bloodstain Pattern Evidence
443(36)
Introduction
443(1)
Legal Issues
443(6)
Admissibility
443(6)
Weight of the Evidence
449(1)
Qualifications of Experts
450(9)
Burden of Proof
454(1)
Chain of Custody
454(1)
Discovery
455(4)
Direct and Cross-Examination of the Expert
459(7)
Attorney's Goals and Methods of Direct Examination
459(1)
Demonstrative Evidence
460(2)
Attorneys' Goals and Methods of Cross-Examination
462(2)
Advice to the Expert --- Guidelines for Deposition and Trial Testimony
464(2)
Ethical Issues
466(4)
Expert's Ethics
466(1)
Attorneys' Ethics in Dealing with Experts
467(3)
Expert Witness Malpractice
470(8)
Conclusion
478(1)
Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: Postconviction and Appellate Application
479(18)
Introduction
479(1)
A Bit of History
479(4)
The Postconviction Attorney's Role---The Daunting Task
483(1)
The Appeal
483(1)
Admissibility
484(1)
Expert Qualifications
484(2)
The Collateral Attack
486(1)
Perjurious Expert Testimony---Newly Discovered Evidence
487(1)
Prosecutorial Misconduct---Denial of Due Process
487(2)
Ineffective Assistance of Counsel
489(7)
Conclusion
496(1)
References
497(8)
Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
497(2)
Medical and Medical--Legal Aspects of Bloodshed
499(1)
Presumptive Testing and Species Determination of Blood and Bloodstains
499(3)
General References
499(1)
Specific References
500(2)
Luminol
502(2)
Chemical Enhancement of Latent Blood Impressions
504(1)
Appendix A: Trigonometric Tables---Sine and Tangent Functions
505(2)
Appendix B: Metric Measurements and Equivalents
507(4)
Appendix C: Scene and Laboratory Checklists
511(6)
Appendix D: Biohazard Safety Precautions
517(6)
Universal Precautions Policy
517(1)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
518(1)
Hepatitis
518(1)
Basic Rules for Biohazard Safety
519(1)
Minimizing Biohazard Contamination at the Crime Scene
519(2)
Guidelines for the Selection of the Proper Personal Protective Equipment
520(1)
Precautions for Evidence Collection
520(1)
Disposables
520(1)
Personal Protective Equipment Removal
521(1)
Selection of Personal Protective Equipment
521(1)
References
522(1)
Appendix E: Court Decisions Relating to Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
523(4)
Appendix F: Court Decisions Relating to Presumptive Blood Tests
527(4)
Presumptive Testing Cases
527(1)
Luminol Cases
527(1)
Benzidine Cases
528(1)
Orthotolidine/Ortho-Tolidine/o-Tolidine Cases
529(1)
Leucomalachite/Leuco-Malachite Green Cases
529(1)
Hemastix® Case
529(1)
Phenolphthalein Cases
530(1)
Glossary of Terminology 531(2)
Index 533

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