Principles of Ecotoxicology, Fourth Edition

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2012-03-12
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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Presenting a multidisciplinary perspective in a concise format, Principles of Ecotoxicology, Third Edition discusses the fundamental chemical and ecological nature of pollution processes while identifying the major classes of pollutants and their environmental fate. The first edition was originally created to fill the need for a textbook that covered the basic principles of a developing and wide-ranging field and the second edition expanded on that theme. Keeping the focus on principles over practice that has made each incarnation of this textbook so popular, the third edition brings the text up to date and strengthens coverage in areas that have come to the forefront of the field.The third edition features new material on pollutants that are receiving closer scrutiny, naturally occurring poisons, the history of chemical warfare, population risk assessment, community structure, neonicotinoids, endocrine disruption, and neurotoxicity. A new section on extrapolating from molecular interaction to the consequent population changes highlights the molecules to ecosystem approach and provides the groundwork for discussions on the employment of biomarker strategies in field studies. A major theme of the new material is how the concepts discussed can contribute to improved methods of environmental risk assessment. With updates to every chapter, this text provides essential information for students in easy to use and understandable format.

Table of Contents

Preface to Fourth Editionp. xv
Acknowledgmentsp. xvii
Authorsp. xix
Introductionp. xxi
Pollutants and Their Fate in Ecosystems
Major Classes of Pollutantsp. 3
Inorganic Ionsp. 3
Metalsp. 3
Anionsp. 6
Organic Pollutantsp. 7
Hydrocarbonsp. 8
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)p. 10
Polychlorinated Benzodioxins (PCDDs)p. 12
Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs)p. 12
Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBBs)p. 12
Organochlorine Insecticidesp. 13
Organophosphorous Insecticides (OPs)p. 14
Carbamate Insecticidesp. 15
Pyrethroid Insecticidesp. 16
Neonicotinoidsp. 16
Phenoxy Herbicides (Plant Growth Regulators)p. 17
Anticoagulant Rodenticidesp. 18
Detergentsp. 18
Chlorophenolsp. 18
Ethinylestradiol (EE2)p. 20
Pharmaceuticalsp. 20
Organometallic Compoundsp. 20
Radioactive Isotopesp. 21
Introductionp. 21
Natures and Intensities of Radioactive Decay Productsp. 22
Half-Livesp. 23
Biochemistryp. 23
Gaseous Pollutantsp. 24
Nanoparticlesp. 25
Summaryp. 25
Further Readingp. 26
Routes by which Pollutants Enter Ecosystemsp. 27
Entry into Surface Watersp. 27
Contamination of Landp. 30
Discharge into Atmospherep. 31
Quantification of Release of Pollutantsp. 35
Summaryp. 35
Further Readingp. 36
Long-Range Movements and Global Transport of Pollutantsp. 37
Factors Determining Movements and Distributions of Pollutantsp. 37
Polarity and Water Solubilityp. 37
Partition Coefficientsp. 39
Vapor Pressurep. 40
Partition between Environmental Compartmentsp. 40
Molecular Stability and Recalcitrant Moleculesp. 40
Transport in Waterp. 41
Transport in Airp. 42
Models for Environmental Distribution of Chemicalsp. 44
Summaryp. 48
Further Readingp. 48
The Fate of Metals and Radioactive Isotopes in Contaminated Ecosystemsp. 49
Introductionp. 49
Localizationp. 49
Persistencep. 49
Bioconcentration and Bioaccumulation Factorsp. 50
Bioavailabilityp. 51
Cocktails of Inorganic Pollutantsp. 51
Terrestrial Ecosystemsp. 51
Introductionp. 51
Metalsp. 51
Radioactivityp. 54
Aquatic Systemsp. 55
Summaryp. 58
Further Readingp. 59
Fates of Organic Pollutants in Individuals and in Ecosystemsp. 63
Fate within Individual Organismsp. 63
General Modelp. 63
Processes of Uptakep. 66
Processes of Distributionp. 68
Storagep. 69
Metabolismp. 70
Sites of Excretionp. 78
Toxicokinetic Modelsp. 80
Toxicokinetic Models for Bioconcentration and Bioaccumulationp. 82
Organic Pollutants in Terrestrial Ecosystemsp. 84
Fate in Soilsp. 84
Transfer along Terrestrial Food Chainsp. 86
Organic Pollutants in Aquatic Ecosystemsp. 90
Pollutants in Sedimentsp. 90
Transfer along Aquatic Food Chainsp. 91
Summaryp. 92
Further Readingp. 93
Effects of Pollutants on Individual Organisms
Testing for Ecotoxicityp. 97
General Principlesp. 97
Determination of Toxicities of Mixturesp. 101
Toxicity Testing with Terrestrial Organismsp. 102
Introductionp. 102
Invertebrate Testingp. 103
Testing with Earthwormsp. 103
Tests with Springtailsp. 106
Tests with Beneficial Arthropodsp. 106
Automated Videotrackingp. 108
Vertebratesp. 109
Plantsp. 111
Toxicity Testing with Aquatic Organismsp. 112
Tests for Direct Absorption from Waterp. 112
Sediment Toxicity Testsp. 116
Risk Assessmentp. 116
Field Testing for Toxicityp. 118
Alternative Methods in Ecotoxicity Testingp. 119
Alternative Methods for Estimating Toxicity to Vertebratesp. 120
Toxicity Testing on Live Vertebratesp. 120
Toxicity Testing on Nonvertebratesp. 121
Toxicity Testing on Cellular Systemsp. 121
Predictive Modelsp. 122
Alternative Approaches toward More Ecological End Pointsp. 122
Field Studiesp. 122
Microcosms and Msocosmsp. 123
Theoretical Modelsp. 124
Summaryp. 124
Further Readingp. 124
Biochemical Effects of Pollutantsp. 125
Introductionp. 125
Protective Biochemical Responsesp. 128
Molecular Mechanisms of Toxicityp. 129
Examples of Molecular Mechanisms of Toxicityp. 131
Genotoxic Compoundsp. 131
Neurotoxic Compoundsp. 132
Mitochondrial Poisonsp. 134
Vitamin K Antagonistsp. 134
Thyroxine Antagonistsp. 135
Inhibition of ATPasesp. 135
Environmental Estrogens and Androgensp. 135
Reactions with Protein Sulfhydryl (SH) Groupsp. 137
Photosystems of Plantsp. 137
Plant Growth Regulator Herbicidesp. 138
Summaryp. 138
Further Readingp. 138
Physiological Effects of Pollutantsp. 141
Introductionp. 141
Effects of Pollutants at Cellular Levelp. 141
Effects at Organ Level in Animalsp. 144
Effects at Whole Organism Levelp. 148
Neurophysiological Effectsp. 148
Effects on Behaviorp. 150
Reproductive Effectsp. 154
Effects on Plantsp. 156
Energy Costs of Physiological Changep. 157
Summaryp. 161
Further Readingp. 162
Interactive Effects of Pollutantsp. 163
Introductionp. 163
Additive Effectsp. 164
Potentiation of Toxicityp. 165
Potentiation Due to Inhibition of Detoxificationp. 167
Potentiation from Increased Activationp. 169
Field Detection of Potentiationp. 169
Summaryp. 171
Further Readingp. 172
Biomarkersp. 173
Classification of Biomarkersp. 173
Specificity of Biomarkersp. 174
Relationship of Biomarkers to Adverse Effectsp. 176
Specific Biomarkersp. 178
Inhibition of Esterasesp. 178
The Induction of Monooxygenasesp. 178
Studies of Genetic Materialsp. 179
Porphyrins and Heme Synthesisp. 182
Induction of Vitellogeninp. 183
Behavioral Biomarkersp. 183
Biomarkers in Plantsp. 185
Role of Biomarkers in Environmental Risk Assessmentp. 186
Summaryp. 188
Further Readingp. 188
In Situ Biological Monitoringp. 189
Introductionp. 189
Community Effects (Type 1 Biomonitoring)p. 189
Terrestrial Ecosystemsp. 190
Freshwater Ecosystemsp. 190
Marine Ecosystemsp. 193
Bioconcentration of Pollutants (Type 2 Biomonitoring)p. 194
Terrestrial Ecosystemsp. 194
Freshwater Ecosystemsp. 195
Marine Ecosystemsp. 195
Effects of Pollutants (Type 3 Biomonitoring)p. 198
Terrestrial Ecosystemsp. 199
Freshwater Ecosystemsp. 199
Marine Ecosystemsp. 200
Genetically Based Resistance to Pollution (Type 4 Biomonitoring)p. 201
Conclusionsp. 202
Summaryp. 203
Further Readingp. 203
Effects of Pollutants on Populations and Communities
Changes in Numbers: Population Dynamicsp. 207
Population Abundancep. 208
Population Growth Ratep. 209
Population Growth Rate Depends on the Properties of Individual Organismsp. 209
The Life History and Population Growth Rate of the Coastal Copepod Eurytemora affinisp. 211
Density Dependencep. 213
Identifying Which Factors Are Density Dependent: k-Value Analysisp. 215
Interactions between Speciesp. 217
Field Studies: Three Case Studiesp. 219
The Decline of the Partridgesp. 219
Population Studies of Pesticides and Birds of Prey in the UKp. 225
The Boxworth Project (Experimental Analysis of the Effects of Pesticides on Farmland)p. 229
Modeling the Effects of Insecticides on Skylarks for Risk Assessment Purposesp. 233
Summaryp. 236
Further Readingp. 236
Evolution of Resistance to Pollutionp. 239
Chronic Pollution Is Environmental Changep. 239
Evolutionary Processes in Constant Environmentsp. 239
The Evolution of Resistance When There Is a Mortality-Production Trade-Offp. 242
Evolutionary Responses to Environmental Changesp. 243
Monogenic Resistancep. 247
Case Studiesp. 248
Evolution of Pesticide Resistancep. 248
Evolution of Metal Tolerance in Plantsp. 251
Evolution of Industrial Melanismp. 253
Evolutionary Response of Dog Whelks, Nucella lapillus, to TBT Contaminationp. 255
Evolution of Resistance to Pollution in Estuariesp. 256
Summaryp. 258
Further Readingp. 259
Changes in Communities and Ecosystemsp. 261
Introductionp. 261
Changes in Soil Processes: The Functional Approachp. 262
Changes in Compositions of Communities: The Structural Approachp. 265
Changes in Soil Ecosystemsp. 266
Acidification of Lakes and Riversp. 268
Mesocosmsp. 270
Global Processesp. 273
Summaryp. 274
Further Readingp. 275
Extrapolating from Molecular Interactions to Consequent Effects at Population Levelp. 277
Introductionp. 277
Translation of Toxic Effects across Organizational Boundariesp. 278
From Effects at Site of Action to Localized Cellular Disturbancesp. 278
Example A: Action of Organophosphates on Acetylcholinesterase of Nervous Systemp. 280
Example B: Action of p,p'-DDT on Voltage-Dependent Sodium Channels of Axonal Membranesp. 280
Example C: Action of p,p'-DDE on Transport of Calcium into Eggshell Glands of Birdsp. 282
Example D: Action of 17A-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) on Estrogenic Receptors of Fishp. 282
From Cellular Disturbances to Effects at Whole Organism Levelp. 283
Example A: Action of Organophosphates on Acetylcholinesterase of Nervous Systemp. 283
Example B: Action of p,p'-DDT on Voltage-Dependent Sodium Channels of Axonal Membranesp. 284
Example C: Action of p,p'-DDE on Transport of Calcium into Eggshell Glands of Birdsp. 284
Example D: Action of 17A-Ethinylestradiol on Estrogenic Receptors of Fishp. 284
From Effects on Whole Organism to Population Effectsp. 285
Example A: Action of Organophosphates on Acetylcholinesterase of Nervous Systemp. 285
Example B: Action of p,p'-DDT on Voltage-Dependent Sodium Channels of Axonal Membranesp. 286
Example C: Action of p,p'-DDE on Transport of Calcium into Eggshell Glandsp. 286
Example D: Action of 17A-Ethinylestradiol on Estrogenic Receptors in Fishp. 286
Complete Causal Chainp. 287
Biomarker Strategiesp. 287
Establishing Causality Where Pollution Already Existsp. 288
Biomarker Strategies in the Fieldp. 289
Control Problemsp. 290
Selection of Biomarkers for Field Studiesp. 291
Biomarkers and Environmental Risk Assessmentp. 292
Summaryp. 292
Further Readingp. 293
Biomarkers in Population Studiesp. 295
DDE-Induced Eggshell Thinning in Raptorial and Fish-Eating Birdsp. 295
Reproductive Failure of Fish-Eating Birds on Great Lakes of North Americap. 300
Reproductive Failures of Mollusks Caused by Tributyl Tinp. 305
Forest Spraying in Eastern Canada to Control Spruce Budwormp. 307
Summaryp. 311
Further Readingp. 311
Ecotoxicology: Looking to the Futurep. 313
Changing Patterns of Chemical Pollutionp. 313
Environmental Risk Assessmentp. 316
The Use of Models in Population Risk Assessmentp. 316
Technological Advances and New Biomarker Assaysp. 318
A Better Integrated Approach to Environmental Risk Assessment?p. 320
Ethical Issuesp. 321
Summaryp. 322
Further Readingp. 322
Glossaryp. 323
Bibliographyp. 329
Indexp. 353
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