Principles of Environmental Chemistry

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2007-03-30
  • Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

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This is ''an authoritative text that should deservedly feature on office and library shelves wherever there are chemists with interests in the environment''. Mathew Heal Environmental chemistry is becoming increasingly important and is crucial in the understanding of a range of issues, ranging from climate change to local pollution problems. Principles of Environmental Chemistry draws upon sections of the authors' previous text (Understanding our Environment) and reflects the growing trend of a more sophisticated approach to teaching environmental science at university. This new, revised text book focuses on the chemistry involved in environmental problems. Written by leading experts in the field, the book provides an in depth introduction to the chemical processes influencing the atmosphere, freshwaters, salt waters and soils. Subsequent sections discuss the behaviour of organic chemicals in the environment and environmental transfer between compartments such as air, soil and water. Also included is a section on biogeochemical cycling, which is crucial in the understanding of the behaviour of chemicals in the environment. Complete with worked examples, the book is aimed at advanced undergraduate and graduate chemistry students studying environmental chemistry.

Table of Contents

Introductionp. 1
The Environmental Sciencesp. 1
Environmental Chemical Processesp. 3
Environmental Chemicalsp. 3
Units of Concentrationp. 5
Atmospheric Chemistryp. 5
Soils and Watersp. 6
The Environment as a Wholep. 7
Referencesp. 7
Chemistry of the Atmospherep. 8
Introductionp. 8
Sources of Trace Gases in the Atmospherep. 10
Initiation of Photochemistry by Lightp. 11
Tropospheric Chemistryp. 17
Tropospheric Oxidation Chemistryp. 20
Nitrogen Oxides and the Photostationary Statep. 26
Production and Destruction of Ozonep. 28
Role of Hydrocarbonsp. 35
Urban Chemistryp. 37
Night-Time Oxidation Chemistryp. 40
Ozone-Alkene Chemistryp. 46
Sulfur Chemistryp. 46
Halogen Chemistryp. 51
Tropospheric Halogens and Catalytic Destruction of Ozonep. 56
Stratospheric Chemistryp. 58
The Antarctic Ozone Holep. 63
Summaryp. 72
Questionsp. 72
Referencesp. 76
Chemistry of Freshwatersp. 80
Introductionp. 80
Fundamentals of Aquatic Chemistryp. 82
Introductionp. 82
Dissolution/Precipitation Reactionsp. 91
Complexation Reactions in Freshwatersp. 94
Species Distribution in Freshwatersp. 97
Modelling Aquatic Systemsp. 121
Case Studiesp. 122
Acidificationp. 122
Metals and Metalloids in Waterp. 130
Historical Pollution Records and Perturbatory Processes in Lakesp. 139
Nutrients in Water and Sedimentsp. 145
Organic Matter and Organic Chemicals in Waterp. 150
Questions and Problemsp. 157
Further Readingp. 159
Referencesp. 159
Chemistry of the Oceansp. 170
Introductionp. 170
The Ocean as a Biogeochemical Environmentp. 170
Properties of Water and Seawaterp. 173
Salinity Conceptsp. 177
Oceanic Circulationp. 179
Seawater Composition and Chemistryp. 182
Major Constituentsp. 182
Dissolved Gasesp. 184
Nutrientsp. 199
Trace Elementsp. 201
Physico-Chemical Speciationp. 204
Suspended Particles and Marine Sedimentsp. 210
Description of Sediments and Sedimentary Componentsp. 210
Surface Chemistry of Particlesp. 213
Diagenesisp. 218
Physical and Chemical Processes in Estuariesp. 219
Marine Contamination and Pollutionp. 223
Oil Slicksp. 223
Plastic Debrisp. 226
Tributyltinp. 228
Questionsp. 230
Referencesp. 231
The Chemistry of the Solid Earthp. 234
Introductionp. 234
Mineral Components of Soilp. 238
Inputsp. 238
Primary Mineralsp. 238
Secondary Mineralsp. 240
Weathering Processes (See also Chapter 3)p. 246
Organic Components of Soilp. 248
Soil pH And Redox Potentialp. 254
pH and Bufferingp. 254
Soil Acidityp. 255
Soil Alkalinityp. 257
Influence of pH on Soilsp. 258
Redox Potentialp. 260
Reduction Processes in Soilp. 261
Chemical Reactions in Soilp. 263
Reactions in Soil Solutionp. 263
Ion Exchange (Physisorption)p. 267
Ligand Exchange (Chemisorption)p. 271
Complexation/Chelationp. 273
Precipitation/Dissolutionp. 273
Soil Processesp. 275
Questionsp. 275
Referencesp. 278
Environmental Organic Chemistryp. 279
Introductionp. 279
The Diversity of Organic Compoundsp. 280
Identifying Sources of Hydrocarbonsp. 282
The Fate of Organic Contaminantsp. 284
Chemical Partitioningp. 284
Important Partitioning Coefficientsp. 286
Temperature Dependencep. 292
Partition Mapsp. 295
Chemical Transformation and Degradationp. 299
Chemical Transformation through Photochemistryp. 301
Light Absorption and the Beer-Lambert Lawp. 302
Photolysis in Aqueous Systemsp. 303
Photochemistry of Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs)p. 305
Conclusionsp. 309
Questionsp. 310
Referencesp. 310
Biogeochemical Cycling of Chemicalsp. 314
Introduction: Biogeochemical Cyclingp. 314
Environmental Reservoirsp. 316
Lifetimesp. 317
Rates of Transfer between Environmental Compartmentsp. 321
Air-Land Exchangep. 321
Air-Sea Exchangep. 324
Transfer in Aquatic Systemsp. 330
Biogeochemical Cyclesp. 333
Case Study 1: The Biogeochemical Cycle of Nitrogenp. 335
Case Study 2: Aspects of Biogeochemical Cycle of Leadp. 335
Behaviour of Long-Lived Organic Chemicals in the Environmentp. 340
Questionsp. 344
Referencesp. 345
Glossaryp. 347
Subject Indexp. 354
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