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9780735540316

Products Liability

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780735540316

  • ISBN10:

    0735540314

  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2004-03-01
  • Publisher: Wolters Kluwer Law and Business

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Supplemental Materials

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Summary

This newly revised book draw on the expertise of its authors, The reporters For The Restatement (Third) of Torts: Products Liability, To provide a solid introduction in a compact format. in addition to its outstanding authorship, Product Liability: Problems and Process, Fifth Edition, offers: Full integrations of the Restatement rules and comments in the text. A problem-based approach that applies the law to real life situations. A student friendly mix of cases, notes, and problems to introduce black letter law and its underlying policies. A manageable length without sacrificing important coverage. Changes For The Fifth Edition respond to developments in the field: Author's Dialogues -- informal, highly engaging discussions and debates between the authors that raise interesting and provocative points about important issues. Material from the Restatement, General Principles, incorporated in the coverage of proximate cause. Expanded treatment of design defects relocated to Chapter 4, with discussion of special problems of proof of defect. A separate chapter on Federal Preemption. New cases, including Speller v. Sears, Roebuck, Laidlaw v. Hariton, Rider v. Sandoz Pharmaceuticals, D'Amario v. Ford Motor Company, and Metro-North Commuter R.R. v. Buuckley. New hypotheticals and problems Unmatched in authority, quality, and currency, Products Liability: Problems and Process, Fifth Edition, deserves your careful consideration for adoption.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Fifth Edition xxi
Acknowledgments xxiii
PART I Liability for Manufacturing Defects 1(158)
CHAPTER ONE Manufacturers' Strict Liability for Defect-Caused Harm
3(64)
A. The Role of Negligence in the Formative Period
4(10)
1. Negligence from First-Year Torts
4(2)
2. The Fall of the Privity Rule
6(2)
3. The Rise of Res Ipsa Loquitur
8(6)
Escola v. Coca Cola Bottling Co.
9(4)
Authors' Dialogue 1
13(1)
B. The Modern Rule of Strict Liability in Tort
14(19)
1. Implied Warranty as a Bridge to Strict Liability in the 1950's and Early 1960's
14(5)
Greenman v. Yuba Power Products, Inc.
16(3)
2. Adoption of ยง402A of the Restatement (Second) of Torts in 1965
19(6)
Pulley v. Pacific Coca-Cola Bottling Co.
21(2)
Practical Implications: What Does Strict Liability Actually Accomplish?
23(1)
Problem One
24(1)
3. Policy Objectives Supporting Strict Liability in Tort
25(5)
James A. Henderson, Jr., Coping with the Time Dimension in Products Liability
26(2)
Problem Two
28(2)
4. Why Strict Liability for Manufacturing Defects Is Workable
30(3)
James A. Henderson, Jr., Why Negligence Dominates Tort
30(3)
C. Defect as the Linchpin of Strict Products Liability
33(12)
1. What Makes a Product Defective? (The Conceptual Dimension)
33(6)
Cronin v. J.B.E. Olson Corp.
33(5)
Problem Three
38(1)
2. How Does the Plaintiff Prove Original Defect? (The Practical Dimension)
39(6)
Speller v. Sears, Roebuck & Co.
41(3)
Problem Four
44(1)
D. The Boundaries of Strict Products Liability
45(22)
1. What Are (and What Are Not) Products?
45(10)
Winter v. G.P. Putnam's Sons
49(4)
Problem Five
53(1)
Postscript on Blood and Other Human Tissue
53(2)
2. Which Commercial Activities Constitute "Selling or Otherwise Distributing"?
55(9)
Magrine v. Krasnica
59(5)
3. When Is a Product Seller or Other Distributor "In the Business of Selling or Distributing"?
64(3)
Authors' Dialogue 2
65(2)
CHAPTER TWO Assigning Responsibility Inside and Outside the Commercial Chain of Distribution
67(50)
A. Allocating Responsibility Between Product Distributors and Other Defendants and Among Members of the Distributive Chain
67(13)
1. Joint and Several Liability
67(3)
2. Letting Retailers and Wholesalers Out of the Litigation
70(4)
Authors' Dialogue 3
72(2)
Problem Six
74(1)
3. Contribution Among Members of the Distributive Chain
74(2)
4. Indemnity Rights up the Distributive Chain
76(2)
5. Settlement and Release Between the Plaintiff and Members of the Distributive Chain
78(2)
B. Assigning Responsibility Collectively to the Distributive Chain
80(15)
1. Holding Members of the Distributive Chain Liable Collectively in the Normal Course of Events
81(1)
2. Special Circumstances that May Justify a More Aggressive Approach to Shifting Responsibility to the Entire Chain
82(13)
Anderson v. Somberg
82(6)
Problem Seven
88(5)
Charles W Wolfram, Modern Legal Ethics
93(2)
C. Assigning Responsibility for Product-Related Workplace Accidents
95(22)
1. Direct Attack by the Employee Against the Employer
95(14)
a. The Worker Compensation Bar to Employer Tort Liability
95(1)
b. The Intentional Tort Exception to the Worker Compensation Bar
95(1)
Laidlow v. Hariton Machinery Co., Inc.
99(8)
c. The Dual Capacity Doctrine
107(2)
2. Allocating Responsibility Between the Employer (the Worker Compensation System) and the Product Manufacturer (the Products Liability System)
109(9)
Kotecki v. Cyclops Welding Corp.
109(5)
Authors' Dialogue 4
114(3)
CHAPTER THREE Causation
117(42)
A. Did the Product Actually Cause the Plaintiff's Harm?
118(13)
1. But-For Causation in General
118(1)
2. Special Problems of Proof: Reliance on Experts
119(12)
Rider v. Sandoz Pharmaceutical Corp.
123(5)
Authors' Dialogue 5
128(2)
Problem Eight
130(1)
B. Did the Defendant Supply the Product?
131(6)
1. Defendant Identification in General
131(1)
2. Creative Attempts to Solve a Unique Problem: Market Share
131(6)
Problem Nine
136(1)
C. Did the Defect in the Defendant's Product Contribute to Harming the Plaintiff?
137(12)
1. All-or-Nothing Causation
137(3)
Midwestern V W Corp. v. Ringley
137(2)
Problem Ten
139(1)
Authors' Dialogue 6
140(1)
2. Enhanced Injury
140(7)
Lahocki v. Contee Sand & Gravel Co., Inc.
140(6)
Authors' Dialogue 7
146(1)
3. Loss-of-a-Chance
147(2)
Problem Eleven
148(1)
D. Did the Defective Product Proximately Cause the Plaintiff's Harm?
149(12)
Union Pump Co. v. Allbritton
149(4)
Authors' Dialogue 8
153(4)
Problem Twelve
157(2)
PART II Liability for Generic Product Risks 159(344)
CHAPTER FOUR Liability for Defective Design
161(154)
A. Do We Need Judicial Review of Product Designs?
163(1)
B. Do We Need the Defect Requirement? What About Broad Enterprise Liability?
164(3)
James A. Henderson, Jr., Why Negligence Dominates Tort
165(2)
C. Do We Need an External Standard to Determine Design Defect? Inferring Defect from Product Malfunction
167(2)
D. Risk-Utility Standards for Determining Design Defect
169(74)
1. The Reasonable Alternative Design Standard for Determining Design Defect
169(44)
a. Defining the Standard for Determining Design Defect
172(1)
Smith v. Louisville Ladder Co.
172(1)
Problem Thirteen
181(1)
Authors' Dialogue 9
182(1)
Problem Fourteen
182(2)
b. From Which Perspective Should the Product Be Judged? Time of Sale or Time of Trial?
184(1)
(1) Manufacturers' Responsibility for Post-Sale Increases in Knowledge of Risk
186(1)
(2) Manufacturers' Responsibility for Post-Sale Improvements in Risk-Avoidance Techniques
187(1)
(a) State of the Art as a Defense
187(1)
Boatland of Houston, Inc. v. Bailey
188(7)
(b) Subsequent Remedial Measures
195(4)
(3) Manufacturers' Responsibility for Post-Sale Shifts in Public Attitudes Toward Risk
199(2)
c. Should Reasonable Alternative Design Claims Be Submitted to Juries on Both Negligence and Strict Liability Grounds?
201(1)
Lecy v. Bayliner Marine Corporation
201(5)
d. Can a Warning Substitute for a Reasonable Alternative Design?
206(1)
Uniroyal Goodrich Tire Company v. Martinez
206(7)
2. Risk-Utility Balancing Without Requiring a Reasonable Alternative Design
213(5)
Vautour v. Body Masters Sports Industries, Inc.
213(5)
3. Product Category Liability
218(25)
O'Brien v. Muskin Corp.
219(8)
James A. Henderson, Jr. & Aaron D. Twerski, Closing the American Products Liability Frontier: The Rejection of Liability Without Defect
227(3)
Ellen Wertheimer, The Smoke Gets in Their Eyes: Product Category Liability and Alternative Feasible Designs in the Third Restatement
230(3)
Carl T. Bogus, War on the Common Law: The Struggle at the Center of Products Liability
233(1)
Dawson v. Chrysler Corp.
234(6)
Authors' Dialogue 10
240(3)
E. The Consumer Expectations Standard for Determining Design Defect
243(26)
1. Consumer Expectations as a Sword to Impose Liability
244(15)
Heaton v. Ford Motor Co.
244(4)
Potter v. Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company
248(7)
Problem Fifteen
255(1)
The Uniform Commercial Code and the Consumer Expectations Test
256(3)
2. Consumer Expectations as a Shield Against Liability
259(10)
Halliday v. Strum, Ruger & Co., Inc.
259(7)
Authors' Dialogue 11
266(3)
F. The Two-Prong Standard for Determining Design Defect
269(11)
Soule v. General Motors Corporation
269(10)
Authors' Dialogue 12
279(1)
Problem Sixteen
280(1)
G. Idiosyncratic Standards for Determining Design Defect
280(2)
H. Special Duty Problems in Design Litigation
282(22)
1. Whether and to What Extent Should Courts Defer to Markets?
282(8)
Linegar v. Armour of America, Inc.
282(3)
Scarangella v. Thomas Built Buses, Inc.
285(5)
2. Whether and to What Extent Should Courts Defer to Safety Statutes or Administrative Regulations?
290(4)
Authors' Dialogue 13
292(2)
3. Beyond the Pale: High Profile No-Duty Cases
294(11)
Hamilton v. Beretta U.S.A. Corp.
295(5)
In re September 11 Litigation
300(4)
I Relying on Expert Testimony to Prove Design Defect: Daubert Revisited
304(1)
J. Special Problems of Misuse, Alteration, and Modification
305(10)
Morguson v. 3M Co.
307(8)
CHAPTER FIVE Liability for Failure to Warn
315(82)
A. The Basic Duty to Warn at Time of Sale
316(33)
1. The General Rule
316(2)
2. No Duty to Warn of Obvious, Generally Known Risks
318(11)
Jamieson v. Woodward & Lothrop
319(8)
Problem Seventeen
327(1)
To Speak or Not to Speak; Or, "Digging Your Own Grave with the Best of Intentions"
328(1)
Problem Eighteen
329(1)
3. No Duty to Warn of Unknowable Risks
329(11)
Anderson v. Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp.
329(8)
Liability Insurance and Long-Tail, Unknowable Risks
337(1)
Olson v. Prosoco, Inc.
338(2)
4. Informed Choice Warnings
340(9)
Problem Nineteen
342(1)
Liriano v. Hobart Corp.
343(5)
Authors' Dialogue 14
348(1)
B. Who Must Warn Whom?
349(6)
Persons v. Salomon North America, Inc.
349(6)
C. The Sufficiency of the Defendant's Warning
355(17)
Tesmer v. Rich Ladder Co.
355(4)
Problem Twenty
359(2)
Lewis v. Sea Ray Boats, Inc.
361(4)
James A. Henderson, Jr. & Aaron D. Twerski, Doctrinal Collapse in Products Liability: The Empty Shell of Failure to Warn
365(3)
Broussard v. Continental Oil Co.
368(4)
D. Post-Sale Warnings
372(7)
Lovick v. Wil-Rich
373(6)
E. Special Problems with Proximate Cause
379(14)
1. Would the Plaintiff Have Heeded an Adequate Warning?
379(8)
Golonka v. General Motors Corp.
382(5)
2. When the Defendant's Failure to Warn Causes Plaintiff to Suffer Harm from Another Product
387(5)
Powell v. Standard Brands Paint Co.
387(1)
Authors' Dialogue 15
388(4)
3. Did the Plaintiff Suffer the Sort of Harm that an Adequate Warning Would Have Aimed at Preventing?
392(5)
Problem Twenty-One
392(1)
F. Other Forms of Defective Marketing
393(4)
CHAPTER SIX Express Warranty and Misrepresentation
397(26)
A. Express Warranty
397(16)
1. What Is Warranted
397(4)
Baxter v. Ford Motor Co.
398(2)
Problem Twenty-Two
400(1)
2. Basis of the Bargain-The Reliance Controversy
401(12)
Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc.
401(7)
Yarusso v. International Sport Marketing, Inc.
408(4)
Note: The Implied Warranty of Fitness for Particular Purpose
412(1)
B. Misrepresentation
413(10)
Crocker v. Winthrop Laboratories
415(6)
Authors' Dialogue 16
421(1)
Note: Representations as the Mood Music for Determining Product Defect Under Existing Law
422(1)
CHAPTER SEVEN Federal Preemption
423(30)
A. Federal Preemption of Warning Claims
424(13)
Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc.
425(10)
Note: Drugs and Pesticides: Preemption or Not?
435(1)
Authors' Dialogue 17
436(1)
B. Federal Preemption of Design Defect Claims
437(16)
Geier v. American Honda Motor Company, Inc.
439(14)
CHAPTER EIGHT Affirmative Defenses
453(50)
A. Conduct-Based Defenses
453(36)
1. Background Principles
453(9)
a. Introduction
453(1)
b. Contributory Negligence
454(1)
c. Comparative Fault
455(1)
(1) Multiple Defendants
456(1)
(a) Unit Rule
456(1)
(b) Modified Unit Rule
456(1)
(c) Individual Rule
457(1)
(2) Assumption of the Risk and Last Clear Chance
457(1)
(3) Superseding Cause
457(1)
Barry v. Quality Steel Products, Inc., et al.
457(5)
2. Application of Comparative Fault in Products Liability
462(27)
a. Can Fault and Defect Be Compared?
463(1)
(1) Manufacturing Defects: Comparing Apples and Oranges
463(1)
(2) Generic Defects: Comparing Fault Under Risk-Utility Balancing
464(1)
b. Should Fault and Defect Be Compared?
464(1)
(1) Are Products Liability Cases Different?
464(1)
Webb v. Navistar Int'l 1994 Transportation Corp.
464(1)
Social Control of Product-Related Accidents: The Seat Belt Defense and Governmental Control of Drivers' Behavior
476(1)
(2) The Crashworthiness Imbroglio: Should Fault Be Compared with Enhanced Injury?
477(1)
D'Amario v. Ford Motor Company
477(6)
(3) Should Plaintiff's Fault Be Compared with Defendant's Breach of Express Warranty?
483(1)
(4) No Duty/Primary Assumption of Risk: Reintroducing Plaintiff's Conduct as a Total Bar
484(1)
Andren v. White-Rodgers Co.
485(1)
Problem Twenty-Three
488(1)
B. Non-Conduct-Based Defenses
489(16)
1. Time-Based Defenses
489(9)
a. Open-Ended Time Bars
489(1)
Authors' Dialogue 18
490(1)
(1) Knowledge of Injury as a Trigger
491(1)
(2) Knowledge of the Causal Connection Between the Injury and the Product as a Trigger
492(1)
(3) Knowledge of the Defendant's Identity as a Trigger
493(1)
b. Fixed-Period Time Bars
494(1)
Problem Twenty-Four
495(1)
Note: Constitutionality of Statutes of Repose
496(2)
2. Contract-Based Defenses
498(1)
3. Worker Compensation Barriers
498(1)
4. Governmental Immunity
498(1)
5. Government Contractor Defense
499(4)
PART III Special Problem Areas 503(146)
CHAPTER NINE Special Products and Product Markets
505(72)
A. Component Parts and Raw Materials
505(9)
Zaza v. Marquess & Nell, Inc.
505(9)
Authors' Dialogue 19
513(1)
B. Prescription Drugs and Medical Devices
514(42)
1. Liability Based on Failure to Warn
514(20)
a. Warning the Health Care Provider
514(1)
Sterling Drug, Inc. v. Yarrow
516(6)
b. Warning the Patient Directly
522(1)
Perez v. Wyeth Laboratories Inc.
524(10)
2. Liability for Defective Drug Designs
534(19)
Brown v. Superior Court (Abbott Laboratories)
534(1)
Authors' Dialogue 20
535(9)
James A. Henderson, Jr. & Aaron D. Twerski, Drug Designs Are Different
544(6)
George W. Conk, The True Test: Alternative Safer Designs for Drugs and Medical Devices in a Patent-Constrained Market
550(3)
3. Pharmacists' Liability for Prescription Products
553(3)
C. Used Products
556(12)
1. The Tort Rules Governing Liability
556(5)
Crandell v. Larkin and Jones Appliance Co.
556(3)
Note: Tort and Contract-Something Old, Something New
559(2)
2. The Role of Disclaimers in Determining Liability for Used Products
561(7)
Problem Twenty-Five
566(1)
Authors' Dialogue 21
567(1)
D. Food, Nonprescription Drugs, and Cosmetics
568(9)
1. Food Products
568(4)
2. Nonprescription Drugs and Cosmetics
572(5)
CHAPTER TEN Special Elements of the Plaintiff's Recovery
577(72)
A. Recovery of Compensatory Damages
577(2)
1. Limitations on Noneconomic Damage Awards
577(1)
2. Modifications of the Collateral Source Rule
578(1)
3. Reforms Allowing Periodic Payment of Damages
579(1)
B. Recovery for Pure Emotional Upset
579(7)
Kennedy v. McKesson Co.
581(5)
C. Recovery for Pure Economic Loss
586(19)
East River Steamship Corp. v. Transamerica Delaval, Inc.
587(8)
Jimenez v. The Superior Court
595(8)
Problem Twenty-Six
603(1)
C. Wolfram, Modern Legal Ethics
604(1)
D. Special Problems in Toxic Torts Litigation
605(22)
1. Increased Risk of Future Injury
605(5)
Mauro v. Raymark Industries, Inc.
606(4)
2. Recovery for Emotional Upset
610(6)
Metro-North Commuter R.R. Co. v. Buckley
610(6)
3. Medical Monitoring
616(11)
Bower v. Westinghouse Elec. Corp.
617(9)
Authors' Dialogue 22
626(1)
E. Recovery of Punitive Damages
627(24)
1. Standard Limitations Imposed by the States
627(9)
Wangen v. Ford Motor Co.
627(9)
2. Federal Constitutional Control of Punitive Damages
636(15)
State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins. Co. v. Campbell
636(10)
Authors' Dialogue 23
646(3)
PART IV Institutional Perspectives 649(72)
CHAPTER ELEVEN Special Features Reflecting the Fact That Most Products Defendants Are Corporations
651(26)
A. The General Rule of Limited Shareholder Liability (and Exceptions Thereto)
651(17)
Nelson v. International Paint Co., Inc.
654(7)
Problem Twenty-Seven
661(7)
B. A Special Extension of Liability: Successor Corporations
668(9)
Martin v. Abbott Laboratories
668(9)
CHAPTER TWELVE Adjusting the Liability System to the Demands of a National Economy
677(22)
A. The Patchwork Quilt of Existing State Law
677(2)
B. Uniform Laws Approach
679(2)
C. The New Restatement (Third) of Torts: Products Liability
681(1)
D. Federal Legislative Solutions
681(1)
1. Substantive Law Reform
681(1)
2. Insurance Availability: The Risk Retention Act
682(1)
E. Are Judicial Solutions Viable?
682(9)
1. Federal Common Law
683(6)
In re "Agent Orange" Product Liability Litigation
683(6)
2. Federal Preemption of State Law
689(1)
3. National Management of Mass Tort Litigation
689(2)
F. Areas of Special Federal Competence
691(8)
1. The Federal Bankruptcy System
691(5)
Note, The Manville Bankruptcy: Treating Mass Tort Claims in Chapter 11 Proceedings
692(4)
2. Admiralty
696(3)
CHAPTER THIRTEEN International Perspectives on Products Liability
699(22)
A. Foreign Products Liability Law
699(14)
Gary T. Schwartz, Product Liability and Medical Malpractice in Comparative Context, in The Liability Maze
699(8)
Hideyuki Kobayashi & Yoshimasa Furuta, Products Liability Act and Transnational Litigation in Japan
707(6)
B. Does the American Liability System Put American Firms at a Competitive Disadvantage?
713(8)
1. Effects of the American Liability System on Costs and Prices of American Products
713(4)
2. Effects of the American Products Liability System on Product Innovation
717(4)
Table of Cases 721(12)
Table of Statutes and Other Authorities 733(6)
Index 739

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