Program Evaluation Alternative Approaches and Practical Guidelines

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2010-09-27
  • Publisher: Pearson

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A highly esteemed and comprehensive overview of program evaluation that covers common approaches, models, and methods. #xA0; As schools and other organizations increase their demand for information on program effectiveness and outcomes, it has become even more important for students to understand the prevalent approaches and models for evaluation, including approaches based on objectives and logic models, participative, and decision-making approaches. The new tenth edition of Program Evaluationnot only covers these vital approaches but also teaches readers how to best mix and match elements of different approaches to conduct optimal evaluation studies for individual programs.#xA0; #xA0; Helping both students as well as professionals who are new to the field, this text provides practical guidelines for conducting evaluations, from identifying the questions that the evaluation should address, to determining how to collect and analyze evaluative information, to ascertaining how to provide evaluative information to others. Making extensive use of checklists, examples, and other study aides, Program Evaluationteaches students how to effectively determine the central purpose of their evaluation, thus making their evaluation more valid, more useful, and more efficient. #xA0; The revised edition of the text includes new approaches to program evaluation, an expanded discussion of logic models, added information on mixed models, and, as always, updated coverage of the most current trends and controversial issues in evaluation.

Table of Contents



PART ONE Introduction to Evaluation        

Chapter 1 Evaluation’s Basic Purposes, Uses, and Conceptual Distinctions

Informal versus Formal Evaluation

A Brief Definition of Evaluation and Other Key Terms

Differences in Evaluation and Research

The Purposes of Evaluation

Roles and Activities of Professional Evaluators

Uses and Objects of Evaluation

Some Basic Types of Evaluation

Formative and Summative Evaluation

Needs Assessment, Process, and Outcome Evaluations

Internal and External Evaluations

Evaluation’s Importance–and Its Limitations


Chapter 2 Origins and Current Trends in Modern Program Evaluation         

The History and Influence of Evaluation in Society        

Early Forms of Formal Evaluation

Program Evaluation: 1800—1940

Program Evaluation: 1940—1964

The Emergence of Modern Program Evaluation: 1964—1972

Evaluation Becomes a Profession: 1973—1989

1990-The Present: History and Current Trends

Spread of Evaluation to Other Countries          

Non-Evaluators Take On Internal Evaluation


A Focus on Measuring Outcomes and Impact

Considering Organizational Learning and Evaluation's Larger Potential Impacts


Chapter 3 Political, Interpersonal, and Ethical Issues in Evaluation

Evaluation and its Political Context

How Is Evaluation Political?

Suggestions for Working within the Political Environment

Establishing and Maintaining Good Communications

Maintaining Ethical Standards: Considerations, Issues, and Responsibilities for Evaluators

What Kinds of Ethical Problems Do Evaluators Encounter?      

Ethical Standards in Evaluation

Protections to Human Subjects and the Role of Institutional Review Boards

Reflecting on Sources of Bias and Conflicts of Interest

Ethics beyond a Code of Ethics


PART II Alternative Approaches To Program Evaluation

Chapter 4 Alternative Views Of Evaluation

Diverse Conceptions of Program Evaluation

Origins of Alternative Views of Evaluation

Philosophical and Ideological Differences

Methodological Backgrounds and Preferences

Classifications of Evaluation Theories or Approaches

Existing Categories and Critiques

A Classification Schema for Evaluation Approaches


Chapter 5 First Approaches: Expertise and Consumer-Oriented Approaches

The Expertise-Oriented Approach       

Developers of the Expertise-Oriented Evaluation Approach and Their Contributions

Formal Professional Review Systems:  Accreditation

Informal Review Systems         

Ad Hoc Panel Reviews

Ad Hoc Individual Reviews      

Influences of the Expertise-Oriented Approach:  Uses, Strengths and Limitations

The Consumer-Oriented Evaluation Approach

The Developer of the Consumer-Oriented Evaluation Approach

Applying the Consumer-Oriented Approach     

Other Applications of the Consumer Oriented Approach          

Influences of the Consumer-Oriented Approach:  Uses, Strengths and Limitations


Chapter 6 Program-Oriented Evaluation Approaches

The Objectives-Oriented Evaluation Approach

The Tylerian Evaluation Approach

Provus’s Discrepancy Evaluation Model           

A Schema for Generating and Analyzing Objectives: The Evaluation Cube

Logic Models and Theory-Based Evaluation Approaches

Logic Models

Theory-Based or Theory-Driven Evaluation     

How Program-Oriented Evaluation Approaches Have Been Used

Strengths and Limitations of Program-Oriented Evaluation Approaches

Goal-Free Evaluation


Chapter 7 Decision-Oriented Evaluation Approaches

Developers of Decision-Oriented Evaluation Approaches and Their Contributions

The Decision-Oriented Approaches 

The CIPP Evaluation Model    

The UCLA Evaluation Model  

Utilization-Focused Evaluation 

Evaluability Assessment and Performance Monitoring   

How the Decision-Oriented Evaluation Approaches Have Been Used

Strengths and Limitations of Decision-Oriented Evaluation Approaches


Chapter 8 Participant-Oriented Evaluation Approaches

Evolution of Participatory Approaches 

Developers of Participant-Oriented Evaluation Approaches and Their Contributions

Robert Stake and his Responsive Approach

Egon Guba and Yvonna Lincoln:  Naturalistic and Fourth Generation Evaluation

Participatory Evaluation Today:  Two Streams and Many Approaches

Categories of Participatory Approaches           

Differences in Current Participatory Approaches          

Developmental Evaluation        

Empowerment Evaluation         

Democratically-Oriented Approaches to Evaluation      

Looking Back  

How Participant-Oriented Evaluation Approaches Have Been Used

Research on Involvement of Stakeholders        

Use of Approaches by Developers

Strengths and Limitations of Participant-Oriented Evaluation Approaches

Strengths of Participatory Approaches 

Limitations of Participatory Approaches


Chapter 9 Other Current Considerations: Cultural Competence and Capacity Building

The Role of Culture and Context in Evaluation Practice and Developing Cultural Competence

Growing Attention to the Need for Cultural Competence

Why is Cultural Competence Important?

Evaluation’s Roles in Organizations: Evaluation Capacity Building and Mainstreaming Evaluation

Mainstreaming Evaluation         

Evaluation Capacity Building    

Limitations to Mainstreaming Evaluation and Capacity Building


Chapter 10 A Comparative Analysis Of Approaches

A Summary and Comparative Analysis of Evaluation Approaches

Cautions about the Alternative Evaluation Approaches

Evaluation Approaches are Distinct but May Be Mixed in Practice

“Discipleship” to a Particular Evaluation “Model” Is a Danger

Calls to Abandon Pluralism and Consolidate Evaluation Approaches into One Generic Model Are Still Unwise

The Choice of Evaluation Approach Is Not Empirically Based

Contributions of the Alternative Evaluation Approaches

Comparative Analysis of Characteristics of Alternative Evaluation Approaches

Eclectic Uses of the Alternative Evaluation Approaches

Drawing Practical Implications from the Alternative Evaluation   Approaches


PART III Practical Guidelines for Planning Evaluations

Chapter 11 Clarifying the Evaluation Request and Responsibilities    

Understanding the Reasons for Initiating the Evaluation

Direct, Informational Uses of Evaluation

Noninformational Uses of Evaluation

Conditions under Which Evaluation Studies Are Inappropriate

Evaluation Would Produce Trivial Information

Evaluation Results Will Not Be Used

Evaluation Cannot Yield Useful, Valid Information

The Type of Evaluation Is Premature for the Stage of the Program

Propriety of Evaluation Is Doubtful

Determining When an Evaluation Is Appropriate: Evaluability Assessment

How Does One Determine Whether a Program Is Evaluable?

Checklist of Steps for Determining When to Conduct an Evaluation

Using an Internal or External Evaluator

Advantages of External Evaluations

Advantages of Internal Evaluations

Advantages of Combining Internal and External Evaluation

Checklist of Steps for Determining Whether to Use an External Evaluator

Hiring an Evaluator

Competencies Needed By Evaluators

Possible Approaches to Hiring An Evaluator

Checklist of Questions to Consider in Selecting an Evaluator

How Different Evaluation Approaches Clarify the Evaluation Request and Responsibilities


Chapter 12 Setting Boundaries and Analyzing the Evaluation Context

Identifying Stakeholders and Intended Audiences for an Evaluation

Identifying Stakeholders to be Involved in the Evaluation and Future Audiences

Importance of Identifying and Involving Various Stakeholders

Describing What Is To Be Evaluated: Setting the Boundaries

Factors to Consider in Characterizing the Object of the Evaluation

Using Program Theory and Logic Models to Describe the Program

Methods for Describing the Program and Developing Program Theory

Dealing with Different Perceptions

Re-Describing the Program as it Changes

A Sample Description of an Evaluation Object

Analyzing the Resources and Capabilities That Can Be Committed to the Evaluation

Analyzing Financial Resources Needed for the Evaluation

Analyzing Availability and Capability of Evaluation Personnel

Analyzing Technological and Other Resources and Constraints for Evaluations

Analyzing the Political Context for the Evaluation

Variations Caused By the Evaluation Approach Used

Determining Whether to Proceed with the Evaluation


Chapter 13 Identifying and Selecting the Evaluation Questions and Criteria

Identifying Useful Sources for Evaluation Questions:  The Divergent Phase

Identifying Questions, Concerns, and Information Needs of Stakeholders

Using Evaluation Approaches as Heuristics

Using Research and Evaluation Work in the Program Field

Using Professional Standards, Checklists, Guidelines, and Criteria Developed or Used Elsewhere

Asking Expert Consultants to Specify Questions or Criteria

Using the Evaluator’s Professional Judgment

Summarizing Suggestions from Multiple Sources

Selecting The Questions, Criteria, And Issues To Be Addressed:  The Convergent Phase

Who Should Be Involved in the Convergent Phase?

How Should the Convergent Phase Be Carried Out?

Specifying the Evaluation Criteria and Standards

Absolute Standards

Relative Standards

Remaining Flexible during the Evaluation: Allowing New Questions, Criteria, and Standards to Emerge


Chapter 14 Planning How to Conduct the Evaluation                

Developing the Evaluation Plan

Selecting Designs for the Evaluation

Identifying Appropriate Sources of Information

Identifying Appropriate Methods for Collecting Information

Determining Appropriate Conditions for Collecting Information: Sampling and Procedures

Determining Appropriate Methods and Techniques for Organizing, Analyzing, and Interpreting Information

Determining Appropriate Ways to Report Evaluation Findings

Work Sheets to Summarize an Evaluation Plan

Specifying How the Evaluation Will Be Conducted:  The Management   Plan

Estimating and Managing Time for Conducting Evaluation Tasks

Analyzing Personnel Needs and Assignments

Estimating Costs of Evaluation Activities and Developing Evaluation Budgets

Establishing Evaluation Agreements and Contracts

Planning and Conducting the Metaevaluation

The Development of Metaevaluation and Its Use Today

Some General Guidelines for Conducting Metaevaluations
A Need for More Metaevaluation


PART IV Practical Guidelines for Conducting and Using Evaluations

Chapter 15 Collecting Evaluative Information: Design, Sampling, and Cost Choices

Using Mixed Methods

Evaluation Controversies over Methodology

A Definition and Discussion of Mixed Methods

Designs for Collecting Descriptive and Causal Information

Descriptive Designs

Case Studies

Cross-Sectional Designs

Time-Series Designs

Causal Designs

Experimental Designs

Quasi-Experimental Designs

Mixed Method Designs


Sample Size  
Selecting a Random Sample

Using Purposive Sampling

Cost Analysis

Cost Benefit Analysis

Cost-Effectiveness Studies

Chapter 16 Collecting Evaluative Information: Data Sources and Methods, Analysis and Interpretation

Common Sources and Methods for Collecting Information

Existing Documents and Records         

Identifying Sources and Methods for Original Data Collection:  A Process




Focus Groups

Tests and Other Methods for Assessing Knowledge and Skill

Planning and Organizing the Collection of Information

Technical Problems in Data Collection

Analysis of Data and Interpretation of Findings

Data Analysis

Interpreting Data


Chapter 17 Reporting Evaluation Results: Maximizing Use and Understanding

Purposes of Evaluation Reporting and Reports

Different Ways of Reporting

Important Factors in Planning Evaluation Reporting

Accuracy, Balance, and Fairness

Tailoring Reports to Their Audience(s)

Timing of Evaluation Reports

Strategies to Communicate and Persuade

Appearance of the Report

Human and Humane Considerations in Reporting Evaluation Findings

Delivering Negative Messages

Key Components of a Written Report

Executive Summary

Introduction to the Report

Focus of the Evaluation

Brief Overview of the Evaluation Plan and Procedures

Presentation of Evaluation Results

Conclusions and Recommendations

Minority Reports or Rejoinders


Suggestions for Effective Oral Reporting

A Checklist for Good Evaluation Reports 

How Evaluation Information Is Used

Models of Use

Steps To Take To Influence Evaluation Use

Reporting and Influence


Chapter 18 The Future Of Evaluation

The Future of Evaluation

Predictions Concerning the Profession of Evaluation

A Vision for Evaluation


Appendix A


Author Index

Subject Index




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