9780486449074

A Project Guide to UX Design For user experience designers in the field or in the making

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780486449074

  • ISBN10:

    0486449076

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-03-09
  • Publisher: DOVER

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Summary

This authoritative guide helps artists at all levels tackle one of art's most difficult challenges: the accurate re-creation of natural perspective. Through hundreds of concise chapters covering a vast range of subjects, readers learn how to reproduce shape, distance, proportion, shade, shadow, reflection, and other elements in two-dimensional works. 301 illustrations.

Table of Contents

BOOK I THE NECESSITY OF THE STUDY OF PERSPECTIVE TO PAINTERS, SCULPTORS, AND ARCHITECTS WHAT IS PERSPECTIVE? 6(36)
THE THEORY OF PERSPECTIVE:
I. Definitions.
13(2)
II. The Point of Sight, the Horizon, and the Point of Distance
15(1)
III. Point of Distance.
16(4)
IV. Perspective of a Point, Visual Rays, &c.
20(1)
V. Trace and Projection
21(1)
VI. Scientific Definition of Perspective
22(2)
RULES:
VII. The Rules and Conditions of Perspective
24(16)
VIII. A Table or Index of the Rules of Perspective
40
BOOK II THE PRACTICE OF PERSPECTIVE:
IX. The Square in Parallel Perspective
42(1)
X. The Diagonal
43(1)
XI. The Square
43(3)
XII. Geometrical and Perspective Figures Contrasted
46(2)
XIII. Of Certain Terms made use of in Perspective
48(1)
XIV. How to Measure Vanishing or Receding Lines
49(1)
XV. How to Place Squares in Given Positions
50(1)
XVI. How to Draw Pavements, &c.
51(2)
XVII. Of Squares placed Vertically and at Different Heights, or the Cube in Parallel Perspective
53(1)
XVIII. The Transposed Distance
53(1)
XIX. The Front View of the Square and of the Proportions of Figures at Different Heights
54(5)
XX. Of Pictures that are Painted according to the Position they are to Occupy
59(3)
XXI. Interiors
62(2)
XXII. The Square at an Angle of 45°
64(1)
XXIII. The Cube at an Angle of 45°
65(1)
XXIV. Pavements Drawn by Means of Squares at 45°
66(2)
XXV. The Perspective Vanishing Scale
68(1)
XXVI. The Vanishing Scale can be Drawn to any Point on the Horizon
69(2)
XXVII. Application of Vanishing Scales to Drawing Figures
71(1)
XXVIII. How to Determine the Heights of Figures on a Level Plane
71(1)
XXIX. The Horizon above the Figures
72(2)
XXX. Landscape Perspective
74(1)
XXXI. Figures of Different Heights. The Chessboard
74(3)
XXXII. Application of the Vanishing Scale to Drawing Figures at an Angle when their Vanishing Points are Inaccessible or Outside the Picture
77(1)
XXXIII. The Reduced Distance. How to Proceed when the Point of Distance is Inaccessible
77(1)
XXXIV. How to Draw a Long Passage or Cloister by Means of the Reduced Distance
78(1)
XXXV. How to Form a Vanishing Scale that shall give the Height, -Depth, and Distance of any Object in the Picture
79(2)
XXXVI. Measuring Scale on Ground
81(3)
XXXVII. Application of the Reduced Distance and the Vanishing Scale to Drawing a Lighthouse, &c.
84(1)
XXXVIII. How to Measure Long Distances such as a Mile or Upwards
85(2)
XXXIX. Further Illustration of Long Distances and Extended Views
87(1)
XL. How to Ascertain the Relative Heights of Figures on an Inclined Plane
88(1)
XLI. How to Find the Distance of a Given Figure or Point from the Base Line
89(1)
XLII. How to Measure the Height of Figures on Uneven Ground
90(1)
XLIII. Further Illustration of the Size of Figures at Different Distances and on Uneven Ground
91(1)
XLIV. Figures on a Descending Plane
92(3)
XLV. Further Illustration of the Descending Plane
95(1)
XLVI. Further Illustration of Uneven Ground
95(1)
XLV II. The Picture Standing on the Ground
96(1)
XLVIII. The Picture on a Height
97(1)
BOOK III
XLIX. Angular Perspective
98(1)
L. How to put a Given Point into Perspective
99(1)
LI. A Perspective Point being given, Find its Position on the Geometrical Plane
100(1)
LII. How to put a Given Line into Perspective
101(1)
LIII. To Find the Length of a Given Perspective Line
102(1)
LIV. To Find these Points when the Distance-Point is Inaccessible
103(1)
LV. How to put a Given Triangle or other Rectilineal Figure into Perspective
104(1)
LVI. How to put a Given Square into Angular Perspective
105(1)
LVII. Of Measuring Points
106(1)
LVIII. How to Divide any Given Straight Line into Equal or Proportionate Parts
107(1)
LIX. How to Divide a Diagonal Vanishing Line into any Number of Equal or Proportional Parts
107(3)
LX. Further Use of the Measuring Point O
110(1)
LXI. Further Use of the Measuring Point O
110(2)
LXII. Another Method of Angular Perspective, being that Adopted in our Art Schools
112(3)
LXIII. Two Methods of Angular Perspective in one Figure
115(1)
LXIV. To Draw a Cube, the Points being Given
115(1)
LXV. Amplification of the Cube Applied to Drawing a Cottage
116(1)
LXVI. How to Draw an Interior at an Angle
117(1)
LXVII. How to Correct Distorted Perspective by Doubling the Line of Distance
118(1)
LXVIII. How to Draw a Cube on a Given Square, using only One Vanishing Point
119(1)
LXIX. A Courtyard or Cloister Drawn with One Vanishing Point
120(1)
LXX. How to Draw Lines which shall Meet at a Distant Point, by Means of Diagonals
121(1)
LXXI. How to Divide a Square Placed at an Angle into a Given Number of Small Squares
122(1)
LXXII. Further Example of how to Divide a Given Oblique Square into a Given Number of Equal Squares, say Twenty-five
122(2)
LXXIII. Of Parallels and Diagonals
124(1)
LXXIV. The Square, the Oblong, and their Diagonals
125(1)
LXXV. Showing the Use of the Square and Diagonals in Drawing Doorways, Windows, and other Architectural Features
126(1)
LXXVI. How to Measure Depths by Diagonals
127(1)
LXXVII. How to Measure Distances by the Square and Diagonal
128(1)
LXXVIII. How by Means of the Square and Diagonal we can Determine the Position of Points in Space
129(2)
LXXIX. Perspective of a Point Placed in any Position within the Square
131(2)
LXXX. Perspective of a Square Placed at an Angle. New Method
133(1)
LXXXI. On a Given Line Placed at an Angle to the Base Draw a Square in Angular Perspective, the Point of Sight, and Distance, being given
134(1)
LXXXII. How to Draw Solid Figures at any Angle by the New Method
135(2)
LXXXIII. Points in Space
137(1)
LXXXIV. The Square and Diagonal Applied to Cubes and Solids Drawn Therein
138(1)
LXXXV. To Draw an Oblique Square in Another Oblique Square without Using Vanishing-points
139(2)
LXXXVI. Showing how a Pedestal can be Drawn by the New Method
141(2)
LXXXVII. Scale on Each Side of the Picture
143(2)
LXXXVIII. The Circle
145(1)
LXXXIX. The Circle in Perspective a True Ellipse
145(1)
XC. Further Illustration of the Ellipse
146(2)
XCI. How to Draw a Circle in Perspective Without a Geometrical Plan.
148(3)
XCII. How to Draw a Circle in Angular Perspective
151(1)
XCIII. How to Draw a Circle in Perspective more Correctly, by Using Sixteen Guiding Points
152(1)
XCIV. How to Divide a Perspective Circle into any Number of Equal Parts
153(1)
XCV. How to Draw Concentric Circles
154(2)
XCVI. The Angle of the Diameter of the Circle in Angular and Parallel Perspective
156(1)
XCVII. How to Correct Disproportion in the Width of Columns
157(1)
XCVIII. How to Draw a Circle over a Circle or a Cylinder
158(1)
XCIX. To Draw a Circle Below a Given Circle
159(1)
C. Application of Previous Problem
160(1)
CI. Doric Columns
161(1)
CII. To Draw Semicircles Standing upon a Circle at any Angle
162(1)
CIII. A Dome Standing on a Cylinder
163(1)
CIV. Section of a Dome or Niche
164(3)
CV. A Dome
167(2)
CVI. How to Draw Columns Standing in a Circle
169(1)
CVII. Columns and Capitals
170(1)
CVIII. Method of Perspective Employed by Architects
170(2)
CIX. The Octagon
172(1)
CX. How to Draw the Octagon in Angular Perspective
173(1)
CXI. How to Draw an Octagonal Figure in Angular Perpective
174(1)
CXII. How to Draw Concentric Octagons, with Illustration of a Well
174(2)
CXIII. A Pavement Composed of Octagons and Small Squares
176(1)
CXIV. The Hexagon
177(1)
CXV. A Pavement Composed of Hexagonal Tiles
178(3)
CXVI. A Pavement of Hexagonal Tiles in Angular Perspective
181(1)
CXVII. Further Illustration of the Hexagon
182(1)
CXVIII. Another View of the Hexagon in Angular Perspective
183(2)
CXIX. Application of the Hexagon to Drawing a Kiosk
185(1)
CXX. The Pentagon
186(3)
CXXI. The Pyramid
189(2)
CXXII. The Great Pyramid
191(2)
CXXIII. The Pyramid in Angular Perspective
193(1)
CXXIV. To Divide the Sides of the Pyramid Horizontally
193(2)
CXXV. Of Roofs
195(3)
CXXVI. Of Arches, Arcades, Bridges, &c.
198(2)
CXXVII. Outline of an Arcade with Semicircular Arches
200(1)
CXXVIII. Semicircular Arches on a Retreating Plane
201(1)
CXXIX. An Arcade in Angular Perspective
202(1)
CXXX. A Vaulted Ceiling
203(3)
CXXXI. A Cloister, from a Photograph
206(1)
CXXXII. The Low or Elliptical Arch
207(1)
CXXXIII. Opening or Arched Window in a Vault
208(1)
CXXXIV. Stairs, Steps, &c.
209(1)
CXXXV. Steps, Front View
210(1)
CXXXVI. Square Steps
211(1)
CXXXVII. To Divide an Inclined Plane into Equal Parts—such as a Ladder Placed against a Wall
212(1)
CXXXVIII. Steps and the Inclined Plane
213(1)
CXXXIX. Steps in Angular Perspective
214(2)
CXL. A Step Ladder at an Angle
216(1)
CXLI. Square Steps Placed over each other
217(1)
CXLII. Steps and a Double Cross Drawn by Means of Diagonals and one Vanishing Point
218(3)
CXLIII. A Staircase Leading to a Gallery
221(1)
CXLIV. Winding Stairs in a Square Shaft
222(3)
CXLV. Winding Stairs in a Cylindrical Shaft
225(2)
CXLVI. Of the Cylindrical Picture or Diorama
227(2)
BOOK IV
CXLVII. The Perspective of Cast Shadows
229(1)
CXLVIII. The Two Kinds of Shadows
230(2)
CXLIX. Shadows Cast by the Sun
232(1)
CL. The Sun in the Same Plane as the Picture
233(1)
CLI. The Sun Behind the Picture
234(4)
CLII. Sun Behind the Picture, Shadows Thrown on a Wall
238(2)
CLIII. Sun Behind the Picture Throwing Shadow on an Inclined Plane
240(1)
CLIV. The Sun in Front of the Picture
241(3)
CLV. The Shadow of an Inclined Plane
244(1)
CLVI. Shadow on a Roof or Inclined Plane
245(1)
CLVII. To Find the Shadow of a Projection or Balcony on a Wall
246(1)
CLVIII. Shadow on a Retreating Wall, Sun in Front
247(2)
CLIX. Shadow of an Arch, Sun in Front
249(1)
CLX. Shadow in a Niche or Recess
250(1)
CLXI. Shadow in an Arched Doorway
251(1)
CLXII. Shadows Produced by Artificial Light
252(1)
CLXIII. Some Observations on Real Light and Shade
253(4)
CLXIV. Reflection
257(2)
CLXV. Angles of Reflection
259(1)
CLXVI. Reflections of Objects at Different Distances
260(2)
CLXVII. Reflection in a Looking-glass
262(2)
CLXVIII. The Mirror at an Angle
264(2)
CLXIX. The Upright Mirror at an Angle of 45° to the Wall
266(3)
CLXX. Mental Perspective
269

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