Protoplanetary Dust: Astrophysical and Cosmochemical Perspectives

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2010-02-26
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
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Planet formation studies uniquely benefit from three disciplines: astronomical observations of extrasolar planet-forming disks, analysis of material from the early Solar System, and laboratory astrophysics experiments. Pre-planetary solids, fine dust, and chondritic components are central elements linking these studies. This book is the first comprehensive overview of planet formation, in which astronomers, cosmochemists, and laboratory astrophysicists jointly discuss the latest insights from the Spitzer and Hubble space telescopes, new interferometers, space missions including Stardust and Deep Impact, and laboratory techniques. Following the evolution of solids from their genesis through protoplanetary disks to rocky planets, the book discusses in detail how the latest results from these disciplines fit into a coherent picture. This volume provides a clear introduction and valuable reference for students and researchers in astronomy, cosmochemistry, laboratory astrophysics, and planetary sciences.

Author Biography

Dniel Apai is an Assistant Astronomer at the Space Telescope Science Institute. His research focuses on the observational characterization of the origins and properties of extrasolar planets and planetary systems. Dante S. Lauretta is an Associate Professor of Planetary Science and Cosmochemistry at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory. His research interests include the chemistry and mineralogy of asteroids and comets as determined by in situ laboratory analysis and spacecraft observations.

Table of Contents

List of contributing authorsp. xi
Prefacep. xv
Acknowledgmentsp. xviii
Planet formation and protoplanetary dustp. 1
Types of extraterrestrial material availablep. 2
Chronology of planet formationp. 6
Protostellar collapsep. 8
Structural evolution of protoplanetary disksp. 9
Chemical evolution of the gas disksp. 11
Laboratory dust analogsp. 12
Dust composition in protoplanetary disksp. 13
Dust coagulationp. 14
Thermal processing of the pre-planetary materialp. 15
Dispersal of protoplanetary disksp. 17
Accretion of planetesimals and rocky planetsp. 18
Key challenges and perspectivesp. 19
The origins of protoplanetary dust and the formation of accretion disksp. 27
Dust in the interstellar mediump. 28
Presolar grains in primitive Solar System materialsp. 40
Star formationp. 52
Evolution of protoplanetary disk structuresp. 66
Some properties of protoplanetary disksp. 67
Protoplanetary disk structure and evolutionp. 70
Particle dynamicsp. 80
Protoplanetary disk dynamics and dust evolutionp. 85
Summaryp. 92
Chemical and isotopic evolution of the solar nebula and protoplanetary disksp. 97
Protoplanetary disksp. 99
Chemical constraints from early Solar System materialsp. 110
Isotopic anomalies and condensation sequencep. 111
Oxygen isotopesp. 113
Summaryp. 122
Laboratory studies of simple dust analogs in astrophysical environmentsp. 128
Dust-analog synthesisp. 131
Characterization techniquesp. 136
Dust processingp. 140
Grain-growth studiesp. 143
Grain-catalysis studiesp. 149
Conclusionp. 155
Dust composition in protoplanetary disksp. 161
Modeling the dust compositionp. 162
Laboratory studies of Solar System dustp. 164
Dust composition in Solar System samplesp. 166
Remote sensing of dust around young stars and in cometsp. 170
Composition of the dustp. 177
Processing history of grains as derived from the dust compositionp. 185
Dust particle size evolutionp. 191
Dust coagulation in the Solar System and in extrasolar protoplanetary disksp. 192
Nomenclature and definitionsp. 193
Coagulation basicsp. 196
Laboratory simulations of dust coagulationp. 197
Observational tracers of grain coagulationp. 198
Chondritic meteoritesp. 206
What do chondrite matrices tell us about the grain size of nebular dust?p. 214
Dust coagulation: how and when?p. 217
Constraints on dust coagulation from amorphous silicatesp. 219
When did dust coagulation occur?p. 221
Astronomical versus meteoritic constraintsp. 223
Thermal processing in protoplanetary nebulaep. 230
Thermal processing: annealing and evaporationp. 231
Observations of thermal processing in protoplanetary disksp. 234
Thermal processing in the Solar System: chondritesp. 241
Heating mechanismsp. 250
How would Solar System formation look to an outside observerp. 256
Promising future experimentsp. 257
The clearing of protoplanetary disks and of the proto-solar nebulap. 263
The observed lifetime of protoplanetary disksp. 263
Disk dispersal processesp. 274
Our Solar Systemp. 277
Discussionp. 288
Accretion of planetesimals and the formation of rocky planetsp. 299
Observational constraints on rocky-planet formationp. 300
Planetesimal formationp. 304
Growth of rocky planetsp. 312
The effect of the giant planets and the formation of the Asteroid Beltp. 321
Summaryp. 328
Common minerals in the Solar Systemp. 336
Mass spectrometryp. 340
Basics of light absorption and scattering theoryp. 343
Glossaryp. 349
Indexp. 363
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