Psychology Applied to Modern Life Adjustment at the Turn of the Century

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1999-12-07
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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Edition after edition, this comprehensive text has enjoyed best-seller status in a crowded field. While professors cite the book for its academic credibility and the authors' ability to stay current with ''hot topics,'' students say it's one text they just don't want to put down. Students and instructors alike find the text and associated workbooks to be a highly readable, engaging, visually-appealing package that provide a wealth of personal applications. This is no ordinary applied psychology book. Wayne Weiten and Margaret Lloyd's text helps students understand the psychological reasons for their reactions to everyday situations. The authors to an outstanding job of providing practical advice on such subjects as coping with social pressure, improving communication with your sexual partner, protecting yourself from AIDS, and developing healthy lifestyle habits. And it does so without sacrificing scientific rigor or accuracy.

Table of Contents

The Dynamics of Adjustment
Adjusting to Modern Lifep. 1
The Paradox of Progressp. 1
The Search for Directionp. 3
The Codependency Movement
Self-Help Books
The Approach of This Textbook
The Psychology of Adjustmentp. 11
What Is Psychology?
What Is Adjustment?
The Scientific Approach To Behaviorp. 12
The Commitment to Empiricism
Advantages of the Scientific Approach
Experimental Research: Looking for Causes
Correlational Research: Looking for Links
The Roots of Happiness: An Empirical Analysisp. 17
What Isn't Very Important?
What Is Somewhat Important?
What Is Very Important?
Application: Improving Academic Performancep. 22
Developing Sound Study Habits
Improving Your Reading
Getting More Out of Lectures
Applying Memory Principles
Chapter 1 Reviewp. 28
Practice Testp. 29
Theories of Personalityp. 30
The Nature of Personalityp. 31
What Is Personality?
What Are Personality Traits?
Psychodynamic Perspectivesp. 32
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
Jung's Analytical Psychology
Adler's Individual Psychology
Evaluating Psychodynamic Perspectives
Behavioral Perspectivesp. 40
Pavlov's Classical Conditioning
Skinner's Operant Conditioning
Bandura and Social Learning Theory
Evaluating Behavioral Perspectives
Humanistic Perspectivesp. 47
Rogers's Person-Centered Theory
Maslow's Theory of Self-Actualization
Evaluating Humanistic Perspectives
Biological Perspectivesp. 51
Eysenck's Theory
Recent Research in Behavioral Genetics
The Evolutionary Approach to Personality
Evaluating Biological Perspectives
An Epilogue on Theoretical Diversityp. 54
Application: Assessing Your Personalityp. 56
Key Concepts in Psychological Testing
Self-Report Inventories
Projective Tests
Chapter 2 Reviewp. 60
Practice Testp. 61
Stress and Its Effectsp. 62
The Nature of Stressp. 63
Stress Is an Everyday Event
Stress Lies in the Eye of the Beholder
Stress May Be Embedded in the Environment
Stress May Be Self-Imposed
Major Types of Stressp. 66
Key Factors in the Appraisal of Stressp. 71
Responding to Stressp. 72
Emotional Responses
Physiological Responses
Behavioral Responses
The Potential Effects of Stressp. 78
Impaired Task Performance
Disruption of Cognitive Functioning
Posttraumatic Stress Disorders
Psychological Problems and Disorders
Physical Illness
Beneficial Effects
Factors Influencing Stress Tolerancep. 82
Social Support
Optimism and Conscientiousness
Sensation Seeking
Autonomic Reactivity
Application: Monitoring Your Stressp. 88
Problems with the SRRS
The Life Experiences Survey
A Cautionary Note
Chapter 3 Reviewp. 94
Practice Testp. 95
Coping Processesp. 96
The Concept of Copingp. 97
Common Coping Patterns of Limited Valuep. 98
Giving Up
Striking Out at Others
Indulging Yourself
Blaming Yourself
Using Defensive Coping
The Nature of Constructive Copingp. 104
Appraisal-Focused Constructive Copingp. 106
Ellis's Rational Thinking
Humor as a Stress Reducer
Positive Reinterpretation
Problem-Focused Constructive Copingp. 109
Using Systematic Problem Solving
Seeking Help
Using Time More Effectively
Improving Self-Control
Emotion-Focused Constructive Copingp. 115
Releasing Pent-Up Emotions
Distracting Yourself
Using Relaxation Procedures
Application: Achieving Self-Controlp. 120
Specifying Your Target Behavior
Gathering Baseline Data
Designing Your Program
Executing and Evaluating Your Program
Ending Your Program
Chapter 4 Reviewp. 126
Practice Testp. 127
The Interpersonal Realm
The Selfp. 128
Self-Conceptp. 129
The Nature of the Self-Concept
Factors Shaping the Self-Concept
Identityp. 136
Development of Identity
Identity Statuses
Gender, Ethnicity, and Identity
Self-Esteemp. 138
The Importance of Self-Esteem
Determinants of Self-Esteem
Minority Group Membership and Self-Esteem
Basic Principles of Self-Perceptionp. 143
Attributional Style
The Premium on Consistency
The Need for Self-Enhancement
Correlates of Self-Efficacy
Developing Self-Efficacy
Self-Presentationp. 149
Impression Management
Self-Presentation and Authenticity
Application: Building Self-Esteemp. 153
Chapter 5 Reviewp. 156
Practice Testp. 157
Social Cognition and Social Influencep. 158
Forming Impressions of Othersp. 159
Key Sources of Information
Snap Judgments Versus Systematic Judgments
Perceiver Expectancies
Cognitive Distortions
Key Themes in Person Perception
The Problem of Prejudicep. 166
"Old-Fashioned" Versus Modern Discrimination
Causes of Prejudice
Reducing Prejudice
The Power of Persuasionp. 169
The Elements of the Persuasion Process
The Whys of Persuasion
Subliminal Persuasion
The Power of Social Pressurep. 174
Conformity and Compliance Pressures
Pressure from Authority Figures
Fatal Social Influence
Culture and Social Influence
Application: Seeing Through Compliance Tacticsp. 180
The Foot-in-the-Door Technique
The Door-in-the-Face Technique
Using the Reciprocity Norm
The Lowball Technique
Reactance and Feigned Scarcity
The Power of Modeling
Chapter 6 Reviewp. 184
Practice Testp. 185
Interpersonal Communicationp. 186
The Process of Interpersonal Communicationp. 187
Components of the Communication Process
The Importance of Communication
Nonverbal Communicationp. 188
General Principles
Elements of Nonverbal Communication
Detecting Deception
The Significance of Nonverbal Communication
Toward More Effective Communicationp. 197
Creating a Positive Interpersonal Climate
Conversational Skills
Effective Listening
Communication Problemsp. 202
Communication Apprehension
Barriers to Effective Communication
Interpersonal Conflictp. 204
Beliefs About Conflict
Types of Conflict
Styles of Managing Conflict
Dealing Constructively with Conflict
Public Communication in an Adversarial Culture
Application: Developing an Assertive Communication Stylep. 210
The Nature of Assertiveness
Steps in Assertiveness Training
Chapter 7 Reviewp. 214
Practice Testp. 215
Friendship and Lovep. 216
Perspectives on Close Relationshipsp. 217
The Ingredients of Close Relationships
Culture and Relationships
Initial Attraction and Relationship Developmentp. 218
Initial Encounters
Getting Acquainted
Relationship Satisfaction and Commitment
Friendshipp. 226
What Makes a Good Friend?
Gender Differences in Friendship
Romantic Lovep. 228
Myths About Love
Sexual Orientation and Love
Gender Differences Regarding Love
Theories of Love
The Course of Romantic Love
Lonelinessp. 235
Prevalence and Consequences of Loneliness
The Roots of Loneliness
Coping with Loneliness
Application: Understanding Date Rapep. 239
Incidence of Rape
Consequences of Rape
Factors Contributing to Date Rape
Reducing the Incidence of Date Rape
Chapter 8 Reviewp. 244
Practice Testp. 245
Marriage and Intimate Relationshipsp. 246
Challenges to the Traditional Model of Marriagep. 247
Moving Toward Marriagep. 249
The Motivation to Marry
Selecting a Mate
Predictors of Marital Success
Marital Adjustiment Across the Family Life Cyclep. 252
Between Families: The Unattached Young Adult
Joining Together: The Newly Married Couple
Family with Young Children
Family with Adolescent Children
Launching Children into the Adult World
The Family in Later Life
Vulnerable Areas in Marital Adjustmentp. 256
Gaps in Role Expectations
Work and Career Issues
Financial Difficulties
Inadequate Communication
Divorcep. 262
Increasing Rate of Divorce
Deciding on a Divorce
Adjusting to Divorce
Alternatives to Marriagep. 266
Remaining Single
Gay Relationships
Application: Understanding Intimate Violencep. 272
Partner Abuse
Child Abuse
Child Sexual Abuse
Chapter 9 Reviewp. 276
Practice Testp. 277
Developmental Transitions
Gender and Behaviorp. 278
Gender Stereotypesp. 279
Gender Similarities and Differencesp. 281
Cognitive Abilities
Personality Traits and Social Behavior
Psychological Disorders
Putting Gender Differences in Perspective
Biological Origins of Gender Differencesp. 285
Evolutionary Explanations
Brain Organization
Hormonal Influences
Environmental Origins of Gender Differencesp. 288
Processes in Gender-Role Socialization
Sources of Gender-Role Socialization
Traditional Gender Rolesp. 292
Role Expectations for Males
Problems with the Male Role
Role Expectations for Females
Problems with the Female Role
Sexism: A Special Problem for Females
Gender in the Past and in the Futurep. 298
Why Are Gender Roles Changing?p. 298
Alternatives to Traditional Gender Roles
A Gender-Free Society?
Application: Bridging the Gender Gap in Communicationp. 302
The Clash of Two "Cultures"
Instrumental and Expressive Styles
Common Mixed-Gender Communication Problems
Toward a "Shared Language"
Chapter 10 Reviewp. 306
Practice Testp. 307
Development in Adolescence and Adulthoodp. 308
The Transition of Adolescencep. 309
Physical Changes
Cognitive Changes
Personality Changes
Adolescent Suicide
The Expanse of Adulthoodp. 315
Erikson's View of Adult Development
Early Adulthood (From About Age 20 to 40)
Middle Adulthood (From About Age 40 to 65)
Late Adulthood (After Age 65)
Aging: A Gradual Processp. 320
Physical Changes
Cognitive Changes
Personality Changes
Death and Dyingp. 326
Attitudes About Death
The Process of Dying
Bereavement and Grieving
Application: Becoming an Effective Parentp. 329
Maternal Behavior and Infant-Mother Attachment
Day Care and Attachment
Dimensions of Child-Rearing
Effects of Parenting Styles
Rearing Adolescents
Toward Effective Parenting
Using Punishment Effectively
Chapter 11 Reviewp. 334
Practice Testp. 335
Careers and Workp. 336
Choosing A Careerp. 337
Examining Family Influences and Personal Characteristics
Researching Job Characteristics
Using Psychological Tests for Career Decisions
Taking Important Considerations into Account
Models of Career Choice and Developmentp. 341
Holland's Trait Measurement and Matching Model
Super's Developmental Model
Women's Career Development
The Changing World of Workp. 345
Workplace Trends
Education and Earnings
The Changing Workforce
Coping with Occupational Hazardsp. 349
Job Stress
Sexual Harassment
Balancing Work and Other Spheres of Lifep. 356
Leisure and Recreation
Multiple Roles
Application: Getting Ahead in the Job Gamep. 360
Putting Together a Resume
Finding Companies You Want to Work For
Landing an Interview
Polishing Your Interview Technique
Chapter 12 Reviewp. 364
Practice Testp. 365
Development and Expression of Sexualityp. 366
Becoming A Sexual Personp. 367
Key Aspects of Sexual Identity
Physiological Influences
Psychosocial Influences
Gender Differences in Sexual Socialization
Sexual Orientation
Interaction in Sexual Relationshipsp. 375
Motives Underlying Sexual Interactions
Communicating About Sex
The Human Sexual Responsep. 377
The Sexual Response Cycle
Gender Differences in Patterns of Orgasm
Sexual Expressionp. 380
Kissing and Touching
Oral and Anal Sex
Patterns of Sexual Behaviorp. 382
Sex in the Age of AIDS
"Premarital" Sex
Sex in Committed Relationships
Infidelity in Committed Relationships
Practical Issues in Sexual Activityp. 386
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Application: Enhancing Sexual Relationshipsp. 392
General Suggestions
Understanding Sexual Dysfunction
Coping with Specific Problems
Chapter 13 Reviewp. 396
Practice Testp. 397
Mental and Physical Health
Psychology and Physical Healthp. 398
Stress, Personality, and Illnessp. 400
Type A Personality, Emotions, and Heart Disease
Stress and Cancer
Stress and Other Diseases
Stress and Immune Functioning
Habits, Lifestyles, and Healthp. 406
Poor Nutrition
Lack of Exercise
Behavior and AIDS
Reactions to Illnessp. 420
The Decision to Seek Treatment
The Sick Role
Communicating with Health Providers
Adherence to Medical Advice
Application: Understanding the Effects of Drugsp. 422
Drug-Related Concepts
Designer Drugs
Chapter 14 Reviewp. 428
Practice Testp. 429
Psychological Disordersp. 430
Abnormal Behavior: Myths, Realities, and Controversiesp. 431
The Medical Model Applied to Abnormal Behavior
Criteria of Abnormal Behavior
Psychodiagnosis: The Classification of Disorders
The Prevalence of Psychological Disorders
Anxiety Disordersp. 437
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Phobic Disorder
Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Etiology of Anxiety Disorders
Somatoform Disordersp. 441
Somatization Disorder
Conversion Disorder
Etiology of Somatoform Disorders
Dissociative Disordersp. 443
Dissociative Amnesia and Fugue
Multiple-Personality Disorder
Etiology of Dissociative Disorders
Mood Disordersp. 445
Depressive Disorder
Bipolar Disorder
Etiology of Mood Disorders
Schizophrenic Disordersp. 450
General Symptoms
Course and Outcome
Etiology of Schizophrenia
Application: Understanding Eating Disordersp. 457
Anorexia Nervosa
Bulimia Nervosa
History and Prevalence
Etiology of Eating Disorders
Course and Outcome
Chapter 15 Reviewp. 462
Practice Testp. 463
Psychotherapyp. 464
The Elements of Psychotherapy: Treatments, Clients, and Therapistsp. 465
Treatments: How Many Types Are There?
Clients: Who Seeks Therapy?
Therapists: Who Provides Professional Treatment?
Insight Therapiesp. 469
Client-Centered Therapy
Cognitive Therapy
Group Therapy
Evaluating Insight Therapies
Therapy and the Recovered Memories Controversy
Behavior Therapiesp. 478
General Principles
Systematic Desensitization
Aversion Therapy
Social Skills Training
Evaluating Behavior Therapies
Biomedical Therapiesp. 482
Treatment with Drugs
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
Blending Approaches to Psychotherapyp. 486
Application: Looking for a Therapistp. 488
When Should You Seek Professional Treatment?
Where Do You Find Therapeutic Services?
Is the Therapist's Profession Important?
Is the Therapist's Gender Important?
Is Therapy Always Expensive?
Is the Therapist's Theoretical Approach Important?
What Should You Look for in a Prospective Therapist?
What If There Isn't Any Progress?
What Is Therapy Like?
Chapter 16 Reviewp. 492
Practice Testp. 493
URLs for Recommended Web sitesp. 495
Glossaryp. 499
Referencesp. 505
Creditsp. 553
Name Indexp. 559
Subject Indexp. 571
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