Psychology and the Challenges of Life

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  • Edition: 13th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2016-01-11
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Inc

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This text is an unbound, three hole punched version.

In the 13th edition of Psychology and the Challenges of Life: Adjustment and Growth, Binder Ready Version, 13th Edition authors Jeffrey Nevid and Spencer Rathus continue to reflect on the many ways in which psychology relates to  the lives we live and the important roles that psychology can play in helping us adjust to the many challenges we face in our daily lives. Throughout, the authors explore applications of psychological concepts and principles in meeting life challenges such as managing our time, developing our self-identity, building  and maintaining friendships and intimate relationships, adopting  healthier behaviors and lifestyles, coping with stress, and dealing with emotional problems and psychological disorders. 

Author Biography

Jeffrey S. Nevid and Spencer A. Rathus are the authors of Psychology and the Challenges of Life: Adjustment and Growth, Binder Ready Version, 13th Edition, published by Wiley.

Table of Contents

1 Psychology and the Challenges of Life 2

Psychology and Adjustment 7

Adjustment and Modern Life: Cell Phone Nation: A Blessing or a Curse? 8

Touchpoints in Our Study of Adjustment 9

Adjustment and Personal Growth: Two Aspects of the Psychology of Adjustment 9

Nature versus Nurture: Is Biology Destiny? 9

The Clinical Approach versus the Healthy-Personality Approach 10

Adjustment and Modern Life: What Makes People Happy? 11

Human Diversity and Adjustment 12

Ethnic Diversity 12

Adjustment and Modern Life: Who We Are Today, Who We Will Be Tomorrow 13

Gender 14

Other Meanings of Diversity 14

Critical Thinking and Adjustment 15

Features of Critical Thinking 16

Thinking Critically About Astrology and Other Pseudosciences 17

Thinking Critically About Self-Help Books: Are There Any Quick Fixes? 19

Thinking Critically When Surfing Online 20

How Psychologists Study Adjustment 21

The Scientific Method: Putting Ideas to the Test 22

Including Women and Members of Diverse Ethnic Groups in Research 23

Methods of Research 23

The Case Study Method 23

The Survey Method 24

The Naturalistic Observation Method 25

The Correlational Method: Seeing What Goes Up and What Comes Down 25

Self-Assessment: Dare You Say What You Think? The Social Desirability Scale 27

The Experimental Method: Trying Things Out 28

Adjustment and Modern Life: Do U Txt? LOL. (Of course you do.) 30

Testing Your Texting Skills 31

Becoming a Successful Student—in This and Your Other Courses 32

Adjustment and Modern Life: Multitasking: In a Word, When Studying, Don’t 34

Recite 36

Reflect 37

2 Personality 40

Psychodynamic Theories 42

Sigmund Freud’s Theory of Personality 42

The Geography of the Mind 42

Structure of Personality 43

Stages of Psychosexual Development 45

A Closer Look: Sigmund Freud 45

Other Psychodynamic Theorists 46

Carl Jung 47

Alfred Adler 47

Karen Horney 47

Erik H. Erikson 48

A Closer Look: Erik Erikson—“Who Am I, Really?” 48

The Healthy Personality 49

The Abilities to Love and to Work 49

Ego Strength 50

A Creative Self 50

Compensation for Feelings of Inferiority 50

Erikson’s Positive Outcomes 50

Evaluation of Psychodynamic Approaches 50

Learning Theories 51

Behaviorism 52

Classical Conditioning: Learning by Association 52

Conditioning of Fears 53

Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery 54

Operant Conditioning: Learning by Consequences 54

Types of Reinforcers 55

Punishment 55

A Closer Look: B. F. (Burrhus Frederic) Skinner 56

Social-Cognitive Theory 57

Competencies: What Can You Do? 57

Encoding Strategies: How Do You See It? 57

Expectancies: What Will Happen? 58

Self-Regulatory Systems and Plans: Getting from Here to There 59

The Healthy Personality 59

Self-Assessment: Will You Be a Hit or a Miss? The Expectancy for Success Scale 60 Evaluation of Learning Theories 61

Humanistic Theory 62

Abraham Maslow and the Challenge of Self-Actualization 62

The Hierarchy of Needs: What Do You Do When You’re No Longer Hungry? 63

Carl Rogers’s Self Theory 64

Self-Esteem and Positive Regard 64

The Healthy Personality 65

Evaluation of Humanistic Theory 65

Trait Theories 66

Hans Eysenck 66

The Five-Factor Model 67

Adjustment and Modern Life: Are You A Facebook Extravert? Or A Twitter Narcissist? 68

Adjustment and Modern Life: Does Facebook Know You Better Than Your Friends Do? 69

The Healthy Personality 69

Adjustment and Modern Life: Are Our Traits Imprinted in Our Genes? 70

Changing the Unchangeable: Is Biology Destiny? 70

Evaluation of Trait Theories 71

The Sociocultural Perspective 71

Individualism versus Collectivism 72

Sociocultural Factors and the Self 73

The Healthy Personality 74

Adjustment and Modern Life: Acculturation: A Double-Edged Sword? 74

Balancing Competing Cultural Demands 75

Coping Effectively with Discrimination 75

Becoming Acculturated without Losing Your Cultural Identity 75

Evaluation of the Sociocultural Perspective 76

Assessing Personality 76

Objective Personality Tests 76

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 77

Projective Personality Tests 78

The Rorschach Inkblot Test 78

The Thematic Apperception Test 78

Understanding Myself 79

Recite 80

Reflect 82

3 Stress: What It Is and How to Manage It 84

Sources of Stress 86

Daily Hassles: The Stress of Everyday Life 86

Life Changes: Are You Going Through Changes? 88

Self-Assessment: How Much Are You Stressed? 89

The Challenges of Acculturative Stress 90

Ethnic Identity as a Buffer Against Stress 91

Pain and Discomfort: Your Body’s Warning Signal 92

Endorphins 93

Coping with Pain 93

Frustration: When the Wall Is Too High 95

The Frustrations of Commuting 95

Psychological Barriers 96

Tolerance for Frustration 96

Conflict: “Darned If You Do, Darned If You Don’t” 96

Irrational Beliefs: Ten Doorways to Distress 97

The Type A Behavior Pattern: Burning Out from Within? 100

Environmental Stressors: It Can Be Dangerous Out There 100

Disasters: Of Fire and of Ice 100

Terrorism: When Our Sense of Security in Our Own Land Is Threatened 101

Noise: Effects of Living Life Loudly 101

Adjustment and Modern Life: Warning Signs of Trauma-Related Stress 102

Temperature: “Getting Hot Under the Collar” 103

Air Pollution: “Don’t Breathe the Air” 103

Crowding and Other Stresses of City Life 103

Personal Space 104

Psychological Moderators of Stress 105

Self-Efficacy Expectations: “The Little Engine That Could” 105

Psychological Hardiness—Are You Tough Enough? 105

Sense of Humor: “A Merry Heart Doeth Good Like a Medicine” 106

Predictability and Control: “If I Know What’s Coming, I Can Better Prepare for It” 106 Optimism: Is the Glass Half Full or Half Empty? 107

Self-Assessment: Are You an Optimist or a Pessimist? 107

Social Support: On Being in It Together 108

Managing Stress 109

Recite 114

Reflect 114

4 Psychological Factors and Health 116

Physical, Emotional, and Cognitive Effects of Stress 117

The Body’s Response to Stress 118

The General Adaptation Syndrome 118

Adjustment and Modern Life: “Fight or Flight” or “Tend and Befriend?” Understanding Gender Differences in Response to Stress 121

Emotional Effects of Stress 122

Cognitive Effects of Stress 123

Effects of Stress on the Immune System 123

Life Changes and Physical Health 124

Factors in Health and Illness 126

Human Diversity and Health: A Land of Many Nations 128

Psychological Factors in Physical Health Problems 132

Headaches: Pounding Away 132

Muscle‐Tension Headache 132

Migraine Headache 133

Headache Treatment 133

Menstrual Problems 134

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) 134

Coping with Menstrual Discomfort 135

Coronary Heart Disease: Taking Stress to Heart 135

Adopting Healthier Habits to Reduce the Risk of CHD 138

Modifying Type A Behavior 139

Cancer: Swerving Off Course 141

Risk Factors 141

Psychological Treatment of Cancer Patients 142

Prevention of, and Coping with, Cancer 143

Becoming an Active Health Care Consumer 144

Self-Assessment: Are You an Active or a Passive Health Care Consumer? 144

Recite 147

Reflect 148

5 Developing Healthier Behaviors 150

Nutrition: The Stuff of Life 151

Nutrients: Ingredients in a Healthful Diet 152

Proteins 152

Carbohydrates 152

Fats 153

Vitamins and Minerals 153

Adjustment and Modern Life: Eating Right on Campus 154

Obesity: Are We Losing the Battle of the Bulge? 155

Biological Factors 156

Psychosocial Factors 157

Adjustment and Modern Life: Texting Your Way to a Slimmer Figure 158

Taking It Off and Keeping It Off—Weight, That Is 158

Eating Disorders 162

Anorexia Nervosa 162

Bulimia Nervosa 163

Causes of Eating Disorders 163

Adjustment and Modern Life: How Do I Shape Up on Facebook? 164

Fitness: Run (at Least Walk) for Your Life 166

Types of Exercise 168

Effects of Exercise 168

Exercise and Physical Health 168

Exercise and Mental Health 169

Making Physical Activity a Part of Your Lifestyle 169

Sleep: A Time for Renewal 171

Self-Assessment: Are You Getting Your Zs? 172

Functions of Sleep 173

Insomnia: “When Sleep Eludes Us” 174

To Sleep, Perchance to Dream 175

Substance Abuse and Dependence: When Drug use Causes Harm 176

Substance Abuse and Dependence: Crossing the Line 178

Factors in Substance Abuse and Dependence 178

Depressants: Drugs That Slow You Down 179

Alcohol: The “Swiss Army Knife” of Psychoactive Substances 179

Adjustment and Modern Life: Binge Drinking on Campus 180

Self-Assessment: How Do You Know If You Are “Hooked?” 183

Opioids 183

Barbiturates 184

Stimulants: Drugs That Speed You Up 184

Nicotine 185

Amphetamines 186

Ecstasy: A Dangerous “Rave?” 187

Cocaine 187

Hallucinogens: Drugs That Twist You Inside Out 188

LSD and Other Hallucinogens 188

Marijuana 188

Adjustment and Modern Life: Internet Addiction 190

Finding Healthful Alternatives to Harmful Substances 190

Recite 193

Reflect 194

6 The Self in a Social World 196

The Self: The Core of Your Psychological Being 198

Your Physical Self: My Body, Myself 198

The Social Self: The Self You Show to Others 199

Your Personal Self—The Inner You 200

Adjustment and Modern Life: Hey Mom, What’s on Your Facebook Page? 200

What’s in a Name? 201

What Do You Value? 202

Adjustment and Modern Life: Ms. Rose, by Any Other Name, Might Still Be a Florist 202

Self-Assessment: Values Clarification—What Is Important to You? 203

Self‐Concept, Self‐Esteem, and Self‐Identity 204

Examining Your Self‐Concept 205

Adjustment and Modern Life: Your Self in Cyberspace: Which Self Is It? 206

Self‐Esteem 207

Self‐Identity and Identity Crisis 208

Identity Statuses 208

A Closer Look: Carl Rogers—A Case Study in Identity Achievement 211

Perception of Others 212

The Importance of First Impressions 212

Managing First Impressions 212

Body Language 213

Using Body Language to Foster Adjustment and Enhance Social Relationships 214

Prejudice and Discrimination 215

Sources of Prejudice and Discrimination 216

Combating Prejudice and Discrimination 217

Role Reversal: An Immunization Technique? 217

Intergroup Contact 218

Seeking Compliance with the Law 218

Self‐Examination 218

Raising Tolerant Children 219

Attribution Theory and Personal Adjustment 219

The Fundamental Attribution Error 220

The Actor‐Observer Effect 220

The Self‐Serving Bias 221

Cultural Differences in Attributional Biases 221

Enhancing Self‐Esteem 222

Recite 225

Reflect 226

7 Social Influence: Being Influenced by—and Influencing—Others 228

Persuasion: Of Hard Pushing, Soft Pedaling, and You 230

Factors in Persuasion 230

A New Model of Persuasion: You Take the Low Road, I’ll Take the High Road 230

The Persuasive Message: Say What? Say How? Say How Often? 232

The Persuasive Communicator: Whom Do You Trust? 232

The Context of the Message: Get ’Em in a Good Mood 233

The Persuaded Audience: Are You a Person Who Can’t Say No? 233

Sales Ploys: Saying No to Persuasive Sales Tactics 234

The Foot‐in‐the‐Door Technique 234

Low‐Balling 234

Bait‐and‐Switch 234

Countering Manipulative Sales Tactics 235

Group Influences: of Obedience, Conformity, and Mob Behavior 236

Obedience to Authority: Does Might Make Right? 236

The Milgram Studies: Shocking Stuff at Yale 236

On Truth at Yale 237

On Deception at Yale 238

Conformity: Do Many Make Right? 240

A Closer Look: Stanley Milgram: The Man Who Shocked the World 240

Seven Line Judges Can’t Be Wrong, Can They? The Asch Study 240

Factors Influencing Conformity 241

Getting Mobbed: Watch Out for the “Beast with Many Heads” 242

Altruism and Helping Behavior: Preventing the Social Fabric from Tearing 243

The Bystander Effect: Some Watch While Others Die 243

Bystander Intervention: Deciding to Help . . . or Not? 244

The Helper: Who Helps? 244

The Victim: Who Is Helped? 245

Becoming an Assertive Person (Winning Respect and Influencing People) 246

Adjustment and Modern Life: “Becoming Successfully Shy”: Bernardo Carducci in His Own Words 248

Recite 250

Reflect 250

8 Psychological Disorders 252

What are Psychological Disorders? 254

Criteria for Determining Abnormal Behavior 254

Classifying Psychological Disorders 255

Types of Psychological Disorders 256

Anxiety‐Related Disorders 257

Types of Anxiety‐Related Disorders 257

Phobias 258

Panic Disorder 260

Generalized Anxiety Disorder 260

Obsessive‐Compulsive Disorder 261

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Acute Stress Disorder 261

Causal Factors 263

Psychological Views 263

Biological Views 264

Dissociative and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders 265

Types of Dissociative Disorders 266

Dissociative Amnesia 266

Dissociative Identity Disorder 266

Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder 267

Causal Factors in Dissociative Disorders 267

Types of Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders 268

Conversion Disorder 268

Somatic Symptom Disorder 269

Causal Factors in Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders 269

Mood Disorders 270

Types of Mood Disorders 270

Major Depression 270

Bipolar Disorder 271

A Closer Look: Why Are More Women Depressed? 272

Is There a Thin Line Between Genius and Madness? 272

Causal Factors 272

Psychological Factors 273

Self-Assessment: Do Your Own Thoughts Put You Down in the Dumps? 274

Biological Factors 276

Adjustment and Modern Life: Does Facebook Pose a Risk to Your Mental Health? 277

Schizophrenia 278

Causal Factors 279

Genetic Factors 280

The Dopamine Theory of Schizophrenia 280

Personality Disorders 281

Types of Personality Disorders 281

Causal Factors 283

Helping a Friend in Crisis 284

Recite 286

Reflect 287

9 Therapies: Ways of Helping 290

Psychodynamic Therapies: Digging Deep Within 292

Traditional Psychoanalysis: “Where Id Was, There Shall Ego Be” 293

Free Association 293

Transference 294

Dream Analysis 295

Modern Psychodynamic Approaches 295

Humanistic‐Existential Therapies: Becoming Oneself 296

Client‐Centered Therapy: Removing Roadblocks to Self‐Actualization 297

Gestalt Therapy: Piecing It Together 298

Behavior Therapy: Adjustment is What You do 300

Fear‐Reduction Methods 300

Flooding 300

Gradual Exposure 300

Systematic Desensitization 301

Modeling 301

Aversive Conditioning 302

Operant Conditioning Procedures 302

The Token Economy 302

Social Skills Training 302

Biofeedback Training 302

Cognitive Therapies: Adjustment is What You Think (and Do) 303

Cognitive Therapy: Correcting Errors in Thinking 304

Rational‐Emotive Behavior Therapy: Overcoming “Musts” and “Shoulds” 305 Eclectic Therapy: Some of This, Some of That 306

Self-Assessment: Are You Making Yourself Miserable? The Irrational‐Beliefs Questionnaire 306

Group, Couple, and Family Therapy: When Therapy Goes Beyond the Individual 308

Group Therapy: We’re in This Together 308

Couple Therapy: When the Group Is the Couple 309

Family Therapy: When the Group Is the Family 309

Adjustment and Modern Life: Internet Counseling: Psychological Help May Be Only a Few Mouse Clicks Away 310

The Effectiveness of Psychotherapy 311

Is Therapy Effective? 311

Does Therapy Help Because of the Specific Method or Because of Nonspecific Factors? 312

Empirically Supported Treatments (ESTs) 312

Psychotherapy and Human Diversity 313

Psychotherapy and Ethnic Minority Groups 313

African Americans 314

Asian Americans 314

Latino and Latina Americans 314

Native Americans 315

Feminist Psychotherapy 315

A Closer Look: Beverly A. Greene: In Her Own Words 315

Biomedical Therapies 316

Drug Therapy: In Search of the Magic Pill? 316

Antianxiety Drugs 317

Antipsychotic Drugs 317

Antidepressants 317

Lithium 318

Electroconvulsive Therapy 318

Psychosurgery 318

Evaluating Biomedical Therapies 319

Coping with Emotional Responses to Stress: Anxiety, Anger, and Depression 320

Recite 325

Reflect 326

10 Interpersonal Attraction: Of Friendship and Love 328

Attraction: The Force That Binds 330

Physical Attractiveness: How Important Is Looking Good? 330

Gender Differences in Perception of Attractiveness 332

Stereotypes of Attractive People: Do Good Things Come in Pretty Packages? 334

Culture and Attractiveness: Who’s Good-Looking? 334

The Matching Hypothesis: Who Is “Right” for You? 335

Adjustment and Modern Life: One Nation, Under Facebook, but Not for Everyone 336 Attraction and Similarity: Birds of a Feather Flock Together 336

Proximity: Seeing You Is Liking You 337

Reciprocity: If You Like Me, You Must Have Excellent Judgment 337

Sexual Orientation: The Direction of Erotic Attraction 337

Adjustment and Modern Life: Like Them on Facebook? Or Keep Them Guessing? 338

Sexual Orientation: Like the Colors of the Rainbow 338

Origins of Sexual Orientation 339

Attitudes Toward Gay Males and Lesbians 340

“Coming Out” 340

Adjustment of Gay Males and Lesbians 341

Adjustment and Modern Life: Ethnicity and Sexual Orientation: A Matter of Belonging 342

Friendship: “Gotta Have Friends” 344

Adjustment and Modern Life: Safe Social Networking in College 345

Love: Our Deepest Emotion 346

Styles of Love 346

Romantic Love in Contemporary Western Culture 347

The Love Triangle—That Is, the Triangular Model of Love 347

Romantic versus Companionate Love: Is Romantic Love Any Basis for a Marriage? 349

Self-Assessment: Has Cupid Shot His Arrow into Your Heart? Sternberg’s Triangular Love Scale 350

Coping with Loneliness 352

Recite 353

Reflect 354

11 Relationships and Communication: Getting from Here to There 356

The Abc(De)S of Relationships 357

A Is for Attraction 358

Adjustment and Modern Life: Twenty‐First‐Century Dating: Matches Made in (Cyber) Heaven  359

Guidelines for Safer Cyberdating 361

B Is for Building 361

The “Opening Line:” How Do You Get Things Started? 361

Exchanging “Name, Rank, and Serial Number” 362

Not‐So‐Small Talk: Auditioning for Love 362

Adjustment and Modern Life: Is Facebook Use a Threat to Your Grades? 363

Self‐Disclosure: You Tell Me and I’ll Tell You . . . Carefully 363

How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Post the Ways 364

C Is for Continuation 364

Trust 364

Caring 364

Mutuality: When the “We,” Not the “I’s,” Have It 365

Commitment 365

Jealousy 365

Equity 366

Get That Date! 366

D Is for Deterioration 367

Adjustment and Modern Life: They Say You Can’t Hurry Love . . . But How About Speed Dating? 367

Active and Passive Responses to a Deteriorating Relationship 368

E Is for Ending 369

Marriage 370

Whom Do We Marry? Are Marriages Made in Heaven or in the Neighborhood? 371

The Marriage Contract: A Way of Clarifying Your Expectations 372

Marital Satisfaction: Is Everybody Happy? 373

Adjustment and Modern Life: Emotional Intelligence: The Emotional Pathway to Success 375

Extramarital Affairs: On Truth and Consequences 376

Intimate Partner Violence 377

Self-Assessment: Do You Endorse a Traditional or a Liberal Marital Role? 378

Divorce 380

The Cost of Divorce 380

Adjustment and Modern Life: Dating Again? 382 Adjustment in Stepparent Families 383

Being Single 384

Cohabitation: “Would You Be My POSSLQ”? 386

Who Cohabits? 386

Why Do People Cohabit? 386

Styles of Cohabitation 387

Cohabitation and Later Marriage: Benefit or Risk? 387

Making Relationships Work 388

Recite 392

Reflect 393

12 Gender and Sexuality 394

Gender Roles and Gender Stereotypes: What Does it Mean to be Masculine or Feminine? 396

Adjustment and Psychological Androgyny: The More Traits the Merrier? 398

Adjustment and Modern Life: Acculturation and Changing Gender Roles—Rafael Javier in His Own Words 399

Challenges to Androgyny 400

Gender Differences: Vive la Différence or Vive la Similarité? 400

Gender Differences in Cognitive Abilities 401

Gender Differences in Personality and Social Behavior 402

Gender‐Typing: On Becoming A Woman or A Man 404

Biological Influences on Gender‐Typing: It’s Nature’s Way 405

Brain Organization 405

Psychosocial Influences on Gender‐Typing 406

Psychodynamic Theory 406

Social‐Cognitive Theory 407

A Closer Look: Jayne Thomas, Ph.D.—In Her Own Words 407

A Closer Look: Psychologist Jayne Thomas 408

Gender‐Schema Theory 408

The Biological Basis of Sex 410

Female Sexual Anatomy 410

Male Sexual Anatomy 412

Sex Hormones and Sexual Behavior 413

Hormonal Regulation of the Menstrual Cycle 413

Organizing and Activating Effects of Sex Hormones 413

Sexual Behavior and Response 414

Varieties of Sexual Expression 414

Values and Sexual Expression 415

Methods of Contraception 415

The Sexual Response Cycle 417

Excitement Phase 418

Plateau Phase 418

Adjustment and Modern Life: “Cybersex Addiction”—A New Adjustment Problem 418

Self-Assessment: Warning Signs of Cybersex Addiction 420

Orgasmic Phase 420

Resolution Phase 420

Sexual Dysfunctions 422

Types of Sexual Dysfunctions 422

Causes of Sexual Dysfunctions 423

Biological Causes 423

Psychological Causes 424

Sociocultural Causes 425

Sex Therapy 425

Rape 426

Why Do Men Rape Women? 428

Myths About Rape 429

Preventing Rape 429

Self-Assessment: Cultural Myths That Create a Climate That Supports Rape 431

Practicing Healthier Behaviors to Prevent the Spread of Hiv/Aids and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases 432

Recite 437

Reflect 438

13 Adolescent and Adult Development: Going Through Changes 440

Adolescence 442

Physical Changes of Adolescence 442

Puberty 443

Cognitive Development 443

Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage 444

Adolescent Egocentrism: “You Just Don’t Understand!” 444

Social and Personality Development 445

The Quest for Independence: “I Gotta Be Me” 445

Adolescent Adjustment—Sometimes a Risky Business 446

Ego Identity versus Role Diffusion 446

Adolescent Sexual Adjustment 447

Self-Assessment: What’s Your Identity Status? 448

Young And Middle Adulthood 449

Physical Development during Adulthood 450

Reaching Our Peak 450

Menopause 451

What About Men? Is There a Manopause? 452

Cognitive Development 453

Social and Personality Development 453

Making Your Way in the World: The Challenges of Young Adulthood 454

Children: To Have or Not to Have 455

Becoming an Authoritative Parent: Rearing Competent Children 456

Types of Parenting Styles 456

Adjustment and Modern Life: Childbirth Advice Is Just a Few Clicks Away 456

Becoming an Authoritative Parent 457

Transitions to Mastery: Facing the Challenges of Midlife 458

Midlife Transition 458

The Midlife Crisis 459

Toward Mastery 459

Middlescence 459

The Empty‐Nest Syndrome 459

Late Adulthood 460

Physical Development 461

Sensory Changes 462

Changes in Lung Capacity, Muscle Mass, and Metabolism 462

Changes in Bone Density 462

Changes in Sexual Functioning 463

Cognitive Development 464

Keeping the Mind Sharp: The Seattle Longitudinal Study 464

Alzheimer’s Disease: The Long Goodbye 464

Aging, Gender, and Ethnicity: Different Patterns of Aging 465

Personality and Social Development 466

On Living Independently 467

On Retirement 467

On Psychological Well‐Being 468

On Death and Dying 468

Living Longer and Healthier Lives 471

Recite 472

Reflect 473

14 The Challenge of the Workplace 474

Career Development 476

Motives for Working 477

Stages of Career Development 478

Getting a Job 479

Writing a Résumé 479

The Cover Letter 482

How to Wow the Interviewer! 484

Developmental Tasks in Taking a Job: How to Succeed in Business with Really Trying 484

Adjustment and Modern Life: Careers: What’s Hot, What’s Not 485

Adjustment In The Workplace 488

Job Satisfaction 488

What Determines Job Satisfaction? 489

Enhancing Job Satisfaction: Improving the Quality of Work Life Is Also Good Business 489

Adjustment and Modern Life: Challenges of a Changing Workplace 492

Work and Stress 494

The Role of the Worker 494

How to Cope with Stress on the Job 494

Burnout 495

Women In The Workplace 498

Why Do Women Work? 499

Women in the Workplace 500

The Earnings Gap 501

Sexual Harassment 502

Motives for Sexual Harassment 503

How Widespread Is the Problem? 503

Resisting Sexual Harassment 504

Finding A Career That Fits 506

Self-Assessment: What’s Your Career Type? Attend the Job Fair and Find Out! 508

Recite 509

Reflect 510

Name Index NI-1

Subject Index SI-17

References—Available online at www.wiley.com/college/nevid

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