Psychology and Life Discovering Psychology Edition

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  • Edition: 18th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2009-01-01
  • Publisher: Allyn & Bacon
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This classic text emphasizes the science of psychology, with a special focus on applying psychology to students'daily lives. Now available in a special edition tied to the award-winning "Discovering Psychology" video series, produced by WGBH Boston with the American Psychological Association. Author Phil Zimbardo narrates the video series, as leading researchers, practitioners, and theorists probe the mysteries of the mind and body and bring psychology to life for introductory students. Psychology and Life: The Discovering Psychology Editionoffers the same content as the Eighteenth Edition, and adds a built in Discovering Psychology viewing guide at the end of each chapter. Each new copy of the text comes packaged at no additional cost with access to MyPsychLab, an online tool that includes links to the "Discovering Psychology" videos, as well as interactive viewing activities tied to the videos. Students can go to MyPsychLab to launch the videos and then either complete the viewing activities in their textbook or do the assignments online. Therers"s also an Index of Multimedia that makes it easy for instructors to find and launch specific video segments for classroom presentation. Psychology and Lifecontinues to provide a rigorous, research-centered survey of the discipline while offering students special features and learning aids that will spark their interest and excite their imaginations.

Table of Contents

Psychology and Life
What Makes Psychology Unique?
The Goals of Psychology
Psychology in Your Life: Can Psychology Help Find Me a Career?
The Evolution of Modern Psychology
Psychology's Historical Foundations
Current Psychological Perspectives
Critical Thinking in Your Life: Why do Friendships End?
What Psychologists Do
How to Use This Book
Study Strategies
Study Techniques
Special Features
Recapping Main Points
Key Terms
Research Methods in Psychology
The Process of Research
Observer Biases and Operational Definitions
Experimental Methods: Alternative Explanations and the Need for Controls
Correlational Methods
Subliminal Influence?
Psychology in Your Life: Can Survey Research Affect Your Attitudes?
Psychological Measurement
Achieving Reliability and Validity
Self-Report Measures
Behavioral Measures and Observations
Ethical Issues in Human And Animal Research
Informed Consent
Risk/Gain Assessment
Intentional Deception
Issues in Animal Research
Becoming a Wiser Research Consumer
Critical Thinking in Your Life: How Can You Evaluate Psychological Information on the Web?
Recapping Main Points
Key Terms
Statistical Supplement
Understanding Statistics: Analyzing Data and Forming Conclusions
Analyzing the Data
Descriptive Statistics
Inferential Statistics
Becoming a Wise Consumer of Statistics
Key Terms
The Biological and Evolutionary Bases of Behavior
Heredity and Behavior
Evolution and Natural Selection
Variation in the Human Genotype
The Nervous System in Action
The Neuron
Action Potentials
Synaptic Transmission
Neurotransmitters and Their Functions
Biology and Behavior
Eavesdropping on the Brain
The Nervous System
Brain Structures and Their Functions
Hemispheric Lateralization
The Endocrine System
Plasticity and Neurogenesis: Our Changing Brains
Critical Thinking in Your Life: What Does "It's Genetic" Mean?
Psychology in Your Life: Why Does Music Have an Impact on How You Feel?
Recapping Main Points
Key Terms
Sensation and Perception
Sensing, Organizing, Identifying, and Recognizing
The Proximal and Distal Stimuli
Reality, Ambiguity, and Illusions
Sensory Knowledge of the World
From Physical Events to Mental Events
The Visual System
The Human Eye
The Pupil and the Lens
The Retina
Processes in the Brain
Seeing Color
Critical Thinking in Your Life: Can Technology Restore Sight?
The Physics of Sound
Psychological Dimensions of Sound
The Physiology of Hearing
Your Other Senses
Touch and Skin Senses
The Vestibular and Kinesthetic Senses
Organizational Processes in Perception
Attentional Processes
Principles of Perceptual Grouping
Spatial and Temporal Integration
Motion Perception
Depth Perception
Perceptual Constancies
Psychology in Your Life: Why is Eating "Hot" Food Painful?
Identification and Recognition Process
Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processes
The Influence of Contexts and Expectations
Final Lessons
Recapping Main Points
Key Terms
Mind, Consciousness, and Alternatestates
The Contents of Consciousness
Awareness and Consciousness
Studying the Contents of Consciousness
The Functions of Consciousness
The Uses of Consciousness
Studying the Functions of Consciousness
Sleep and Dreams
Circadian Rhythms
The Sleep Cycle
Why Sleep?
Sleep Disorders
Dreams: Theater of the Mind
Psychology in Your Life: Do You Get Enough Sleep?
Altered States of Consciousness
Lucid Dreaming
Religious Ecstasy
Mind-Altering Drugs
Dependence and Addiction
Varieties of Psychoactive Drugs
Critical Thinking in Your Life: Does Ecstasy Harm the Brain?
Recapping Main Points
Key Terms
Learning and Behavior Analysis
The Study of Learning
What Is Learning?
Behaviorism and Behavior Analysis
Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals
Pavlov's Surprising Observation
Processes of Conditioning
Focus on Acquisition
Applications of Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning: Learning About Consequences
The Law of Effect
Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Reinforcement Contingencies
Properties of Reinforcers
Schedules of Reinforcement
Psychology in Your Life: How Does Classical Conditioning Affect Cancer Treatment?
Critical Thinking in Your Life: To Spank or Not To Spank
Biology and Learning
Instinctual Drift
Taste-Aversion Learning
Cognitive Influences on Learning
Animal Cognition
Observational Learning
Recapping Main Points
Key Terms
what iS Memory?
Types of Memories
An Overview of Memory Processes
Memory Use for The Short-Term
Iconic Memory
Short-Term Memory
Working Memory
Long-Term Memory: Encoding and Retrieval
Retrieval Cues
Context and Encoding
The Processes of Encoding and Retrieval
Why We Forget
Improving Memory for Unstructured Information
Critical Thinking in Your Life: How Can Memory Research Help You Prepare for Exams?
Structures in Long-Term Memory
Memory Structures
Remembering as a Reconstructive Process
Biological Aspects of Memory
Searching for the Engram
Brain Imaging
Psychology in Your Life: Why Does Alzheimer's Disease
Affect Memory?
Recapping Main Points
Key Terms
Cognitive Processes
Studying Cognition
Discovering the Processes of Mind
Mental Processes and Mental Resources
Language Use
Language Production
Language Understanding
Language and Evolution
Language, Thought, and Culture
Psychology in Your Life: Why and How Do People Lie?
Visual Cognition
Using Visual Representations
Combining Verbal and Visual Representations
Problem Solving and Reasoning
Problem Solving
Deductive Reasoning
Inductive Reasoning
Judgment and Decision Making
Heuristics and Judgment
The Psychology of Decision Making
Critical Thinking in Your Life: Can Political Experts Predict The Future?
Recapping Main Points
Key Terms
Intelligence and Intelligence Assessment
What is Assessment?
History of Assessment
Basic Features of Formal Assessment
Intelligence Assessment
The Origins of Intelligence Testing
IQ Tests
Extremes of Intelligence
Theories of Intelligence
Psychometric Theories of Intelligence
Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Gardner's Multiple Intelligences and Emotional Intelligence
Critical Thinking in Your Life: Can You Trust Assessment on the Web?
Psychology in Your Life: Do Theories of Intelligence Matter?
The Politics of Intelligence
The History of Group Comparisons
Heredity and IQ
Environments and IQ
Culture and the Validity of IQ Tests
Assessing Creativity and the Link to Intelligence
Extremes of Creativity
Assessment and Society
Recapping Main Points
Key Terms
Human Development Across the Life Span
Studying Development
Physical Development Across the Life Span
Prenatal and Childhood Development
Physical Development in Adolescence
Physical Changes in Adulthood
Cognitive Development Across the Life Span
Piaget's Insights Into Mental Development
Contemporary Perspectives on Early Cognitive Development
Cognitive Development in Adulthood
Psychology in Your Life: Will Your Brain Work Differently as You Age?
Acquiring Language
Perceiving Speech and Perceiving Words
Learning Word Meanings
Acquiring Grammar
Social Development Across the Life Span
Erikson's Psychosocial Stages
Social Development in Childhood
Social Development in Adolescence
Social Development in Adulthood
Critical Thinking in Your Life: How Does Day Care Affect Children's Development?
Sex and Gender Differences
Sex Differences
Gender Identity and Gender Roles
Moral Development
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Reasoning
Gender and Cultural Perspectives on Moral Reasoning
Learning to Age Successfully
Recapping Main Points
Key Terms
Understanding Motivation
Functions of Motivational Concepts
Sources of Motivation
A Hierarchy of Needs
The Physiology of Eating
The Psychology of Eating
Psychology in Your Life: How Does Genetics Contribute to Obesity?
Sexual Behaviors
Nonhuman Sexual Behaviors
Human Sexual Arousal and Response
The Evolution of Sexual Behaviors
Sexual Norms
Motivation for Personal Achievement
Need for Achievement
Attributions for Success and Failure
Work and Organizational Psychology
Critical Thinking in Your Life: How Does Motivation Affect Academic Achievement?
Recapping Main Points
Key Terms
Emotion, Stress, And Health
Basic Emotions and Culture
Theories of Emotion
Functions of Emotions
Psychology in Your Life: Why are Some People Happier Than Others?
Stress of Living
Physiological Stress Reactions
Psychological Stress Reactions
Coping with Stress
Positive Effects of Stress
Health Psychology
The Biopsychosocial Model of Health
Health Promotion
Personality and Health
Job Burnout and the Health-Care System
A Toast to Your Health
Critical Thinking in Your Life: Can Health Psychology Help You Be a Healthy Person by 2010?
Recapping Main Points
Key Terms
Understanding Human Personality
Type and Trait Personality Theories
Categorizing by Types
Describing with Traits
Traits and Heritability
Do Traits Predict Behaviors?
Evaluation of Type and Trait Theories
Psychodynamic Theories
Freudian Psychoanalysis
Evaluation of Freudian Theory
Extending Psychodynamic Theories
Psychology in Your Life: Why are Some People Shy?
Humanistic Theories
Features of Humanistic Theories
Evaluation of Humanistic Theories
Social-Learning and Cognitive Theories
Mischel's Cognitive-Affective Personality Theory
Bandura's Cognitive Social-Learning Theory
Cantor's Social Intelligence Theory
Evaluation of Social-Learning and Cognitive Theories
Self Theories
Dynamic Aspects of Self-Concepts
Self-Esteem and Self-Presentation
The Cultural Construction of Self
Evaluation of Self Theories
Comparing Personality Theories
Critical Thinking in Your Life: Who are You On The Internet?
Assessing Personality
Objective Tests
Projective Tests
Recapping Main Points
Key Terms
Psychological Disorders
The Nature of Psychological Disorders
Deciding What Is Abnormal
The Problem of Objectivity
Classifying Psychological Disorders
The Etiology of Psychopathology
Anxiety Disorders
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Panic Disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Causes of Anxiety Disorders
Mood Disorders
Major Depressive Disorder
Bipolar Disorder
Causes of Mood Disorders
Gender Differences in Depression
Psychology in Your Life: How Can We Pinpoint Interactions of Nature and Nurture?
Personality Disorders
Borderline Personality Disorder
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders
Somatoform Disorders
Dissociative Disorders
Schizophrenic Disorders
Major Types of Schizophrenia
Causes of Schizophrenia
Critical Thinking in Your Life: Is "Insanity" Really a Defense?
Psychological Disorders of Childhood
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Autistic Disorder
The Stigma of Mental Illness
Recapping Main Points
Key Terms
Therapies For Psychological Disorders
The Therapeutic Context
Goals and Major Therapies
Therapists and Therapeutic Settings
Historical Perspectives on Institutional Treatment
Psychodynamic Therapies
Freudian Psychoanalysis
Later Psychodynamic Therapies
Psychology in Your Life: Are Lives Haunted by Repressed Memories?
Behavior Therapies
Contingency Management
Social-Learning Therapy
Generalization Techniques
Cognitive Therapies
Changing False Beliefs
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Humanistic Therapies
Client-Centered Therapy
Gestalt Therapy
Group Therapies
Couple and Family Therapy
Community Support Groups
Biomedical Therapies
Drug Therapy
EC and rTMS
Critical Thinking in Your Life: Does Therapy Affect Brain Activity?
Treatment Evaluation and Prevention Strategies
Evaluating Therapeutic Effectiveness
Prevention Strategies
Recapping Main Points
Key Terms
Social Cognition and Relationships
Constructing Social Reality
The Origins of Attribution Theory
The Fundamental Attribution Error
Self-Serving Biases
Expectations and Self-Fulfilling Prophecies
Behaviors That Confirm Expectations
Attitudes, Attitude Change, and Action
Attitudes and Behaviors
Processes of Persuasion
Persuasion by Your Own Actions
Critical Thinking in Your Life: Do Late-Night TV Ads Really Work?
Origins of Prejudice
Effects of Stereotypes
Reversing Prejudice
Social Relationships
Psychology in Your Life: Can Lasting Relationships Form On The Internet?
Recapping Main Points
Key Terms
Social Processes, Society, and Culture
The Power of the Situation
Roles and Rules
Social Norms
Decision Making in Groups
Situational Power: Candid Camera Revelations
Altruism and Prosocial Behavior
The Roots of Altruism
Motives for Prosocial Behavior
The Effects of the Situation of Prosocial Behavior
Critical Thinking in Your Life: How Can You Get People to Volunteer?
Evolutionary Perspectives
Individual Differences
Situational Influences
Cultural Constraints
The Psychology of Conflict and Peace
Obedience to Authority
The Psychology of Genocide and War
Peace Psychology
A Personal Endnote
Psychology in Your Life: How Might Reconciliation Be Possible?
Recapping Main Points
Key Terms
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