The Psychology of Women

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2003-06-01
  • Publisher: Thomson Learning
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Table of Contents

Prefacep. xix
Introductionp. 1
Central Concepts in the Psychology of Womenp. 3
Sex and Genderp. 4
Social Biasesp. 4
Feminist Approachesp. 5
Psychological Approaches to Gender Similarity and Differencep. 6
A Brief History of the Psychology of Womenp. 9
Early Studies of Gender Comparisonsp. 9
The Emergence of the Psychology of Women as a Disciplinep. 10
The Current Status of the Psychology of Womenp. 11
Women and Ethnicityp. 12
The White-as-Normative Conceptp. 13
Women of Colorp. 13
U.S.-Centered Nationalismp. 17
Problems and Biases in Researchp. 19
Formulating the Hypothesisp. 19
Designing the Studyp. 21
Performing the Studyp. 22
Interpreting the Datap. 23
Communicating the Findingsp. 24
Critical Thinking and the Psychology of Womenp. 25
About This Textbookp. 27
Themes of the Bookp. 27
How to Use This Book Effectivelyp. 29
Gender Stereotypes and Other Gender Biasesp. 34
Biased Representations of Women and Menp. 36
Gender Biases Throughout Historyp. 36
Gender Biases in Languagep. 39
Gender Biases in the Mediap. 42
People's Beliefs About Women and Menp. 48
The Content of Stereotypesp. 48
The Complexity of Contemporary Sexismp. 52
Heterosexismp. 58
The Social Cognitive Approach to Gender Stereotypesp. 60
Gender Stereotypes and Behaviorp. 64
Internalizing Gender Stereotypesp. 66
Infancy and Childhoodp. 72
Background on Gender Developmentp. 74
Prenatal Sex Developmentp. 74
How People Respond to Infant Girls and Boysp. 77
Theories of Gender Developmentp. 82
Factors That Shape Gender Typingp. 86
Parentsp. 86
Peersp. 91
Schoolp. 94
The Mediap. 97
Children's Knowledge About Genderp. 102
Children's Stereotypes About Activities and Occupationsp. 103
Children's Stereotypes About Personalityp. 104
Factors Related to Children's Gender Stereotypesp. 105
Adolescencep. 109
Puberty and Menstruationp. 111
Pubertyp. 111
Biological Aspects of the Menstrual Cyclep. 112
Menstrual Painp. 114
The Controversial Premenstrual Syndromep. 115
Menstrual Joyp. 118
Cultural Attitudes Toward Menstruationp. 119
Self-Concept and Identity During Adolescencep. 120
Body Image and Physical Attractivenessp. 121
Feminist Identityp. 123
Ethnic Identityp. 124
Self-Esteemp. 125
Education and Career Planningp. 127
Young Women's Experiences in Middle School and High Schoolp. 127
Early Experiences in Math and Sciencep. 128
Higher Educationp. 129
Career Aspirationsp. 130
Career Aspirations Versus Realityp. 131
Interpersonal Relationships During Adolescencep. 133
Family Relationships During Adolescencep. 133
Friendships During Adolescencep. 134
Romantic Relationships During Adolescencep. 136
Gender Comparisons in Cognitive Abilities and Attitudes About Successp. 142
Background on Gender Comparisonsp. 144
Cautions About Research on Gender Comparisonsp. 144
Two Approaches to Summarizing Multiple Studiesp. 146
Cognitive Abilitiesp. 147
Cognitive Abilities That Show No Consistent Gender Differencesp. 148
Verbal Abilityp. 149
Mathematics Abilityp. 151
Spatial Abilityp. 153
Explaining the Gender Comparisonsp. 157
Achievement Motivation and Attitudes About Successp. 161
Biases in the Research on Achievement Motivationp. 161
Achievement Motivationp. 162
Fear of Successp. 162
Confidence in Your Own Achievement and Abilityp. 163
Attributions for Your Own Successp. 166
Gender Comparisons in Social and Personality Characteristicsp. 171
Communication Patternsp. 174
Verbal Communicationp. 175
Nonverbal Communicationp. 177
Potential Explanations for Gender Differences in Communicationp. 183
Characteristics Related to Helping and Caringp. 186
Altruismp. 187
Nurturancep. 188
Empathyp. 189
Moral Judgments Concerning Other Peoplep. 190
Friendshipp. 192
Characteristics Related to Aggression and Powerp. 194
Gender and Aggression: The Social Constructionists' Concernsp. 195
Overt Aggression Versus Relational Aggressionp. 196
Gender and Aggression: Other Important Factorsp. 197
Leadershipp. 199
Persuasionp. 201
Women and Workp. 206
Background Factors Related to Women's Employmentp. 208
What Factors Are Related to Women's Employment?p. 209
Women and Welfarep. 210
Discrimination in Hiring Patternsp. 212
Discrimination in the Workplacep. 215
Salary Discriminationp. 216
Discrimination in Promotionsp. 219
Other Kinds of Treatment Discriminationp. 220
Discrimination Against Lesbians in the Workplacep. 221
What to Do About Treatment Discriminationp. 222
Women's Experiences in Selected Occupationsp. 224
Employment in Traditionally Female Occupationsp. 224
Employment in Traditionally Male Professionsp. 227
Employment in Traditionally Male Blue-Collar Jobsp. 229
Why Are Women Scarce in Certain Occupations?p. 230
Homemakersp. 232
Coordinating Employment with Personal Lifep. 233
Marriagep. 233
Childrenp. 236
Personal Adjustmentp. 239
Love Relationshipsp. 244
Dating and Living Togetherp. 246
The Ideal Romantic Partnerp. 246
Explanations for Gender Differences in Preference Patternsp. 249
Characteristics of Heterosexual Love Relationshipsp. 252
Living Togetherp. 252
Breaking Upp. 254
Marriage and Divorcep. 256
Marital Satisfactionp. 257
Responsibility and Power in Marriagep. 260
Marriage and Women of Colorp. 261
Divorcep. 263
Lesbians and Bisexual Womenp. 266
The Psychological Adjustment of Lesbiansp. 268
The Fluidity of Female Sexual Orientationp. 268
Characteristics of Lesbian Relationshipsp. 269
Lesbian Women of Colorp. 272
Bisexual Womenp. 273
Theoretical Explanations About Sexual Orientationp. 275
Single Womenp. 279
Characteristics of Single Womenp. 280
Attitudes Toward Single Womenp. 280
Advantages and Disadvantages of Being Singlep. 281
Single Women of Colorp. 282
Sexualityp. 286
Background on Women's Sexualityp. 288
Theoretical Perspectivesp. 288
Female Sexual Anatomyp. 289
Sexual Responsesp. 290
Sexual Attitudes and Behaviorp. 293
Attitudes About Sexualityp. 293
Sexual Scriptsp. 295
Sex Educationp. 296
Adolescent Sexual Behaviorp. 298
Adult Sexual Behaviorp. 299
Communication About Sexualityp. 300
Lesbians and Sexualityp. 300
Older Women and Sexualityp. 302
Sexual Disordersp. 304
Low Sexual Desirep. 304
Female Orgasmic Disorderp. 304
How Gender Roles Contribute to Sexual Disordersp. 305
Therapy for Sexual Disordersp. 306
Birth Control and Abortionp. 307
Birth Control Methodsp. 308
Who Uses Birth Control?p. 309
Obstacles to Using Birth Controlp. 311
Contraception and Family Planning in Developing Countriesp. 313
Abortionp. 313
Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Motherhoodp. 320
Pregnancyp. 322
The Biology of Pregnancyp. 322
Physical Reactions During Pregnancyp. 323
Emotional Reactions During Pregnancyp. 324
Attitudes Toward Pregnant Womenp. 326
Pregnant Women and Employmentp. 326
Childbirthp. 328
The Biology of Childbirthp. 328
Emotional Reactions to Childbirthp. 330
Alternative Models of Childbirthp. 331
Motherhoodp. 333
Stereotypes About Motherhoodp. 333
The Reality of Motherhoodp. 334
Motherhood and Women of Colorp. 337
Lesbian Mothersp. 339
Postpartum Disturbancesp. 340
Breast Feedingp. 342
Returning to the Workplace After Childbirthp. 343
Deciding Whether to Have Childrenp. 344
Infertilityp. 346
Women and Physical Healthp. 351
The Health Care and Health Status of Womenp. 354
Biases Against Womenp. 354
Health Issues for Women in Developing Countriesp. 356
Gender Comparisons in Life Expectancyp. 358
Gender Comparisons in Overall Healthp. 358
Heart Disease, Breast Cancer, and Other Specific Health Problemsp. 360
Women with Disabilitiesp. 366
Work Patterns of Women with Disabilitiesp. 368
Personal Relationships of Women with Disabilitiesp. 369
AIDS and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseasesp. 370
Background Information on AIDSp. 370
Medical Aspects of AIDSp. 372
How AIDS Is Transmittedp. 373
Living with AIDSp. 374
Preventing AIDSp. 374
Other Sexually Transmitted Diseasesp. 375
Women and Substance Abusep. 377
Smokingp. 377
Alcohol Abusep. 379
Other Substance-Abuse Problemsp. 382
Women and Psychological Disordersp. 385
Depressionp. 387
Characteristics of Depressionp. 388
Explanations for the Gender Difference in Depressionp. 388
Eating Disorders and Related Problemsp. 394
Anorexia Nervosap. 395
Bulimia Nervosap. 396
Binge-Eating Disorderp. 396
The Culture of Slimnessp. 397
Being Overweight and Dietingp. 400
Treating Psychological Disorders in Womenp. 402
Psychotherapy and Sexismp. 403
Psychotherapy with Lesbian and Bisexual Womenp. 404
Psychotherapy with Women of Colorp. 404
Traditional Therapies and Womenp. 408
Feminist Therapyp. 411
Violence Against Womenp. 416
Sexual Harassmentp. 418
Why Is Sexual Harassment an Important Issue?p. 421
How Often Does Sexual Harassment Occur?p. 421
Women's Reactions to Sexual Harassmentp. 422
Attitudes About Sexual Harassmentp. 422
What to Do About Sexual Harassmentp. 423
Rapep. 425
How Often Does Rape Occur?p. 426
Acquaintance Rapep. 427
Fear of Rapep. 429
Women's Reactions to Rapep. 429
Attitudes About Rapep. 431
Myths About Rapep. 434
Child Sexual Abusep. 435
Rape Preventionp. 437
The Abuse of Womenp. 442
How Often Does the Abuse of Women Occur?p. 444
The Dynamics of Abusep. 444
Women's Reactions to Abusep. 445
Characteristics Associated with Abusive Relationshipsp. 445
Attitudes About the Abuse of Womenp. 447
Myths About the Abuse of Womenp. 448
How Abused Women Take Actionp. 449
Society's Response to the Problem of Abusep. 451
Women and Older Adulthoodp. 456
Attitudes Toward Older Womenp. 459
The Mediap. 459
The Double Standard of Agingp. 460
Cross-Cultural Views of Older Womenp. 463
Older Women, Retirement, and Economic Issuesp. 464
Planning for Retirementp. 464
Adjusting to Retirementp. 465
Economic Issuesp. 465
Menopausep. 467
Physical Changes During Menopausep. 468
Hormone Replacement Therapyp. 468
Attitudes Toward Menopausep. 469
Psychological Reactions to Menopausep. 471
Social Aspects of Older Women's Livesp. 473
Family Relationshipsp. 473
Widowhood and the Death of Life Partnersp. 475
Older Women of Colorp. 477
Satisfaction with Lifep. 478
Rewriting Our Life Storiesp. 479
Final Wordsp. 480
Moving Onward ...p. 485
The Future of the Discipline of the Psychology of Womenp. 487
The Increasing Number of Women in Psychologyp. 487
Developing a More Inclusive Psychology of Womenp. 488
Women of Color and the Feminist Movementp. 489
The Men's Movementp. 491
Some Discouraging Trendsp. 493
The Rigid Interpretation of Feminismp. 494
The Backlash Against Feminismp. 495
Some Helpful Trendsp. 496
Women's Studies Coursesp. 496
The Women's Movement in North Americap. 497
The Women's Movement Worldwidep. 498
Helping to Change the Future: Becoming an Activistp. 499
Referencesp. 503
Name Indexp. 595
Subject Indexp. 615
Creditsp. 639
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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