Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences

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  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2009-01-01
  • Publisher: Allyn & Bacon
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This text shows novice researchers how to design, collect, and analyze qualitative data and then present their results to the scientific community. It also stresses the importance of ethics in research and taking the time to properly design and think through any research endeavor.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
Introductionp. 1
Quantitative Versus Qualitative Schools of Thoughtp. 2
Use of Triangulation in Research Methodologyp. 5
Qualitative Strategies: Defining an Orientationp. 8
From a Symbolic Interactionist Perspectivep. 9
Why Use Qualitative Methods?p. 15
A Plan of Presentationp. 16
Referencesp. 17
Designing Qualitative Researchp. 21
Theory and Conceptsp. 21
Ideas and Theoryp. 23
Reviewing the Literaturep. 27
Evaluating Web Sitesp. 29
The Two-Card Methodp. 32
Theory, Reality, and the Social Worldp. 36
Framing Research Problemsp. 37
Operationalization and Conceptualizationp. 38
Designing Projectsp. 41
Concept Mappingp. 42
Creating a Concept Mapp. 45
Setting and Population Appropriatenessp. 46
Sampling Strategiesp. 48
Data Collection and Organizationp. 52
Data Storage, Retrieval, and Analysisp. 53
Disseminationp. 55
Trying It Outp. 56
Referencesp. 56
Ethical Issuesp. 60
Research Ethics in Historical Perspectivep. 61
From Guidelines to Law: Regulations on the Research Processp. 67
Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)p. 68
IRBs and Their Dutiesp. 69
Clarifying the Role of IRBsp. 72
Active Versus Passive Consentp. 74
Active Versus Passive Consent in Internet Researchp. 76
Membership Criteria for IRBsp. 77
Ethical Codesp. 78
Some Common Ethical Concerns in Behavioral Researchp. 78
Covert Versus Overt Researcher Rolesp. 80
New Areas for Ethical Concern: Cyberspacep. 84
Protection for Childrenp. 85
Debriefing the Subjectsp. 86
Informed Consent and Implied Consentp. 87
Confidentiality and Anonymityp. 90
Keeping Identifying Recordsp. 91
Strategies for Safeguarding Confidentialityp. 91
Securing the Datap. 92
Objectivity and Careful Research Designp. 93
Trying It Outp. 95
Referencesp. 95
A Dramaturgical Look at Interviewingp. 101
Dramaturgy and Interviewingp. 102
Types of Interviewsp. 104
The Standardized Interviewp. 105
The Unstandardized Interviewp. 106
The Semistandardized Interviewp. 107
The Interview Schedulep. 109
Schedule Developmentp. 111
Question Order (Sequencing), Content, and Stylep. 112
Communicating Effectivelyp. 116
A Few Common Problems in Question Formulationp. 117
Affectively Worded Questionsp. 117
The Double-Barreled Questionp. 118
Complex Questionsp. 118
Pretesting the Schedulep. 119
Long Versus Short Interviewsp. 119
Telephone Interviewsp. 121
Advantages of the Telephone Interviewp. 123
Disadvantages of the Telephone Interviewp. 123
Computer Assisted Interviewingp. 123
Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI)p. 124
Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI)p. 125
Web-Based In-Depth Interviewsp. 125
Conducting an Interview: A Natural or an Unnatural Communication?p. 127
The Dramaturgical Interviewp. 128
Interviewer Roles and Rapportp. 130
The Role of the Intervieweep. 132
The Interviewer as a Self-Conscious Performerp. 132
Social Interpretations and the Interviewerp. 133
The Interviewer's Repertoirep. 136
Interviewers' Attitudes and Persuading a Subjectp. 139
Developing an Interviewer Repertoirep. 140
Techniques to Get New Researchers Startedp. 141
Taking the Show on the Roadp. 142
The Ten Commandments of Interviewingp. 143
Know Your Audiencep. 144
Curtain Callsp. 146
Analyzing Data Obtained from the Dramaturgical Interviewp. 146
Beginning an Analysisp. 147
Systematic Filing Systemsp. 147
Short-Answer Sheetsp. 149
Analysis Procedures: A Concluding Remarkp. 149
Trying It Outp. 150
Notesp. 151
Referencesp. 152
Focus Group Interviewingp. 158
What are Focus Group Interviews?p. 158
The Moderator's Rolep. 159
Some Problems to Avoid in Focus Group Interviewingp. 160
The Evolution of Focus Group Interviewsp. 163
Advantages and Disadvantages of Focus Group Interviewingp. 165
Focus Group Interviewing and Face-to-Face Interviewingp. 166
Focus Group Interviewing and Participant Observationp. 168
Focus Group Interviewing and Unobtrusive Measuresp. 169
Facilitating Focus Group Dynamics: How Focus Groups Workp. 172
The Moderator's Guidep. 172
Introduction and Introductory Activitiesp. 173
Statement of the Basic Rules or Guidelines for the Interviewp. 173
Short Question-and-Answer Discussionsp. 174
Special Activities or Exercisesp. 174
Guidance for Dealing with Sensitive Issuesp. 175
Basic Ingredients in Focus Groupsp. 175
Analyzing Focus Group Datap. 180
Confidentiality and Focus Group Interviewsp. 181
Recent Trends in Focus Groups: Online Focus Groupsp. 183
Conclusionp. 184
Trying It Outp. 185
Notesp. 185
Referencesp. 186
Ethnographic Field Strategiesp. 190
Accessing a Field Setting: Getting Inp. 194
Reflectivity and Ethnographyp. 198
Critical Ethnographyp. 198
The Attitude of the Ethnographerp. 200
The Researcher's Voicep. 200
Gaining Entryp. 204
Becoming Invisiblep. 207
Dangers of Invisibilityp. 209
Other Dangers During Ethnographic Researchp. 211
Watching, Listening, and Learningp. 213
How to Learn: What to Watch and Listen Forp. 215
Field Notesp. 218
Computers and Ethnographyp. 225
OnLine Ethnographyp. 226
Analyzing Ethnographic Datap. 228
Other Analysis Strategies: Typologies, Sociograms, and Metaphorsp. 230
Typologiesp. 230
Sociogramsp. 232
Metaphorsp. 236
Disengaging: Getting Outp. 236
Trying It Outp. 238
Referencesp. 238
Action Researchp. 246
The Basics of Action Researchp. 251
Identifying the Research Question(s)p. 253
Gathering the Information to Answer the Question(s)p. 254
Analyzing and Interpreting the Informationp. 254
Procedures for Using Interview and Ethnographic Datap. 255
Guiding Questions of Analysis: Why, What, How, Who, Where, When?p. 255
Descriptive Accounts and Reportsp. 256
Sharing the Results with the Participantsp. 256
When to Use and When Not to Use Action Researchp. 257
The Action Researcher's Rolep. 258
Types of Action Researchp. 258
Technical/Scientific/Collaborative Modep. 259
A Practical/Mutual Collaborative/Deliberate Modep. 259
Emancipating or Empowering/Enhancing/Critical Science Modep. 260
Photovoice and Action Researchp. 261
The Goals in Photovoicep. 262
Action Research: A Reiterationp. 263
Trying It Outp. 264
Referencesp. 265
Unobtrusive Measures in Researchp. 268
Archival Strategiesp. 271
Public Archivesp. 271
Private Archives: Solicited and Unsolicited Documentsp. 282
A Last Remark about Archival Recordsp. 286
Physical Erosion and accretion: Human Traces as Data Sourcesp. 287
Erosion Measuresp. 287
Accretion Measuresp. 288
Some Final Remarks about Physical Tracesp. 289
Trying It Outp. 290
Referencesp. 290
Historiography and Oral Traditionsp. 296
What Is Historical Research?p. 296
Life Histories and Historiographyp. 300
What Are the Sources of Data of Historical Researchers?p. 300
Doing Historiography: Tracing Written History as Datap. 301
External Criticismp. 303
Internal Criticismp. 307
What Are Oral Histories?p. 309
Trying It Outp. 313
Referencesp. 313
Case Studiesp. 317
The Nature of Case Studiesp. 317
Theory and Case Studiesp. 319
The Individual Case Studyp. 322
The Use of Interview Datap. 322
The Use of Personal Documentsp. 324
Intrinsic, Instrumental, and Collective Case Studiesp. 325
Case Study Design Typesp. 326
Exploratory Case Studiesp. 327
Explanatory Case Studiesp. 327
Descriptive Case Studiesp. 327
The Scientific Benefit of Case Studiesp. 329
Objectivity and the Case Methodp. 329
Generalizabilityp. 330
Case Studies of Organizationsp. 330
Case Studies of Communitiesp. 331
Data Collection for Community Case Studiesp. 332
Community Groups and Interestsp. 333
Trying It Outp. 334
Referencesp. 335
An Introduction to Content Analysisp. 338
What is Content Analysis?p. 338
Analysis of Qualitative Datap. 339
Interpretative Approachesp. 339
Social Anthropological Approachesp. 339
Collaborative Social Research Approachesp. 340
Content Analysis as a Techniquep. 341
Content Analysis: Quantitative or Qualitative?p. 342
Manifest Versus Latent Content Analysisp. 343
Blending Manifest and Latent Content Analysis Strategiesp. 344
Communication Componentsp. 345
What to Count: Levels and Units of Analysisp. 346
Category Development: Building Grounded Theoryp. 346
What to Countp. 348
Combinations of Elementsp. 349
Units and Categoriesp. 350
Classes and Categoriesp. 351
Discourse Analysis and Content Analysisp. 352
Open Codingp. 353
Coding Framesp. 356
A Few More Words on Analytic Inductionp. 358
Interrogative Hypothesis Testingp. 360
Stages in the Content Analysis Processp. 362
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Content Analysis Processp. 364
Computers and Qualitative Analysisp. 366
Word Processorsp. 368
Text Retrieversp. 368
Textbase Managersp. 368
Code-and-Retrieve Programsp. 368
Code-Based Theory Buildersp. 369
Conceptual Network Buildersp. 369
Qualitative Research at the Speed of Lightp. 371
Trying It Outp. 372
Referencesp. 373
Writing Research Papers: Sorting the Noodles from the Soupp. 378
Plagiarism: What It Is, Why It's Bad, and How to Avoid Itp. 379
Why Plagiarism Occursp. 379
How to Avoid Plagiarismp. 380
Identifying the Purpose of the Writing: Arranging the Noodlesp. 382
Delineating a Supportive Structure: Visual Signals for the Readerp. 383
The Titlep. 386
The Abstractp. 386
The Introductionp. 387
Literature Reviewp. 388
Methodologyp. 390
Findings or Resultsp. 392
Discussion/Conclusionp. 392
References, Notes, and Appendicesp. 393
Presenting Research Materialp. 396
Disseminating the Research: Professional Meetings and Publicationsp. 396
A Word About the Content of Papers and Articlesp. 400
Write It, Rewrite It, Then Write It Again!p. 400
A Few Writing Hintsp. 402
A Final Notep. 404
Notesp. 405
Referencesp. 406
Name Indexp. 408
Subject Indexp. 413
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