Quantitative Chemical Analysis

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  • Edition: 8th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2010-04-30
  • Publisher: W. H. Freeman
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The most widely used analytical chemistry textbook in the world, Dan Harris's Quantitative Chemical Analysis provides a sound physical understanding of the principles of analytical chemistry, showing how these principles are applied in chemistry and related disciplines especially in life sciences and environmental science. As always, the new edition incorporates real data, spreadsheets, and a wealth of applications, in a witty, personable presentation that engages students without compromising the depth necessary for a thorough and practical understanding of analytical chemistry.

New to this Edition

-New “Ask Yourself” questions at the end of each worked example, giving students the opportunity to evaluate their understanding of the concepts involved in the problem.

-Additional multi step worked examples to help students develop their skills at solving more complex problems.

-Revised and updated coverage of spectroscopy, expanded coverage of statistics, and updated applications throughout, especially in the areas of nanotechnology and environmental chemistry.

-Updated Excel coverage with spreadsheet instructions, tips, and applications for Excel are now based on the 2007 edition of the program.

-New Lecture PowerPoints available on the Eighth Edition’s Book Companion Site all formatting for optimum projection and easily customizable.

-Superb Media, including a fully interactive eBook and online homework via WebAssign.

Author Biography

Biographical Statement for Nomination of Daniel C. Harris for
J. Calvin Giddings Award for Excellence in Analytical Chemical Education
I was born in 1948 in Brooklyn, New York.  As a teenager, I enjoyed a science program on Saturdays at Columbia University, where I took note of especially good teaching by astronomy professor Lloyd Motz.  In my freshman year at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, excellent teaching of organic chemistry by Daniel S. Kemp diverted me from biochemistry to chemistry.  A spectroscopy class from George F. Whitesides led me to Whitesides and his student Chuck Casey (later President of the American Chemical Society) for senior thesis research.  I developed a strong consciousness for high quality teaching.  Two other classes with noteworthy teaching quality were quantum mechanics from John S. Waugh and group theory from F. A. Cotton.

After graduating from MIT shortly before my 20th birthday, I headed to Caltech where I joined the research group of Harry B. Gray—an exceptional lecturer.  After a year as a teaching assistant in organic chemistry, George S. Hammond and Harry Gray recognized a spark for teaching and offered me the opportunity to team teach an advanced freshman course.  My graduate student partner, Michael D. Bertolucci, and I were given carte blanche to develop an interesting course for freshman that would not overlap other courses in the curriculum.  We chose an overview of general chemistry for one term, followed by two terms of introduction to group theory and spectroscopy.  We conducted a critique of each other’s lecture immediately after every class.  I placed highest value in interest, content, clarity, and physical understanding, which became main goals in my textbook writing.  At the age of 21, I found myself driven to write lecture notes which, upon the recommendation of Harry Gray, evolved into the book Symmetry and Spectroscopy.  I team-taught the freshman course with other graduate students and had the academic rank of Instructor during my last year of graduate studies.  For part of that year, I was a postdoc in the fledgling field of 13C-NMR spectroscopy with John D. Roberts.

After two years as a postdoc at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York City with Philip Aisen—an exemplary mentor—I started my first faculty position at the University of California at Davis in 1975.  I was assigned to teach analytical chemistry for sophomores and accelerated freshmen.  This assignment was interesting because I had never taken a course in analytical chemistry.  I arrived at MIT after analytical chemistry became an elective and flew through MIT too quickly to partake in the analytical course.  I had practical analytical experience from undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral research.  My source of instruction in chemical equilibrium was the graduate course “Aquatic Chemistry” taught by J. J. Morgan at Caltech.  At Davis, I sat in on an analytical courses taught by a senior member of the department to “learn the ropes” before being thrust before my first students in analytical chemistry.

My burning desire at Davis was to be the best teacher I could be.  I was known for being available at all hours for student questions, for circulating through laboratories every day, and for memorizing the names and faces of every student.  It became apparent to students that sitting in the back row of a 300-seat lecture hall did not offer immunity from being called upon by name to answer a question during lecture.  I brought a demonstration into almost every lecture and each term ended with a series of explosions.  The last class each term attracted far more students than were enrolled in the course.  The majority of my students at Davis were life science majors whose interests resonated with my research interest in metalloproteins.

I surveyed every analytical textbook I could find and taught from several.  I found the more thorough books to be dull and the more interesting books to be less thorough.  After two years, I decided to write text to accompany my lectures.  My goal was to be interesting and thorough in the selected topics.  Publisher’s representatives saw my notes in the bookstore and soon there were five offers for publication.  I visited each publisher and unashamedly adopted the best suggestions from each editor.  In 1978, I signed with W. H. Freeman as the publisher I thought would produce the nicest book.  After two more years of writing, a year of revision, and a year of production, the first edition of Quantitative Chemical Analysis was born in 1982.

By this time, I had not been offered tenure at Davis or at Franklin and Marshall College.  I loved teaching, but decided to try a different career.  In 1983, I moved to the U.S. Navy’s Michelson Laboratory at China Lake, California, where my present title is Senior Scientist.  In the course of 25 years with the Navy, I was elected an Esteemed Fellow and received a Top Navy Scientist award.  My research concerns transparent ceramic sensor windows.  I have been teaching a professional course in this subject several times each year since 1990 and wrote the monograph Materials for Infrared Windows and Domes, which is the standard reference in its field.

Meanwhile, Quantitative Chemical Analysis sold well enough for the publisher to invite me to prepare a 2nd edition.  I found myself with two full-time jobs—one for the Navy and a second as a textbook writer.  My wife Sally has been editorial assistant and proofreader on every book.  She produced all of the illustrations for Symmetry and Spectroscopy with a one-year-old watching over her shoulder.  Thirty years after signing our contract with Freeman, we are working on the 8th edition.  The book has had 12 foreign translations.

Our chief competitor, Doug Skoog (with coauthors West, Holler, and Crouch) had “big” and “little” books to serve two market levels.  Freeman asked me to write a small book to complement Quantitative Chemical Analysis, but I hesitated to go into competition with myself.  By 1995, we no longer had children in the house and the time was ripe for a “small” book.  My priorities for Exploring Chemical Analysis were to be (1) short, (2) interesting, and (3) elementary—in that order.  This book has now gone through 4 editions and 3 foreign translations.
A survey published in 2002 found that my two books were used in over half of the analytical chemistry courses in the United States.  [P. A. Mabrouk, Anal. Chem. 2002, 74, 269A.]  In 2008, Quantitative Chemical Analysis received the McGuffey Longevity Award from the Textbook and Academic Authors Association.

In my writing, I try to catch the reader’s attention and to convey excitement by illustrating each topic with interesting real-world examples.  I try to get to the heart of a topic with the minimum number of words.  It is good pedagogy to explain everything and not to assume prior knowledge on the part of the reader.  Heavy use of illustrations makes ideas more understandable and memorable.  Chapters are broken into short sections which are more digestable than long sections.  Recalling my own student days, I include answers to all problems at the back of the book.  Some teachers would rather have a set of problems without answers, but I have never heard a student complain about immediate feedback after working a problem.  An informal writing style and a little humor provide a relaxed tone.
Quantitative Chemical Analysis evolved over 30-years.  Spectrophotometry grew from one to three chapters as it moved from the middle of the book to the front and then to the middle again.  Chromatography expanded from two to four chapters as its importance grew.  Electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were added.  Quality assurance, sampling, and sample preparation were added and quality assurance increased in importance.  Computer programming projects were introduced in the second edition.  Spreadsheets appeared in the fourth edition and increased in each subsequent edition.  A spreadsheet-oriented chapter on advanced chemical equilibrium appeared in the seventh edition.  Uniform, high-interest opening vignettes appeared in the fourth edition.  Chapter 0 on the “analytical process” describing an actual student analysis of caffeine in chocolate appeared in the fifth edition.  Gravimetric analysis was demoted to the back of the book.  Electroanalytical chemistry decreased from five to four chapters.  Instructions for experiments moved to the web in the sixth edition to make room for growth in other subjects.

Exploring Chemical Analysis began with brevity as the first goal.  User feedback directed me to add several topics that had been rejected for the first edition.  These topics included activity coefficients, systematic treatment of equilibrium, EDTA and redox titration curve calculations, and an expanded discussion of spectrophotometry.  Placement of spectrophotometry early in the book did not fit well with many curricula, so the subject was moved back in the second edition.  The third edition increased emphasis on quality assurance, integrated mass spectrometry with chromatography, and introduced inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.  Spreadsheets gradually increased in every edition.  A short “ask yourself” question with an answer at the end of every worked example appeared in the fourth edition.

The most common comment I receive from teachers can be paraphrased as “I love your book and I wish it weren’t so long.  And please add more on (fill in favorite topic).”  Kolthoff, Sandell, Mehan, and Bruckenstein wrote in the preface of what was perhaps the most venerable analytical textbook of the 20th century, “as much as anyone, we regret the length of this revised edition ” (1170 pages) and “it is a very hard undertaking to seek to please everybody.”

A good textbook has the attributes of a good teacher.  The best description I have seen for a good teacher is a person with a “deep understanding of the subject, unbounded enthusiasm, humor, and the ability to communicate excitement, clarity and precision of thought and word, and the ability to put oneself in the mind of a student new to the subject.”  [C. Thyagaraja, Caltech News, 2000, 34[2], 11.]  To these I would add the ability to convey the significance and applications of the subject.  I strive toward these ends in my writing.

Table of Contents

0  The Analytical Process
Opener:  The “Most Important” Environmental Data Set of the 20th Century
0-1  Charles David Keeling and the Measurement of Atmospheric CO2
0-2  The Analytical Chemist's Job
0-32  General Steps in a Chemical Analysis
Box 0-1  Constructing a Representative Sample
1  Chemical Measurements
Opener:  Biochemical Measurements with a Nanoelectrode
1-1  SI Units
1-2  Chemical Concentrations
1-3  Preparing Solutions
1-4  Stoichiometry Calculations for Gravimetric Analysis
7-1  Introduction to Titrations
Box 1-1    Reagent Chemicals and Primary Standards
7-2  Titration Calculations
2  Tools of the Trade
Opener:  Quartz Crystal Microbalance in Medical Diagnosis
2-1  Safe, Ethical Handling of Chemicals and Waste
2-2  The Lab Notebook
2-3  Analytical Balance
2-4  Burets
2-5  Volumetric Flasks
2-6  Pipets and Syringes
2-7  Filtration
2-8  Drying
2-9  Calibration of Volumetric Glassware
2-10  Introduction to Microsoft Excel®
2-11  Graphing with Microsoft Excel®
Reference Procedure:  Calibrating a 50-mL Buret
3  Experimental Error
Opener:  Experimental Error
3-1  Significant Figures
3-2  Significant  Figures in Arithmetic
3-3  Types of Error
Box 3-1  Case Study in Ethics:  Systematic Error in Ozone Measurement
3-4  Propagation of Uncertainty from Random Error
Box 3-2  Keeling’s Exquisitely Precise Measurement of CO2
3-5  Propagation of Uncertainty from Systematic Error
4  Statistics
Opener:  Is My Red Blood Cell Count High Today?
4-1  Gaussian Distribution
4-2  Confidence Intervals
4-3  Comparison of Means with Student's t
Box 4-1  Choosing the Null Hypothesis in Epidemiology
4-4   F Test
4-5   t Tests with a Spreadsheet
4-6  Grubbs Test for an Outlier
4-7.  The Method of Least Squares
4-8  Calibration Curves
Box 4-2  Using a Nonlinear Calibration Curve
4-9  A Spreadsheet for Least Squares
5  Quality Assurance and Calibration Methods
Opener:  The Need for Quality Assurance
5-1  Basics of Quality Assurance
Box 5-1  Control Charts
5-2   Method Validation
Box 5-2   The Horwitz Trumpet:  Variation in Interlaboratory Precision
5-3  Standard Addition
5-4  Internal Standards
5-5  Efficiency in Experimental Design
6  Chemical Equilibrium
Opener:  Chemical Equilibrium in the Environment
6-1  The Equilibrium Constant
6-2  Equilibrium and Thermodynamics
6-3  Solubility Product
Box 6-1  Solubility is Governed by More than the Solubility Product
Demonstration 6-1   Common Ion Effect
6-4  Complex Formation
Box 6-2  Notation for Formation Constants
6-5  Protic Acids and Bases
6-6  pH
6-7  Strengths of Acids and Bases
Demonstration 6-2   The HCl Fountain
Box 6-3  The Strange Behavior of Hydrofluoric Acid
Box 6-4  Carbonic Acid
7   Activity and the Systematic Treatment of Equilibrium
Opener:  Hydrated Ions
7-1  The Effect of Ionic Strength on Solubility of Salts
Demonstration 7-1   Effect of Ionic Strength on Ion Dissociation
Box 7-1   Salts with Ions of Charge = 2 Do Not Fully Dissociate
7-2  Activity Coefficients
7-3  pH Revisited
7-4  Systematic Treatment of Equilibrium
Box 7-2   Calcium Carbonate Mass Balance in Rivers
7-5  Applying the Systematic Treatment of Equilibrium
8  Monoprotic Acid-Base Equilibria
Opener:  Measuring pH Inside Cellular Compartments
8-1  Strong Acids and Bases
Box 8-1   Concentrated HNO3 is Only Slightly Dissociated
8-2  Weak Acids and Bases
8-3  Weak-Acid Equilibria
Demonstration 8-1   Conductivity of Weak Electrolytes
Box 8-2   Dyeing Fabrics and the Fraction of Dissociation
8-4  Weak-Base Equilibria
8-5  Buffers
Box 8-3   Strong Plus Weak Reacts Completely
Demonstration 8-2   How Buffers Work
9  Polyprotic Acid-Base Equilibria
Opener:  Proteins are Polyprotic Acids and Bases
9-1  Diprotic Acids and Bases
Box 9-1  Carbon Dioxide in the Air and Ocean (new)
Box 9-2  Successive Approximations
9-2  Diprotic Buffers
9-3  Polyprotic Acids and Bases
9-4  Which Is the Principal Species?
9-5  Fractional Composition Equations
9-6  Isoelectric and Isoionic pH
Box 9-3  Isoelectric Focusing
10  Acid-Base Titrations
Opener:  Acid-Base Titration of a Protein
10-1  Titration of Strong Base with Strong Acid
10-2  Titration of  Weak Acid with Strong Base
10-3  Titration of  Weak  Base with Strong Acid
10-4  Titrations in Diprotic Systems
10-5  Finding the End Point with a pH Electrode
Box 10-1     Alkalinity and Acidity
10-6  Finding the End Point with Indicators
Demonstration 10-1     Indicators and the Acidity of CO2
Box 10-2  What Does a Negative pH Mean?
10-7  Practical Notes
10-8  Kjeldahl Nitrogen Analysis
Box 10-3  Kjeldahl Nitrogen Analysis Behind the Headline
10-9  Leveling Effect
10-10  Calculating Titration Curves with Spreadsheets
Reference Procedure:  Preparing Standard Acid and Base
11  EDTA Titrations
Opener:  Ion Channels in Cell Membranes
11-1  Metal-Chelate Complexes
Box 11-1   Chelation Therapy and Thalassemia
11-2  EDTA
11-3  EDTA Titration Curves
11-4  Do It with a Spreadsheet
11-5  Auxiliary Complexing Agents
Box 11-2   Metal Ion Hydrolysis Decreases the Effective Formation Constant for
 EDTA Complexes
11-6  Metal Ion Indicators
Demonstration 13-1   Metal Ion Indicator Color Changes
11-7  EDTA Titration Techniques
Box 11-3   Water Hardness
12   Advanced Topics in Equilibrium
Opener:  Acid Rain
12-1  General Approach to Acid-Base Systems
12-2  Activity Coefficients
12-3  Dependence of Solubility on pH
12-4  Analyzing Acid-Base Titrations with Difference Plots
13  Fundamentals of Electrochemistry
Opener:  Lithium-Ion Battery
13-1  Basic Concepts
Box 13-1   Ohm’s Law, Conductance, and Molecular Wire
13-2  Galvanic Cells
Demonstration 13-1   The Human Salt Bridge
13-3  Standard Potentials
13-4  Nernst Equation
Box 13-2   E° and the Cell Voltage Do Not Depend on How You Write the Cell Reaction
Box 13-3   Latimer Diagrams:  How to Find E° for a New Half-Reaction
13-5  E° and the Equilibrium Constant
Box 13-4   Concentrations in the Operating Cell
13-6  Cells as Chemical Probes
13-7  Biochemists Use E°'
14  Electrodes and Potentiometry
Opener:  Chem Lab on Mars
14-1  Reference Electrodes
14-2  Indicator Electrodes
Demonstration 14-1  Potentiometry with an Oscillating Reaction
14-3  What Is a Junction Potential?
14-4  How Ion-Selective Electrodes Work
14-5  pH Measurement with a Glass Electrode
Box 14-1  Systematic Error in Rainwater pH Measurement  The Effect of Junction Potential
14-6  Ion-Selective Electrodes
Box 14-2  Measuring Selectivity Coefficients for an Ion-Selective Electrode (new)
Box 14-3  How Was Perchlorate Discovered on Mars? (new)
14-7  Using Ion-Selective Electrodes
14-8  Solid-State Chemical Sensors
15  Redox Titrations
Opener:  Chemical Analysis of High-Temperature Superconductors
15-1  The Shape of a Redox Titration Curve
Box 15-1   Many Redox Reactions are Atom-Transfer Reactions
Demonstration 15-1   Potentiometric Titration of Fe2+ with MnO4-
15-2  Finding the End Point
15-3  Adjustment of Analyte Oxidation State
15-4  Oxidation with Potassium Permanganate
15-5  Oxidation with Ce4+
15-6  Oxidation with Potassium Dichromate
Box 15-2   Environmental Carbon Analysis and Oxygen Demand
15-7  Methods Involving Iodine
Box 15-3  Iodometric Analysis of High-Temperature Superconductors
16  Electroanalytical Techniques
Opener:  How Sweet It Is!
Demonstration 16-1   Electrochemical Writing
16-1  Fundamentals of Electrolysis
16-2  Electrogravimetric Analysis
16-3  Coulometry
16-4  Amperometry
Box 16-1   Clark Oxygen Electrode
Box 16-2   What Is an “Electronic Nose”?
16-5  Voltammetry
Box 16-3   The Electric Double Layer
16-6  Karl Fischer Titration of H2O
17  Fundamentals of Spectrophotometry
Opener:  The Ozone Hole
17-1  Properties of Light
17-2  Absorption of Light
Box 17-1   Why Is There a Logarithmic Relation Between Transmittance and Concentration?
Demonstration 17-1   Absorption Spectra
17-3  Measuring Absorbance
17-4  Beer's Law in Chemical Analysis
17-5  Spectrophotometric Titrations
17-6  What Happens When a Molecule Absorbs Light?
Box 17-2   Fluorescence All Around Us
17-7  Luminescence
Box 17-3   Rayleigh and Raman Scattering
18  Applications of Spectrophotometry
Opener:  Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Biosensor
18-1  Analysis of a Mixture
18-2  Measuring an Equilibrium Constant:  The Scatchard Plot
18-3  The Method of Continuous Variation
18-4  Flow Injection Analysis and Sequential Injection
18-5  Immunoassays and Aptamers
18-6  Sensors Based on Luminescence Quenching
Box 18-1   Converting Light into Electricity
Box 18-2   Upconversion
19   Spectrophotometers
Opener:  Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy:  Do You Have an Ulcer?
19-1  Lamps and Lasers:  Sources of Light
Box 19-1   Blackbody Radiation and the Greenhouse Effect
19-2  Monochromators
19-3  Detectors
Box 19-2   The Most Important Photoreceptor
Box 19-3   Nondisperesive Infrared Measurement of CO2 on Mauna Loa
19-4  Optical Sensors
19-5  Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
19-6  Dealing with Noise
20  Atomic Spectroscopy
Opener:  An Anthropology Puzzle
20-1  An Overview
Box 20-1   Mercury Analysis by Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence
20-2  Atomization:  Flames, Furnaces, and Plasmas
20-3  How Temperature Affects Atomic Spectroscopy
20-4  Instrumentation
20-5  Interference
20-6  Inductively Coupled Plasma – Mass Spectrometry
Box 20-2   GEOTRACES
21  Mass Spectrometry
Opener:  Droplet Electrospray
21-1  What Is Mass Spectrometry?
Box 21-1   Molecular Mass and Nominal Mass
Box 21-2   How Ions of Different Masses Are Separated by a Magnetic Field
21-2  Oh, Mass Spectrum, Speak to Me!
Box 21-3   Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry
21-3  Types of Mass Spectrometers
21-4  Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
Box 21-4   Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization
21-5  Open-Air Sampling for Mass Spectrometry
22  Introduction to Analytical Separations
Opener:  Measuring Silicones Leaking from Breast Implants
22-1  Solvent Extraction
Demonstration 22-1   Extraction with Dithizone
Box 22-1   Crown Ethers and Phase Transfer Agents
22-2  What Is Chromatography?
22-3  A Plumber's View of Chromatography
22-4  Efficiency of Separation
22-5  Why Bands Spread
Box 22-2   Microscopic Description of Chromatography
23   Gas Chromatography
Opener:  What Did They Eat in the Year 1000?
23-1  The Separation Process in Gas Chromatography
Box 23-1   Chiral Phases for Separating Optical Isomers
Box 23-2   Chromatography Column on a Chip (new)
23-2  Sample Injection
23-3  Detectors
23-4  Sample Preparation
23-5  Method Development in Gas Chromatography
24  High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
Opener:  Paleothermometry:  How to Measure Historical Ocean Temperatures
24-1   The Chromatographic Process
Box 24-1   Monolithic Silica Columns
Box 24-2   Structure of the Solvent–Bonded Phase Interface
Box 24-3   “Green” Technology:  Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
24-2   Injection and Detection in HPLC
24-3   Method Development for Reversed-Phase Separations
24-4   Gradient Separations
24-5   Do it with a Computer!
Box 24-4   Choosing Gradient Conditions and Scaling Gradients
25  Chromatographic Methods and Capillary Electrophoresis
Opener:  Capillary Electrochromatography
25-1   Ion-Exchange Chromatography
25-2   Ion Chromatography
Box 25-1  Surfactants and Micelles
25-3   Molecular Exclusion Chromatography
25-4   Affinity Chromatography
Box 25-2  Molecular Imprinting
25-5   Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography (new)
25-6   Principles of Capillary Electrophoresis
25-7   Conducting Capillary Electrophoresis
25-8   Lab-on-a-Chip:  Probing Brain Chemistry
26  Gravimetric Analysis, Precipitation Titrations, and Combustion Analysis
Opener:  The Geologic Time Scale and Gravimetric Analysis
26-1   Examples of Gravimetric Analysis
26-2   Precipitation
Demonstration 26-1   Colloids and Dialysis
26-3   Examples of Gravimetric Calculations
26-4   Combustion Analysis
26-5  Precipitation Titration Curves
26-6  Titration of a Mixture
26-7  Calculating Titration Curves with a Spreadsheet
26-8  End-Point Detection
Demonstration 26-2  Fajans Titration
27  Sample Preparation
Opener:  Cocaine Use?  Ask the River
27-1   Statistics of Sampling
27-2   Dissolving Samples for Analysis
27-3 Sample Preparation Techniques
Notes and References
A.  Logarithms and Exponents
B.  Graphs of Straight Lines
C.  Propagation of Uncertainty
 New material added
D.  Oxidation Numbers and Balancing Redox Equations
E.  Normality
F. Solubility Products
G.  Acid Dissociation Constants
H.  Standard Reduction Potentials
I.  Formation Constants
J.  Logarithm of the Formation Constant for the Reaction M(aq) + L(aq)   ML(aq)
K.  Analytical Standards
Solutions to Exercises
Answers to Problems

Experiments are found at the web site www.whfreeman.com/qca/
0. Green Chemistry
1. Calibration of Volumetric Glassware
2 Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as CaC2O4.H2O
3. Gravimetric Determination of Iron as Fe2O3
4. Penny Statistics
5. Statistical Evaluation of Acid-Base Indicators
6. Preparing Standard Acid and Base
7. Using a pH Electrode for an Acid-Base Titration
8. Analysis of a Mixture of Carbonate and Bicarbonate
9. Analysis of an Acid-Base Titration Curve: The Gran Plot
10. Fitting a Titration Curve with Excel Solver®
11. Kjeldahl Nitrogen Analysis
12. EDTA Titration of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in Natural Waters
13. Synthesis and Analysis of Ammonium Decavanadate
14. Iodimetric Titration of Vitamin C
15. Preparation and Iodometric Analysis of High-Temperature Superconductor
16. Potentiometric Halide Titration with Ag+
17. Electrogravimetric Analysis of Copper
18. Polarographic Measurement of an Equilibrium Constant
19. Coulometric Titration of Cyclohexene with Bromine
20. Spectrophotometric Determination of Iron in Vitamin Tablets
21. Microscale Spectrophotometric Measurement of Iron in Foods by Standard Addition
22. Spectrophotometric Measurement of an Equilibrium Constant
23. Spectrophotometric Analysis of a Mixture:  Caffeine and Benzoic Acid in a Soft Drink
24. Mn2+ Standardization by EDTA Titration
25. Measuring Manganese in Steel by Spectrophotometry with Standard Addition
26. Measuring Manganese in Steel by Atomic Absorption Using a Calibration Curve
27. Properties of an Ion-Exchange Resin
28. Analysis of Sulfur in Coal by Ion Chromatography
29. Measuring Carbon Monoxide in Automobile Exhaust by Gas Chromatography
30. Amino Acid Analysis by Capillary Electrophoresis
31. DNA Composition by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
32. Analysis of Analgesic Tablets by High Performance Liquid Chromatography
33. Anion Content of Drinking Water by Capillary Electrophoresis
34. Green Chemistry:  Liquid Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Lemon Peel Oil
Spreadsheet Topics (Not yet Updated for 8e)
2-10 Introduction to Microsoft Excel
2-11 Graphing with Microsoft Excel
Problem 3-8 Controlling the appearance of a graph
4-1 Average, standard deviation, normal distribution
4-5 t-Test
4-7 Equation of a straight line
4-9 Spreadsheet for least squares
Problem 4-25 Adding error bars to a graph
5-2 Square of the correlation coefficient (R2)
Problem 5-14 Using TRENDLINE
6-8 Solving equations with Excel GOAL SEEK
7-6 Precipitation titration curves
7-8 Multiple linear regression and experimental design
8-5 Using GOAL SEEK in equilibrium problems
Problem 8-27 Circular reference
9-5 Excel GOAL SEEK and naming cells
11-9 Acid-base titration curves
12-4 EDTA titrations
Problem 12-18 Auxiliary complexing agents in EDTA titrations
Problem 12-20 Complex formation
13-1 Using Excel SOLVER
13-2 Activity coefficients with the Davies equation
13-4 Fitting nonlinear curves by least squares
13-4 Using Excel SOLVER for more than one unknown
19-1 Solving simultaneous equations with Excel SOLVER
19-1 Solving simultaneous equations by matrix inversion
Problem 24-29 Binomial distribution function for isotope patterns

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Awesome! June 21, 2011
This textbook offers multi step worked examples to help students develop their skills at solving more complex problems. It also provides an excellent review of general and physical chemistry. Overall, the textbook is great so far in my Analytical chem class and I plan on it helping me with all my lecture and lab materials.
I also recommend this seller for more items. Seller was reliable and shipped product quickly. I would purchase more items from this seller. Plus, cost was low. :)
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