Race in North America: Origin and Evolution of a Worldview

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2011-07-26
  • Publisher: INGRAM

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In Race in North America, Audrey Smedley shows that #x1C;race#x1D; is a cultural invention that has been used variously and opportunistically since the eighteenth century. Race, in its origin, was not a product of science but of a folk ideology reflecting a new form of social stratification and a rationalization for inequality among the peoples of North America. New coauthor Brian Smedley joins Audrey Smedley in updating this renowned and groundbreaking text. The fourth edition includes a compelling new chapter on the health impacts of the racial worldview, as well as a thoroughly rewritten chapter that explores the election of Barack Obama and the evolving role of race in American political history. This edition also incorporates recent findings on the human genome and the implications of genomics. Drawing on new understandings of DNA expression, the authors scrutinize the positions of contemporary race scientists who maintain that race is a valid biological concept.

Author Biography

Audrey Smedley is professor emerita of anthropology and African American studies at Virginia Commonwealth University. Brian D. Smedley is vice president and director of the Health Policy Institute of the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Fourth Editionp. ix
Introductionp. 1
Some Theoretical Considerationsp. 11
Race as a Modern Ideap. 13
Ideas, Ideologies, and Worldviewsp. 15
The Social Reality of Race in Americap. 17
On the Relationship Between Biology and Racep. 20
The Primordialists' Argumentp. 21
Race as a Worldview: A Theoretical Perspectivep. 24
Race and Ethnicity: Biology and Culturep. 27
Notesp. 33
The Etymology of the Term Race in the English Languagep. 35
Notesp. 39
Antecedents of the Racial Worldviewp. 41
The Age of European Explorationp. 41
The Rise of Capitalism and the Transformation of English Societyp. 45
Social Organization and Values of Early Capitalismp. 50
English Ethnocentrism and the Idea of the Savagep. 52
English Nationalism and Social Values in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuriesp. 62
Hereditary Social Identity: The Lesson of Catholic Spainp. 65
Notesp. 70
The Growth of the English Ideology About Human Differences in Americap. 73
Earliest Contactsp. 73
The Ensuing Conflictsp. 78
The Backing of God and Other Justifications for Conquestp. 81
The New Savagesp. 85
Notesp. 90
The Arrival of Africans and Descent into Slaveryp. 93
The First Africansp. 96
The Descent into Permanent Slaveryp. 98
Was There Race Before Slavery?p. 102
Why the Preference for Africans?p. 105
The Problem of Laborp. 106
A Focus on Physical Differences and the Invention of Social Meaningsp. 113
Notesp. 118
Comparing Slave Systems: The Significance of ˘Racial÷ Servitudep. 121
The Background Literature and the Issues of Slaveryp. 122
The Nature of Slaveryp. 126
A Brief History of Old World Slaveryp. 127
Colonial Slavery Under the Spanish and Portuguesep. 139
Uniqueness of the English Experience of Slaveryp. 145
The Significance of Slavery in the Creation of Race Ideologyp. 149
Notesp. 153
Eighteenth-Century Thought and the Crystallization of the Ideology of Racep. 159
Social Values of the American Colonistsp. 160
Nature's Hierarchyp. 164
Dominant Themes in North American Racial Beliefsp. 171
Anglo-Saxonism: The Making of a Biological Mythp. 173
And the American Dilemmap. 177
Notesp. 186
Antislavery and the Entrenchment of a Racial Worldviewp. 189
A Brief History of Antislavery Thoughtp. 190
The Proslavery Responsep. 200
The Sociocultural Realities of Race and Slaveryp. 203
The Priority of Race over Classp. 208
Notesp. 211
The Rise of Science and Scientific Racismp. 213
Early Classifications of Humankindp. 217
The Impact of Eighteenth-Century Classificationsp. 222
Notesp. 225
Growth of the Racial Worldview in Nineteenth-Century Americap. 227
Polygeny vs. Monogeny: The Debate over Race and Speciesp. 229
The Unnatural Mixturep. 237
Scientific Race Ideology in the Judicial Systemp. 239
White Supremacyp. 243
Immigrants and the Extension of the Race Hierarchyp. 245
Notesp. 248
Science and the Expansion of Race Ideology Beyond the United Statesp. 251
The Continuing Power of Polygenist Thinkingp. 252
European Contributions to the Ideology of Racep. 253
Herbert Spencer and the Rise of Social Darwinismp. 256
The Measurement of Human Differences: Anthropometryp. 259
Typological Models of Racesp. 261
The Measurement of Human Differences: Psychometricsp. 262
Extension of Race Ideology Overseasp. 265
Notesp. 267
Twentieth-Century Developments in Race Ideologyp. 269
Social Realities of the Racial Worldviewp. 269
Psychometrics: The Measuring of Human Worth by IQp. 274
The Eugenics Movementp. 280
The Racial World of the Nazisp. 282
The Continuing Influence of Racial Ideology in Sciencep. 285
Notesp. 288
Changing Perspectives on Human Variation in Sciencep. 289
The Decline of the Idea of Race as Biology in Sciencep. 290
Physical Anthropology and Attempts to Transform the Meaning of Racep. 292
Population Geneticsp. 296
Is There a Genetic Basis for Race?p. 299
The Ecological Perspective: Human Variations as Products of Adaptationp. 301
The Genetic Conception of Human Variationp. 303
Monogeny Reconsidered: The Nonproblem of Race Mixturep. 304
Notesp. 305
Dismantling the Folk Idea of Race: Transformations of an Ideologyp. 307
The Meaning and Legacy of Race as Identityp. 309
The Quest for a Mixed-Race Census Categoryp. 316
Barack Obama and the Meaning of Racep. 318
The Future of the Racial Worldviewp. 319
The Persistence of Racial Thinkingp. 323
Notesp. 328
The Health and Other Consequences of the Racial Worldviewp. 331
The Extent of Racial Health Disparities in the United Statesp. 331
The Causes of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities in the United Statesp. 334
Conclusionp. 348
Notesp. 348
Referencesp. 351
Indexp. 371
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