Radicalism and Political Reform in the Islamic and Western Worlds

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2010-05-24
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
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Over the last decade, political Islam has been denounced in the Western media and in the surrounding literature as a terrorist or fascist movement that is entirely at odds with Western democratic ideology. Kai Hafez's book overturns these arguments, contending that, despite its excesses, as a radical form of political opposition the movement plays a central role in the processes of democratization and modernization, and that these processes have direct parallels in the history and politics of the West. By analyzing the evolution of Christian democratization through the upheavals of the Reformation, colonisation, fascism, and totalitarianism, the book shows how radicalism and violence were constant accompaniments to political change, and that these components - despite assertions to the contrary - are still part of Western political culture to this day. In this way, the book draws hopeful conclusions about the potential for political, religious, and cultural transformation in the Islamic world, which is already exemplified by the cases of Turkey, Indonesia, and many parts of South Asia. The book marks an important development in the study of radical movements and their contribution to political change.

Table of Contents

Introductionp. 1
Conceptions of Modernity: Reform, Reformation and Radicalismp. 19
The Minimum Consensus of Western Modernityp. 21
Secularism and Political Islam: Ideological Dualismp. 23
Liberal Reformist Islam: Reformation Without Modernity?p. 28
Conservative Reformist Islam: A Lutheran Logicp. 32
The Unintentional Modernity of Islamic Fundamentalismp. 40
A Comparative Look at Notions of Modernity: The Time-lapse of Civilizational Progressp. 43
Political Cultures and Social Movements: The Social Rationality of Cultural Changep. 45
Western Participation and Oriental Fatalism?p. 47
Re-Islamization: From Religious Stupor to Active Communityp. 50
Islamic Fundamentalism as 'Radical Protestantism'p. 56
The Social Rationality of Cultural Changep. 62
The Discourse of Democratization: Grey Zones at the Intersection of Religion and Secularismp. 70
The 'Christian Democratization' of Islam?p. 76
Muslim World: Secular Democracy on the Margins of Global Societyp. 88
Political System Change: The Radicals' Democracyp. 92
Stability and State Collapse in the Twenty-first Century: The Middle Eastern Leviathanp. 94
Democracy and a New Social Contract in the Middle Eastp. 97
The Opposition's Capacity for Political Struggle: The Crucial Role of the Islamic Fundamentalistsp. 103
Crucial Role of the Islamic Fundamentalistsp. 103
Pacts Among Opposition Groups: Fundamentalists as (in-)Calculable Riskp. 116
The International Dimension of Democratizationp. 124
Euro-Islam or Islam-oriented Ostpolitik: Two Models of Transformationp. 133
Political Violence
Authoritarianism: Dictatorship Between Fascism and Modernizationp. 141
'Islamofascism': Dead End of Political Rationality?p. 142
Anti-Semitism or the Risk of Ethnicizationp. 154
Democratic Polyarchies and the Changing Face of Authoritarianism: Dictatorial Temptationsp. 161
Modern Slavery: A Common Challengep. 168
Imperialism: Autocracy, Democracy and Violencep. 170
The West in the Middle East: A Panoply of International Violencep. 171
Western Democracy and International Violence: From 'Eternal Peace' to 'Humanitarian Imperialism'p. 177
Islamic Imperialism: A Cultural Remnantp. 186
Terrorism and Non-violent Resistance: Extremism and Pacifism Across Culturesp. 190
A Typology of Islamic Terrorism: Is Terrorism Typically Islamic?p. 191
Causes of Terrorism: Holy War as a Blend of Madness and Rationalityp. 200
Non-violent Resistance in Islam and How the West Ignores Itp. 206
Conclusion: From 'Holy War' to Democracy? The Current State of Islamic and Western Modernityp. 216
Bibliographyp. 225
Indexp. 245
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